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Full text of "Geological Survey of Ohio. Report of progress in 1870"

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 



EEPOET OF PROGRESS IS 1870. 



By J. SJ. IBWBBEEY, 

CHIEF GEOLOGIST. 



INCLUDING KEPOKTS BY 



E. B. ANDREWS, EDWARD ORTON, 

J. H. KLIPPART, 

ASSISTANT GEOLOGISTS, 
T. G. WORMLEY, 

CHEMIST. 

G.K.GILBERT, M. C. READ, HENRY NEWTON, 

W. B. POTTER, 

LOCAL ASSISTANTS. 



COLUMBUS: 

NEVINS & MYERS, STATE PRINTERS. 

1871. 



Columbus, O., January 22<2, 1871. 

To His Excellency Rutherford B. Hayes, 

Governor of Ohio : 

Sir : — In obedience to the requirements of section fourth of the law providing for a 
Geological Survey of Ohio, I have the honor to present herewith a Report on the Progress 
of the Geological Survey in 1870, including reports by E. B. Andrews, Edward Orton, J. H. 
Klippart, Assistant Geologists ; T. G. Wormley, Chemist ; and G. K. Gilbert, M. C. Read, 
W. B. Potter and Henry Newton, Local Assistants. 

All of which are respectfully submitted. 

Your obedient servant, 

J. S. NEWBERRY, 

Chief Geologist. 



PART I. 

REPORT OF PROGRESS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEI 

IN 1870. 

SKETCH OF THE STRUCTURE OE THE LOWER 
COAL MEASURES IK M)RTH-EASTERK OHIO. 

By J. S. NEWBEEEY, 

CHIEF GEOLOGIST. 



REPORT OF PROGRESS OE THE GEOLOGICAL 
SURYEY IN 1870. 



To Sis Excellency E. B. Hates, Governor of Ohio : 

Sib : By the terms of the law providing for the Geological Survey, it 
becomes the duty of the Chief Geologist, " on or before the first Monday 
in January of each year, during the time occupied in said survey, to make 
a report to the Governor of the results and progress of the survey, accom- 
panied by such maps, profiles and drawings, as may be necessary to 
exemplify the same: which reports the Governor shall lay before the 
General Assembly." 

" When the said survey shall be fully completed, the Chief Geologist 
shall make to the Governor a final report, including the results of the 
entire survey, accompanied by such drawings and topographical maps as 
may be necessary to illustrate the same and by a single geological map, 
showiDg by colors and other appropriate means the stratification of the 
rocks, the character of the soil, the localities of the beds of mineral depos- 
its and the character and extent of the different geological formations." 

In compliance with the requirements of the first of the above quoted 
sections, at the last session of the Legislature I submitted a brief report 
of the progress of the Survey during the first seven months of its existence. 
In addition to such report of progress I submitted a sketch of the geologi- 
cal structure of the State, now, for the first time, accurately and fully 
determined, a preliminary geological map, the exclusive work of the pres- 
ent geological corps, an enumeration of the materials already collected for 
the final report and a sketch of the plan of operations for the future. 
"With this report of progress were submitted reports on the geology of the 
southern portion of the State by Professors Andrews and Orton. Of this 
report twenty-five hundred copies were ordered by the Senate and during 
the summer were printed and have been distributed. 

In further compliance with the duty assigned me in the organic law of 
the Survey, I herewith submit a brief resume of the results attained by 
the Geological Survey during the past year. This is, however, merely an 
outline sketch, inasmuch as ii is my purpose to present to the Legislature, 
during its present session, this information much more in detail in the 
form of one volume of our final report, as it has seemed to me unwise to 



6 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Op OHIO. 

defer the publication of all portions of the final report until the Survey 
shall have been completed. It is quite certain that within the limit of 
time assigned to us by the organic law of the Survey it will be impossible 
to exhaust the subject of our geology and mineral resources. Much must 
necessarily be left to be learned through the opening af mines, the sinkiDg 
of wells and other explorations to be made in future years and by future 
generations. Since, then, our work will be incomplete at best, there seems 
no good reason why such facts as have accumulated in the progress of the 
Survey and such as have a bearing upon the industries of our people, 
should not be given to the public as soon as they are clearly and accu- 
rately determined. Another consideration tending to the same conclusion 
is that life to all of us is uncertain, and only that which is absolutely put 
on record is protected from possible loss. 

Duriug the past season the Survey has progressed much in the same 
manner as before. Four parties have been constantly in the field carrying 
on the work in different districts, so that the inhabitants of no portion of 
the State should feel that any partiality or favoritism had been shown. 
Aside from the investigations necessary to give further completeness to 
the geological map, the survey by counties, beguu last year, has been con- 
tinued ; in the north-eastern quarter of the State by Mr. Eead, Mr. Hert- 
zer and myself. In the south eastern quarter by Prof. B. JB. Andrews and 
two assistants, Messrs. Ballantine and Gilbert; in the south-western 
quarter by Prof. Orton and one assistant, Mr. Hill. In the north-western 
quarter by Mr. G. K. Gilbert. I have myself visited each of the four dis- 
tricts into which I divided the State, but have spent by far the largest 
portion of my time in the north-eastern quarter, over which I had assumed 
more minute and definite supervision. In the succeeding pages the 
geological work done in each of these districts will be more fully described. 

In the performance of his duty as Agriculturist to the Survey, Mr. Klip- 
part was industriously occupied during the season for field work. A 
large amount of valuable material has, as I know, been collected in his 
department, and I think our people may be assured of obtaining from his 
report many important facts, and such as will have a practical bearing 
upon the agriculture of the State. 

The plan of investigation adopted by Mr. Klippart, if carried to full 
fruition, will result in : First, a general review of the relations of agricul- 
ture to geology; a classification of soils according to their chemical and 
physical characters ; an inquiry into their sources of fertility, their adapta- 
tion to different systems of agriculture, their deterioration, renovation, &c. 
Second. A description of the natural soils of Ohio classified by districts 
and properties ; an inquiry into the sources from which they are derived, 
their adaptations, their changes under cultivation, methods and materials 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OS 1 OHIO, 7 

for the restoration and maintenance of their fertility, with an investiga- 
tion into the distribution and properties of such fertilizers as are found 
within our limits. 

A sketch of the work done and planned in the department of Agricul- 
ture has been promised by Mr. Klippart to accompany this report'. 

Prof. Wormley, the Chemist of the Survey, with two assistants, has 
been constantly employed in making chemical examinations of our coals, 
iron ores, limestones, clays, soils, &c. Already a large number of carefully 
conducted analyses have been made, -which will be of great utility iu deter- 
mining the characteristics and value of our useful minerals. 

At my request Prof* Wormley has begun a systematic examination of 
the ashes of our coals for the purpose of ascertaining the amount of phos- 
phorus contained in them. As is well known this substance exerts a 
peculiar influence on iron and steel; giving to bar-iron "cold shortness," 
i» e. strength to resist wear or a force gradually applied, but brittleness 
tinder a shock ; imparting fluidity to cast iron, but spoiling it for the man- 
ufacture of steel. The peculiar action of some coals on the iron smelted 
with them had led me to suspect the presence of considerable amounts of 
phosphorus. This suspicion was fully confirmed by the result of examina- 
tions — ultimate analyses — of ten noted coals made for me by Mr. J. L. 
Lilienthal. One of these, coals was found to contain more than half of one 
per cent, of phosphorus. The determination of this hitherto neglected 
clement in the composition of our coals is, therefore, likely enough to 
have considerable practical value. An investigation to ascertain the con- 
dition in which sulphur exists in coal was begun by Prof. Wormley last 
year, and is noticed in our former report. It has been generally supposed! 
that the sulphur in coals is all combined with iron to form the bisulphide.. 
Much of it is so, we know, for iron pyrites is generally conspicuously, 
visible in our coals, and on exposure too many of them are frosted over- 
with the sulphate of iron (copperas) formed from the pyrites by the absorp» 
t-ion of oxygen. Prof. Wormley has shown, however, that in many of ouf' 
coals the sulphur is largely in excess of the iron. I think it will prove- 
true that, on an average, not more than half the sulphur is combined with' 
iron, but exists as an organic compound. In the analyses made by Mr.. 
Lilienthal, referred to above, in one coal only was the iron in excess of 
the sulphur. In all the others there was considerably more sulphur. than 
enough to form the bisulphide of iron. 

Prof. Wormley has promised to embody his results in a contribution to 
this report. 

During many years shells and crinoids, obtained from the rocks of 
Ohio, have been accumulating iu the magnificent cabinet of Prof. James 
Hall, of Albany, New Tork. Among these there are many interesting 



8 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY oE OHIO. 

species which are new to science. These Prof. Hall has recently described 
and had drawn, and this material will form a very valuable contribution 
from him to our final report. 

The study of the molluscous fossils collected on the Survey has been 
committed to Mr. Meek, the distinguished Palaeontologist. He spent 
some time in Ohio during the summer, and is now engaged in the exam- 
ination of the materials collected this year and last. He has already dis- 
covered and described a large number of new species, and it is quite cer- 
tain that as much new material of this nature will be brought to light in 
our Survey as we shall have the means to illustrate. 

The interesting collection of Amphibian remains, which includes more 
than a dozen species, obtained by myself some years ago from the coal 
rocks of Ohio, has been placed in the hands of Prof. E. D. Cope, of Phil- 
adelphia. He has described them and caused them to be carefully drawn. 
They supply material for six or more plates, which will add much to the 
interest of our final report. 

The fossil fishes and fossil plants found in the State have been de- 
scribed by myself. They have been drawn by Mr. T. T. Gardner and Mr. 
G. K. Gilbert in a style that has not been surpassed in this country, and 
some of their work is equal to any of a similar character done by the best 
European draughtsmen. The illustrations already prepared of this mate- 
rial form over forty plates ; and I do not hesitate to say that the objects 
which they represent are not exceeded in scientific interest by any that 
have been described by palaeontologists. The fossil fishes comprise many 
genera and species, some of which are more remarkable for their size, 
their formidable armament or peculiarities of structure than any of those 
which formed the themes of Hugh Miller's glowing descriptions. These 
have, for the most part, been found only in Ohio; have never been de- 
scribed and will not fail to deeply interest all the intelligent portion of 
our population. 

In my first report of progress (p. 5) I have shown how useful, even 
indispensable, fossils are to the student of geology, and I am happy to 
know that their significance and value are coming to be generally appre- 
ciated. There are, however, yet some intelligent men, even editors and 
members of legislature, who cherish the notion that there is nothing 
which has any value in this world but that thing which has a dollar in it, 
and that so plainly visible as to be seen by them. Such men, to quote 
the language of one of them, " don't care a row of pins for your clams 
and salamanders, but want something practical.' 7 Happily the class 
to which they belong is rapidly passing away. Were it otherwise I should 
endeavor to prove to them that the fossils which they despise are emi- 
nently practical ; that they are labels written by the Creator on all the 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 9 

fossiliferous rocks, and that no one can be a Geologist who has not learned 
their language. 

The review of the iron industry of the State, begun last year by Mr. 
Prime, has been continued during the present season by Mr. H. M. Smith 
and Mr. H. Newton, both graduates of the school of mines of Columbia 
College, New York, and men of unusual ability and accomplishments. 

The results of this investigation will be given in the volume of our 
final report, devoted to Economic Geology, where will be found such tab- 
ulated descriptions of the dimensions, models, capacity, production, etc., 
of the furnaces now in blast in the State, as canuot fail to interest all 
those in any way concerned in this our most important branch of manu- 
facture. 

As a further aid to the development and improvement of this great 
industry, I congratulate myself on being able to present, in this report, 
sketches of the present state of the iron and steel manufacture in 
the localities where these arts are carried to the greatest perfection; 
sketches written by Messrs. Henry Newton and W. B. Potter, during the 
first season assistants on our Geological Survey. The past summer was 
occupied by these gentlemen in a thorough examination of the processes 
now employed in all the great mining and metallurgic centers of the old 
world for the practical solution of the problems which concern us most in 
the development of our mineral resources. 

The determination of the geological structure of Ohio was made imper- 
ative upon us by the provisions of the organic law of the Survey, and, as 
it seemed to me, claimed precedence of all other work; inasmuch as 
this was a necessary pre-requisite to any intelligent comprehension of the 
character, variety, and distribution of our mineral staples. It was also a 
duty much needed to be done in order to give connection and symmetry 
to our knowledge of the geological structure of all the country lying 
between the Atlantic and Mississippi. Ohio, while unstudied, was not 
only debatable but exceedingly debated ground, separating the better 
known districts east and west. The investigation of the geological struct- 
ure of the State, and the formation of a geological map naturally, there- 
fore, occupied us during most of our first working season. By putting a 
large force into the field, this enterprise was pushed rapidly forward, and 
our efforts resulted in the settlement of all the vexed questions in Ohio 
geology, and in making large additions to what was before known of the 
elements composing our geological column. By this investigation the 
number of formations known to exist in the State was nearly doubled, 
and the relative ages, positions and dimensious, variable or constant, of 
all the members of the series, were determined with a good degree of ac- 
curacy. The geological area occupied by the outcrop of each was also 



10 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

ascertained with a near approach to truth ; though, in some instances, 
thick beds of superficial material conceal the underlying rock, and, for 
limited distances, leave their exact lines of margin to conjecture. Much 
must yet be done to fill in the details and fully represent local geology ; 
but the great object aimed at, the exhibition of the true geological struct- 
ure of the State is, I think, fully accomplished by the publication of the 
little preliminary map and the notes upon it -which accompany my former 
report. 

The chart of geological history which is also included in that report, 
wherein the series of Ohio rocks is woven into the general fabric of geo- 
logical classification, will, I think, not be without its value ; inasmuch as, 
like the geological map. it expresses many important truths in such a 
way that they may be grasped at a glance. In this busy and labor-saving 
age, such " short cuts " to knowledge seem to be specially necessary and 
valuable. The story of the map and chart, though easily read, were not 
so easily written ; for they represent the constant labor of many persons 
for months, and such an amount of both hand-work and head work as 
can only be appreciated by those who have shared in it. 

The survey of counties required by the organic law was begun in 1869, 
and has been continued through 1870 in all the four districts into which 
the State has been divided. The number of counties in the State is 
eighty-eight, and in not more than one-fourth of these can it be said the 
surveys have been completed, even in the sense contemplated in the law 
providing for the Survey. In fact, the survey of no county is completed, 
and probably will not be by this or any other Geological Survey. New 
developments will be made for years. Facts now entirely hidden from 
our view will be revealed by mines, wells and railroads ; and the task of 
exhaustingly investigating the quality, quantity and accessibility of all 
the mineral resources of every township and farm in some of our coun- 
ties would be almost an endless one. The foundation for such a work 
has, however, been laid, and we are now raising a frame-work upon it, 
which may be filled in, covered and embellished by simple detail work 
and at leisure. The law provides for the continuance of the Survey dur- 
ing three years from June 1st, 1869, and about one-half of this time has 
passed. It is evident that it will be impossible, with the force and time 
at our command, to go as carefully through all the counties yet unsur- 
veyed as we have done through some of those already examined. This 
will not be necessary, however, in order to give a fair exposition of the 
geology of each. The general stiucture of the State— a necessary pre- 
requisite to the satisfactory study of local details — has been fully deter- 
mined. Certain counties, too, are typical of large districts, and our at- 
tention has been mainly directed to these. The geology of other coun- 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 11 

ties, again, is very simple, and, unfortunately, includes little of value in 
the waj of mineral resources. On such counties it would be manifestly 
unwarranted to spend much time and money. From these considerations 
I estimate that the work of making surveys of counties is nearly half 
done, and I have asked a larger apppropriaton for field work this year 
than last, so that, if possible, it may be. completed in the time specified. 

Sketches of the geology of a number of the counties which have been 
surveyed are given in the succeeding pages. Fuller reports of these and 
other counties have been written, or are in course of preparation. They 
will form part of the first volume of our final report to be presented to 
this Legislal ure for publication. More detailed reports on some of these 
counties would have been offered as parts of this report, but that they 
need maps, sections and engravings for their proper illustration, and 
these would cause months of delay in the publication of a report which, 
being a report of progress, should be given to the public at once, in order 
to secure the accomplishment of the purpose of its preparation. The 
organic law of the Survey requires that my annual report shall be pre- 
sented in January of each year. It was plainly the intention of the 
framers of this law to secure by this provision at the commencement of 
each session of the Legislature a business-like report of what had been 
done in the preceding season, with such an exposition of future plans 
and wants as would illustrate legislation on the subject of the Geological 
Survey. With such a report, the members of the Legislature would be 
able to decide whether the work was progressing satisfactorily or not, 
and what provision would be necessary for its maintenarce if deserving 
of support. 

With this view of the nature of the annual report required by the law, 
I made my own portion of our first report as concise as possible, and 
omitted from it all illustrations by which its publication could be delayed. 
This part of the report was, in fact, printed and distributed to the Legis- 
lature before its adjournment. The contributions ot the Assistant Geol- 
ogists, as they were submitted to me and transmitted to the Governor, 
were also brief, and without illustrations that could cause any delay. 
Additions were, however, subsequently made to the report without my 
knowledge, by which its publication was much delayed. 

Holding the same view as before in regard to what the best interests of 
the State and the Survey required the annual report should be, I have 
made my report for this year as brief and simple as possible, and have 
introduced no illustrations by which its appearance might be retarded 
and the expense of publication increased. Most of the other members of 
the Corps have contributed similar sketches of their work of the past 



12 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

season, and those whose reports have not yet been handed in have 
promised that they shall be done at an early day and be of a like 
character. 

The plan which has been adopted for the preparation of the final 
report, required of me by section fifth of the law providing for a geological 
survey, is represented in the following schedule : 

VOL. I.— GEOLOGY AND PALAEONTOLOGY. 

CONTENTS 

PABT I.— GEOLOGY. 

Chapter 1. — The Physical Geography of Ohio ; a brief sketch of the climate, topogra- 
phy, etc., with profiles of the railroads and canals, tables of alti- 
tudes, etc. 

" 2. — The Geological relations of Ohio to the Continent of North America and 

to adjacent States. 

" 3 to 6. — The Geological structure of the State in detail ; Silurian, Devonian and 
Carboniferous Systems. 

" 7. — Surface Geology. 

" 8 to 20. — The Geology of counties as far as completed. 

PART II.— PALAEONTOLOGY. 

Chapter 1. — The Amphibians of the Coal Measures, by Prof. E. D. Cope ; -with 5 plates. 
" 2. — The Mollusks, Crinoids and Corals, by F. B. Meek ; 10 plates. 
" 3. — The Fossil Fishes, by J. S. Newberry ; 25 plates. 
" 4. — The Fossil Plants, by J. S. Newberry ; 15 plates. 

This volume is finished, and will be presented to this Legislature for 
publication. It will consist of 600 pages text, with 55 plates. 

VOL. II.— GEOLOGY AND PALAEONTOLOGY. 

Geology of counties continued, with figures and descriptions of fossils not included 
in Vol. I. 

Considerable material has already been accumulated for this volume, 
and it is expected that the necessary additional matter will be gathered 
during the coming season. 

VOL. III.— ECONOMIC GEOLOGY. 

contents. 

The geology and technology (mining, manufacture and uses) of our Coals, Iron Ores, 

Clays, Salt, Limes, Hydraulic Cements, Petroleum, Gypsum, Building Stones, etc., etc. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 13 

About half the material for this volume is ready. The investigations 
necessary to complete it are now in progress, and will be finished during 
the present year, if the appropriations asked for shall be made. It will 
include reports on the distribution, properties, adaptations and processes 
of manufacture of all our mineral staples, with the latest and fullest infor- 
mation in regard to methods and machinery most successfully employed 
elsewhere. 

VOL. IV.— AGBICULTUEE, BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY. 

CONTENTS. 

Part 1. — Agriculture — 

Climatology of Ohio; classification and description of the Soils of the State 
by districts and properties ; their adaptations, deterioration, and renova- 
tion, etc., etc. 
" 2,— Botany- 
Descriptive catalogue of the Plants of the State. 

" 3.— Zoology- 
Descriptive catalogues of the Mammals, Birds, Eeptiles, Fishes, Insects and 
Mollusks of the State. 

No provision is made in the organic law of the Survey for reports on 
any of the subjects of Vol. IV., except agriculture ; but a very moderate 
expenditure will give us such reports on the zoology and botany of the 
State as will be highly valued by our people. 

I should mention in this connection that Prof. Joseph Henry has offered 
me the use of all the woodcuts which illustrate the series of Zoological 
Monographs published by the Smithsonian Institute. By accepting this 
kind offer we can have illustrated descriptive catalogues of our birds, 
mollusks, &c, at a cost of little more than the paper and printing. 

The careful study of our fishes promises, perhaps, as large pecuniary 
returns to the State as any of the subjects we are required by the organic 
law of the survey to investigate. Our fisheries are yearly decreasing in 
value, and we see in them the rapid decay of a great industry for the want 
of the proper legislation for its protection. Comparatively little is known 
of the habits — place and time of spawning, &c. — of our fishes; and until 
these shall be learned nothing can be intelligently done to arrest the pro- 
gressive diminution of their numbers. It can easily be proved that every 
acre of water surface is capable of doing as much to furnish food to our 
people as any acre of tillable ground, and yet, now, our great water area 
is almost unproductive. In every enlightened community in the old 
world and the new, attention is being drawn to the importance of public 
measures for the protection and propagation of fishes. Several of our 



14 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

State Legislatures have taken action in the matter, and within the last 
year the General Government has appointed Professor Baird,. Assistant 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institute, a special commissioner to investi- 
gate and report on the measures necessary for the protection and develop- 
ment of our fisheries. During the coming summer Professor Baird will 
be occupied in studying the distribution, habits and economy of the fishes 
of the Atlantic coast, but the summer of 1872 he has promised to spend 
in the valley of the Mississippi, and to begin his work by a study of the 
fishes of the Ohio River and Lake Brie. By cooperating with him in this 
work I hope to get what we want in this direction at ah extremely mod- 
erate cost. 

A Geological Map, on a large scale, will accompany and illustrate the 
volumes on Geology; and such a map is now in course of preparation. 
We were fortunate in having a new and greatly improved topographical 
map issued just before the commencement of the Survey, and on this we 
have recorded the geology of the State. The author of this map, Prof. 
. H. F. Walling, is, however, now collecting materials for a larger and bet- 
ter one, which he hopes to issue by the close of the present year (1871). 
Oar surveying parties, by their notes aud corrections of the map we are 
using, will be able to render important assistance in the preparation of 
the new map. It will be given still greater perfection by theco operation 
of the Superintendent of the IT. S. Coast Survey, Prof. B. Peirce, who has 
promised to aid our work by sending into the State a party which shall, 
by careful astronomical observations, determine the exact position of a 
number of important points. Without waiting for a detailed trigonomet- 
rical survey — a very desirable but expensive and time-consuming work — 
these points can be connected by railroad surveys already made, so as to 
give much greater accuracy to our new map than any hitherto published 
possesses. 

SKETCH OP THE STRUCTURE OF THE LOWER COAL 
MEASURES m NORTHEASTERN OHIO. 

In the work to be performed by the Geological Survey, the duty next 
in importance to that of determining the general geology of the State was, 
as it seemed to me, an investigation of the structure of the Coal Measures. 
These strata occupy a larger portion of our surface area than any other 
formation, and are the repositories of our most important mineral staples. 
They consist, too, of a great number of elements, several of which have 
economic value and all of which require careful study, in order that the 
position, quality and quantity of each may be known for every county 
and township of the great coal area. My own time has, therefore, during 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 15 

the past season, been mainly devoted to a study of our Coals, with refer- 
ence to their purification and proper use, and to the structure of our Lower 
Coal Series ; that is, the group of seven, in some places eight, workable 
beds, which lie below the Pittsburg seam, and include most of the impor- 
tant coal strata of the State. 

In the prosecution of this work I have been constantly assisted by Mr. 
Bead. We began on the northern and western margins of the coal basin, 
and gradually worked toward the south and east. The coal seams of the 
counties of Summit, Wayne and Holmes have been carefully studied, 
while in the counties of Stark, Tuscarawas, Carroll, Columbiana and Ma- 
honing a reconnoisance has been made, in which all the important beds 
of coal and iron have been traced from their western outcrops through to 
the Pennsylvania line and to the Ohio. 

This has been a difficult; and laborious work, but it was a necessary 
preliminary to a satisfactory study of any portion of the area which in- 
cludes the outcrops of the lowei? group of coals. It has resulted in giving 
us the power to identify and locate, with reference 1o other beds, any 
seam of coal or iron that may be met with in the detailed examination of 
counties and townships, which will form our work for the coming season. 
We have also gained from it much interesting and important scientific 
and practical information in regard to the general structure of our coal 
seams and the changes they exhibit in dimensions and quality along a 
hundred miles of outcrop. A few of the most important facts revealed 
by this investigation are all that I shall have space for in this necessarily 
brief report. 

And, first, we have learned from it that, instead of one symmetrical 
basin with a tolerably uniform dip towards the south-east, our Coal Meas- 
ures form several troughs, in a general way parallel with the axis of the 
great one of which they are parts. On the east side of each of these 
subordinate basins the strata rise, or are horizontal, and the easterly dip 
is neutralized ; so that, on the east line of Columbiana county, and within 
forty miles of Pittsburgh — the center of the coal basin — the section of 
the hills is nearly the same with that found on the banks of the Killbuck, 
one hundred miles west ; the average dip in this interval being not more 
than three feet to the mile. 

From Kashville, Holmes county, to the valley of the Killbuck (Holmes- 
ville and Millersburgh), the dip is eastward and somewhat rapid. From 
Millersburgh to the east line of Holmes county the strata rise, then dip 
again eastwardly into the valley of the Tuscarawas. From Dover to and 
beyond the tunnel on the Tuscarawas Br. Eailroad, and to Carroll tou. On 
an east and west line, the dip is wesfcwardly; while from the Hanover 
Summit it is eastward to the State line. 



16 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

The importance of the knowledge thus gained of the structure of our 
coal field will be apparent at a glance. For example, it shows that the 
Briar Hill coal (No. 1), or its horizon, is within easy reach all along the 
valleys that cut this portion of the coal basin, and that it is not, as has 
been represented, carried by a uniform easterly dip so far below the sur- 
face as to be practically inaccessible. 

Our investigations during the past summer also show that the number 
of coal seams constituting the lower group — that is, those below the 
Barren Measures — has been erroneously duplicated ; that there is no 
break or confusion of the strata, as has been stated, at the Hanover 
Summit, the coal seams being simply buried so deeply there as to be in- 
visible ; also, that the Salineville coals do not dip under those exposed in 
the, lower portion of the Yellow Oreek valley, but are really the highest 
of the lower group, are immediately overlaid by the Barren Coal Meas- 
ures, and are identical with the highest three seams of the Hammonds- 
ville and Linton sections. 

A few of the facts upon which these conclusions are based will per- 
haps not be without interest. 

On the west line of Holmes county — practically the western margin of 
the coal field — we began with a section containing six workable seams of 
coal, two beds of limestone, and two marked bands of iron ore. This 
section, with all its main features, we carried through to the Pennsy lvania 
line. In this interval one or two coal seams disappear and others come 
in, while important changes are discoverable — sometimes quite local — in 
the development and purity of the different seams of coal or iron. The 
two limestone beds mentioned above are the most constant elements in 
the section, and will be the most useful guides to any one studying, 
locally or generally, the geology of this district. Of these the lower is 
generally blue, often flinty, and is associated with one of the iron bands 
to which I have referred. On the west side of Holmes county where first 
seen, it lies one hundred and ten feet above drainage. At New Lisbon it 
overlies coal seam No. 3, near the level of the Little Beaver. In western 
Pennsylvania it is the " Ferriferous limestone." Coal seam No. 1 lies 
about two hundred feet below this in eastern Ohio. In Holmes county it 
is somewhat nearer when present, the difference being occasioned by the 
great thickening, eastwardly, of the massive sandstone overlying Coal 
No. 1. 

The second limestone bed is always lighter in color than the first, from 
which it is separated by an interval of from thirty to one hundred feet. 
This we have usually designated as the " gray limestone." It is visible 
almost uninterruptedly from the banks of the Mohican to the Pennsyl- 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 17 

vania line. In Columbiana county it is known as the " white limestone," 
not so much from its light color as from the comparative whiteness of the 
lime made from it. 

In Coshocton county, and in the southwestern part of Tuscarawas, the 
4 < gray limestone " is locally double, the upper member being very black 
and cherty. 

There is in this region another limestone, higher up in the series — over 
coal seam No. 7 — but, though sometimes ten feet in thickness, it is not as 
constant as the "blue " or " gray " limestones, and covers a much 
more limited area ; it is therefore a less valuable guide. 

Each of these limestones has a coal seam under it, often in immediate 
contaci , but sometimes separated from it by a few feet of shale. 

In the southern and eastern portions of our coal field, i. e., on Yellow 
Creek and thence south, there are several limestones not found in the 
area more specially referred to in this sketch. 

The following sections, selected from some hundreds which we have 
taken by measurement during the past season, will, to many persons, 
give a better idea of the structure of our Lower Coal Measures, in the 
region covered by our recent reconnoi sance, than they would get from 
any verbal description. 

The localities which they represent are distributed, with as much regu- 
larity as possible, along a line running nearly eastward, from the western 
part of Holmes county, to Pennsylvania. Section No. 1 was taken near 
the margin of the coal field in western Holmes county ; No 2 in the cen- 
tral part of Holmes county ; No. 3 in the central part of Tuscarawas 
county; Nos. 4 and 5 near the eastern line of Tuscarawas county; No. 6 
on the western line of Columbiana county, but south of the general line 
of reconnoissance ; and No. 7 near the eastern border of that county. 

These sections all bear data by which they can be referred to the 
level of Lake Brie, and thus exhibit the undulations of the Coal Measures 
which our recent observations have brought to light ; but these undula- 
tions are much more distinctly shown in the altitudes of coal seams No. 3 
and No. 6, given in connection with some notes on these coals in succeed- 
ing pages. The table of altitudes of coal seam No. 1 is less suggestive ; 
as the observations on this seam follow a line which is more curved north- 
ward, and therefore much of the variation of level is due to differences 
of latitude, where the general dip is southerly. 

It is worth noticing, in this connection, that the Killbuck and Tusca- 
rawas run in parallel synclinal valleys, and it seems probable that the 
folding of the strata which formed these subordinate troughs and ridges 
in our great coal basin first gave direction to the draining streams of the 

2 



18 GEOLOGICAL SUKVEY OF OHIO. 

region we have been considering ; and that, in a general way, these lines 
of drainage'have retained, through all subsequent mutations, the direc- 
tions thus given them. 

Oar knowledge of the geology of our coal field is yet too incomplete to 
permit me to speak with confidence ; but, from the facts already observed, 
I am prepared to find that the bearings of the valleys of the Ohio and all 
its main tributaries in our State have been determined by the same 
causes that produced the great folds of the Alleghany mountains. 

Another interesting fact in regard to the valleys of the streams is, that 
they are all cut far below the present stream-beds. The valley of the 
Beaver is excavated to a depth of over 150 feet below the present water 
level. The trough of the Ohio is still deeper. The Tuscarawas at Dover 
is running 175 feet above its ancient bed. The rock bottom of the Kill- 
buck valley has not yet been reached. 

The borings made for oil along the streams of the region under con- 
sideration, as well as in other parts of the country, afford many remark- 
able facts bearing on this subject. They will be reported more in detail 
in the chapter on Surface Geology in our final report. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 19 



SECTION No. 1. 

Lower Goal Measures, three miles south of Nashville, Holmes County. 

1. Shale and sandstone to hill tops. 

2. Black shale 2'-10' 

3. Coal No. 7 ("Taylor's") 4'- 6' 

4. Fire-clay 4' 

5. Shale : 11' 

6. Sandrock, "Mahoning" 20' 

7. Black shale (with many fossils in pyrites) 12' 

8. Coal No. 6 (748 feet above Lake Erie) 2' 8" 

9. Fire-clay 3' 

10. Shale and sandstone 11' 

11. Gray limestone 6' 

12. Coal No. 5 ("Bennington's") , 2' 

13. Fire-clay 3' 

14. Shale and sandstone 21' 6" 

15. Coal No. 46 (local) 3' 6" 

16. Fire-clay 3' 

17. Sandy shale... 7' 

18. Coal No. \a (local) 1' 10" 

19. Shale 5' 

20. Coal No. 4 3' 6" 

21. Shale 27' 

22. Blue limestone 4' 

23. Coal No. 3 (At Daggan's mine, 6') 3' 

24. Fire-clay 3' 

25. Shale 40' 

26. Blackshale (Coal No. 2 ?) 3' 

27. Shaly sandstone 10' 

28. Waverly 110' 



20 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



SECTION No. 2. 

Lower Goal Measures in the Valley of the KillbueJc, four miles above 

Millersburgh. 

1. Gray shale, with, kidney ore. 

2. Gray limestone 4' 

3. Coal No. 5 2' 

4. Fire-clay 3' 

5. Shale : 50' 

6. Blue limestone 3' 

7. Coal No. 3 ("Mast's") semucannel -. 3'-4' 

8. Fire-clay 6' 

9. Shale and sandstone, with thin coal - 84' 

10. Coal No. 2, cannel (six miles S. W., 8) 1' 10" 

11. Shale and sandstone 70' 

12. Coal No. 1 (Cameron's) 3' 

13. Fire-clay 3' 

14. Conglomerate 10' 

15. Waverly 60' 

C. Mt. V. & D. K. R. 270 feet above Lake Erie. 



GEOLOGICAL STJBVEY OP OHIO. 21 



SECTION 2sTo. 3. 

Lower Coal Measures at Zoar Station, Tuscarawas County. 

1. Sandstone and shale to top of hills 90' 

2. Black band and nodular calcareous ore 10'-15' 

3. Coal No. 7 3' 

4. Fire-clay 4' 

5. Shale 50' 

6. Coal (thin) 6" 

7. Fire-clay 1' 

8. Shale and sandstone 55' 

9. Coal No. 6 4' 

10. Fire-clay , 3' 

11. Gray shale 23' 

12. Coal (cannel, impure) 1|' 

13. Black shale, with nodular iron ore 20' 

14. Coal 2' 

15. Fire-clay 3' 

16. Sandstone and shale 42' 

17. Gray limestone 3' 

18. Coal No. 5 2' 

19. Fire-clay 3h' 

20. Sand-rock 32'-40' 

21. Shale, -with plate ore 0-8' 

22. Coal No. 4 (K. E. grade, 316 feet above Lake Erie) 3' 

23. Fire-clay 3' 

24. Shale 10' 

25. Blue limestone 3' 

26. Coal No. 3 \\' 

Tuscarawas river. 



22 GEOLOGICAL, SURVEY OP OHIO. 



SECTION No. 4. 

Lower Goal Measures at Mineral Point, Tuscarawas County. 

1. Shale 12' 

2. Sandstone (conglomerate) 28' 

3. Black shale 3'-10' 

4. Coal No. 6 3'-4' 

5. Fire-clay 4' 

6. Gray shale 15' 

7. Black shale 6' 

8. Coal (impure cannel) 1' 6" 

9. Gray shale, with kidney ore 5' 

10. Black shale 23' 

11. Coal ("Newberry") 390' above Lake Erie 4' 

12. Fire-clay (part non-plastic) 5' 

13.. Shale ; 6' 

14. Sandstone 38' 

15. Shale 3' 

16. Gray limestone (with plate and kidney ore) 4' 

17. Coal 2' 

18. Fire-clay 4' 

19. Shaly sandstone with Spirophyton to base of hill 15' 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO, 23 



SECTION No. 5. 

Lower Goal Measures at Tunnel, Tuscarawas Branch R. B. 

1. Sandstone 30' 

2. Shale 15' 

3. Coal No- 6 „ 3' 

4. Fire-clay .^ 3' 

5. Shale 18' 

6. Coal (impure cannel) 466' above Lake Erie ........ 1' 3" 

7. Shale 30' 

8. Coal ("Newberry") 3' 6" 

9. Fire-clay , .,,.... , 4' 

10. Shale 17' 

11. Sandstone , 43' 

12. Slate : 8' 

13. Gray limestone, with ore 3' 

14. CoalNo.5 3'-4' 

15. Fire-clay 4' 

16. Shaletobase of hill . 10' 



24 GEOLOGICAL SUE VET OP OHIO. 



SECTION No. 6. 

Lower Coal Measures at Linton, Jefferson County, O. 

1. Bed shale and sandstone to top of hill. 

2. Coal 1' & 

3. Fire-clay 2 

4. Gray shale 90' 

5. Fossiliferous limestone 0-10' 

6. Shales, sandstones and iron ore 78' 

7. Coal No. 7 ("Groff vein") 4' 

8. Fire-clay 3' 

9. Limestone 5' 

10. Sandstone, ("Mahoning") and shale 60 ; 

11. Coal No. 6 ("Big vein") 7' 

12. Fire-clay 5' 

13. Sandstone 20' 

14. Limestone li'-8' 

15. Sandstone and shale 40' 

16. CoalNo.5 ("Roger vein ») 3' 

17. Fire-clay - 3' 

18. Sandstone 38" 

19. Black shale with iron ore 12' 

20. CoalNo.4 ("Strip vein")... 2' 6' 

21. Fire-clay 8' 

22. Shale 12' 

23. Coal No. 3 ("Creek vein") 4' 

24. Fire-clay 3'-10> 

25. Shale and sandstone with iron Ore 20' 

26. Coal 1' 

27. Yellow Creek, 75 feet above Lake Erie. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 25 



SECTION No. 7. 

Lower Coal Measures in the Valley of the Little Beaver, near Fre&erickstown, 
Columbiana County, three miles from the Pennsylvania line. 

1. Shale and sandstone to tops of hill s 50' 

2. Coal No. 7 3' 

3. Fire-clay 3' 

4. Sandrock ("Mahoning") conglomerate 40' 

5. Gray shale 10' 

6. Coal No. 6 3i'-4' 

7. Fireclay 2'-6' 

8. White limestone 6' 

9. Slate and shelly sandstone 20' 

10. Coax No.5 ("Whanseam") 2' 

11. Fire-clay 2' 

12. Sandrock 25' 

13. Shale, 'with hlack hand and kidney ore 8' 

14. Coal No. 4 (at Darlington, cannel, 13') 2' 

15. Fire-clay 3' 

16. Shale, with layers of hlack hand and kidney ore, sometimes containing 

alimestone — the " Ferriferons limestone " 20' 

17. Coal No. 3 0-1' 

18. Fireclay 6"-10' 

19. Shale and sandstone, with much iron ore in upper part, to river, 243 ft. 

ahove Lake Erie 50' 



26 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



THE LOWER GROUP OF COALS. 

North of the National Road we have in Obio, below the Barren meas- 
ures, from six to eight workable seams of coal, forming what is known as 
the lower coal series. An enumeration of these beds, with a few notes 
descriptive of the changes observed in tracing them along a hundred 
miles of outcrop, will perhaps serve to give our people a clearer idea than 
they have had of the composition and structure of our Ooal Measures; 
and yet, more than this brief sketch I shall not now attempt, as the sub- 
ject has yet been but partially investigated, and it will more properly 
form the theme of a future and fuller report. 

Ooal No. 1. 

This is the lowest seam of the series in Ohio, and is that best known 
as the Briar Hill or Mahoning Valley coal. It is now regarded as the 
most valuable coal seam in the State, from the fact that in many locali- 
ties it is of good thickness, of remarkable purity, and well adapted, in 
the raw state, to the smelting of iron ores. It is, indeed, a typical fur- 
nace coal, and forms the fuel by which fully half the iron produced in the 
State is manufactured. Unfortunately, this is an exceedingly irregular 
seam, and over a large part of the region where it is due, it is proved to 
be wanting. 

This peculiarity is owing to two causes, viz.: It was the first accumu- 
lation of carbonaceous matter in the great peat bog that subsequently 
became our coal basin. As a consequence, it occupies only the lower 
portions of the irregular bottom of this basin, and was never deposited 
over the ridges and hummocks which fringed the margins, or, as islands, 
dotted the surface of the old coal marsh. 

The second cause of its absence is, that it is Overlaid by heavy strata 
of sandstone which were once beds of sand, transported by currents of 
water in rapid motion, and these currents have, over considerable inter- 
vals, washed away the coal, and left in its place sand — now sandstone — 
resting on the lower rocks. 

I have now traced the outcrop of Coal No. 1 from the National Road 
around to the Pennsylvania line, and have evidence of its being reached 
by borings at several places far in the interior of the coal basin. Of my 
notes on these observations, I give below a brief summary. 

In the Mahoning Valley, Coal No. 1 has its best development. It is 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



27 



here very compact, working in large blocks, from which fact it has re- 
ceived the name of "block coal," and is remarkably pure, as demonstrated 
by the following analyses : 

Analyses of Coal No. 1. 

No. 1.— Briar Hill, Youngstown, Mahoning county. (Wormley.) 
" 2. — Tallmadge, Summit county, Upson's mine. (Mather.) 
" 3. — Franklin township, Summit county, Johnson shaft. " (Wormley.J 
" 4.- " " > Franklin Coal Co. (Wormley.) 

" 5. — Massillon, Stark county, Willow Bank. (Wormley.) 
" 6. — Motes Coal, Knox township, Holmes county. (Potter.) 





1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 




1,284 

3.60 
32.58 
62.66 

1.16 


1.264 

5.067 
39.231 
53.404 

2.298 


1.256 

2.70 
37.30 
58.00 

2.00 


1.271 

3.40 
36.10 

58.70 
1.80 


1.247 

6.95 
32.38 
57.49 

3.18 


1.276 


Water 


5.55 




40.10 




51.79 


Ash 


2.56 






Total 


100.00 
0.85 


100.00 
0.549 


100.00 
0.92 


100.00 
0.799 


100.00 

0.88 


100.00 


Sulphur 


1.21 







As shown by its large percentage of carbon, the heating power of the 
Briar Hill coal is great. It is also open-burning, in virtue of its lamin- 
ated structure, and is the only fuel used in the furnaces of the important 
iron district of the Mahoning Valley. It is also extensively employed as 
a furnace fuel in Cleveland, and is, in fact, the basis of the great iron 
industry of northern Ohio. 

In Geauga county the Briar Hill coal reaches as far north as Barton 
and Newbury, but only in a narrow strip and detached islands, and is 
there thin and of little or no value. In Portage county it is also gener- 
ally thin or wanting, but its outcrops are concealed by heavy beds of 
drift, and it will probably be found of good thickness in many places 
where it is not now suspected to exist. 

In Summit county Coal No. 1 thickens up again, locally attaining 
dimensions of from three to six feet. It lies, however, in a series of 
basins, often of limited extent, but it occupies fully half the southern 
portion of the county in the townships of Tallmadge, Coventry, Spring- 
field, Franklin and Greene. It also reaches, in a narrow basin, so far into 
Medina county that its northwestern outcrop is within eight miles of 
Medina village. In Summit this coal seam is generally somewhat more 
bituminous than in the Mahoning Valley, breaks more irregularly, and 



28 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

has less of the block character. These physical differences are associated 
with a slightly different chemical composition, as is shown by the table 
of analyses ; but occasionally, as at Johnson's shaft, in Franklin town- 
ship, it exhibits almost precisely its prevailing character in Mahoning 
county. Here, as further eastward, it is generally an excellent coal, and 
is destined to contribute much more largely than it has yet done to the 
enrichment of Akron #nd vicinity, by furnishing an abundant supply of 
fuel adapted to all forms of manufacturing industry. 

Prom Wadsworth, Medina county, the western line of outcrop of Coal 
Bo. 1 pursues nearly a southern course to Fairview, in Wayne county, 
where it crosses the line of the P. F. W. & 0. E. E. At Clinton, Fulton 
and Massilon it is extensively worked, and the mines in this vicinity sup- 
ply a large amount of coal for the Cleveland market, as well as for iron- 
making and other industries at home. 

At Canton, Stark county, it has been struck in borings, in one place six 
feet in thickness, in another three, another one, etc. Most of the borings 
made in search of it, in this vicinity, have been unsuccessful— the sand 
rock which overlies it, and which is so conspicuous at Massillon, reaching 
down to the Waverly, and cutting it out. 

In Lawrenee township, Stark county, Coal No. 1 is already largely 
worked. The search for it is being vigorously prosecuted eastward from 
Fulton, both in Lawrence and Jackson, and with such success that we 
now have evidence of the existence, in the northern part of fckark county, 
of a very fine field of this coal. On Mud Brook, in Jackson, it has been 
struck in several borings at a depth of about two hundred feet, and is 
reputed five feet thick. The value of this coal basin to Akron and Cleve- 
land can hardly be over-estimated. 

From Massillon to the Ohio river, along its line of outcrop, Coal No. 1, 
as a general rule, is of little importance. It appears of workable thick- 
ness at frequent intervals along its line, of outcrop, but is generally thin, 
of inferior quality, and oftener absent, or present as a mere trace. 

In Holmes county it is visible at Cameron's mine, four miles north of 
Millersburg, on the east side and about sixty feet above the valley of the 
Killbuck. East of this point it lies below the bottoms of the valleys, and 
has not been sought. 

At Spencer's mill, in Holmes county, Coal No. 1 is four feet in thick- 
ness, and at several other places in this vicinity is from two to three feet. 
This is also the seam worked at Mote's mine, two miles north of Napoleon, 
where it is three feet thick and of excellent quality ; so that it deserves 
to be enumerated among the elements that compose the mineral wealth 
of this richly endowed county ; but it is here surpassed in value by some 
of the overlying seams. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 29 

In Coshocton county, Coal No. 1 is visible near Newcastle, from two to 
three feet in thickness, but of poor quality. It has also been seen at 
several other points — as at the Crawford mine, southeast of East Union, 
etc. . Its line of outcrop has not been carefully examined, but it is appar- 
ently of no great value in any locality between Holmes and Jackson 
counties. In Jackson, and thence southward, it regains something of its 
traditional character and value, and is somewhat extensively mined and 
used as a furnace fuel. 

In the valley of the Tuscarawas, as in the western half of Stark county, 
the place of Coal No. 1 is within two hundred feet of the surface, but only 
a few inches of coal have been passed through at the horizon it occupies 
in any boring made there. It should be Said, however, that few wells 
have been bored in this county, and, of these, all but one with a different 
object in view ; so that further trials in the Tuscarawas valley would seem 
to be warranted. 

Along the divide between the waters of the Tuscarawas and Yellow 
Creek, Coal No. 1 lies too deep to be reached by any boring that has been 
recently made. At New Lisbon, however, there is no question that it has 
been struck in several borings.* It here lies something like two hundred 
feet below the lower limestone seam, (No. 3) and is reported to have a 
thickness of from four to nine feet. Further down the Little Beaver it is 
either wanting, or has been passed through without notice in the oil wells. 
At Cameron's mill, on Bull Creek, it was struck at a depth of one hundred 
and sixty-six feet below the surface. 

From these and other facts which have come to my knowledge, I feel 
justified in saying that the country just about New Lisbon is underlaid 
by an important basin of Briar Hill coal, and this at such a depth that it 
can be worked by shafts in the valleys with scarcely more trouble and 
expense than though it cropped out at the surface. 

Altitudes oe Coal No. 1. 

(The Briar Hill Seam. J 

Above Lake Erie. 

1. Thompson's shaft, west side of Holmes county 531 feet. 

2. Motes' mine, eight miles west of Millersburgh 450 " 

3. Steel's coal, two miles west of Millersburgh, Holmes county 379 " 

4. J. Cameron's mine, three miles north of Millersburgh, Holmes 

county 343 " 

5. Jno. Cary's miue, half a mile west of Millersburgh, Holmes county 319 " 

6. Massillon, Stark county (mean) 356 " 

* On Yellow Creek a coal seam is said to have been passed through in the old salt 
wells at Salineville and Collingwood, at about the horizon of coal No. 1. 



30 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

Above Lake Erie. 

7. Doylestown, Wayne county 484 feet. 

8. Tallmadge, Summit county, Newberry's mine 520 " 

9. Edinburgh, Portage county ( Whittlesey) . 440 " 

10. Youngstown, Mahoning county 336 '' 

11. Mt. Nebo, Mahoning county (Whittlesey) 232 " 

12. New Lisbon, Columbiana county, in oil wells 180 " 

Coal No. 2. 

Coal seam No. 2 lies from forty to sixty feet above "No. 1, in the region 
where it is best developed, i. e., in the valley of the Killbuck, Holmes 
county. Here it is a cannel coal (Strawbridge's) from two to eigbt feet in 
thickness. All around the margin of the coal basin a thin coal seam 
marks this horizon, but it is not constantly present, and is much more 
important in Holmes county than elsewhere.* 

The Strawbridge coal would be generally classed as a cannel, but it 
differs considerably in chemical composition from most cannels, and is 
more like some of those known as " splint coals " in England and Scot- 
land. It has the structure and aspect of a cannel coal, but has so large 
a percentage of fixed carbon, and so little volatile matter, that it is appli- 
cable to quite a different class of uses. The Strawbridge coal has as great 
heating power as almost any of our coals, and would serve an excellent 
purpose as a furnace fuel, if it contained less sulphur. This ingredient 
would preclude its use for the manufacture of gas, even if it were not 
true — as it is — that it contains less volatile matter than the " Briar Hill," 
which is generally regarded as the u dryest " of our coals. It will serve 
a good purpose as a household fuel, though the volume of ash it produces 
will be, to many, an insuperable objection to it. In this respect, however, 
it will compare favorably with many of our Ohio cannels, as they gener- 
ally contain nearly as much ash. I formerly made analyses of all the 
cannel coals then known in Ohio, and found none that contained less than 
ten per cent, of ash. The Mint Eidge contains twelve per cent. ; the 
purest of the Walhonding cannel, Coshocton county, contains ten per 

* It should also be said that in central Holmes county, in certain localities, another 
seam, generally thin but sometimes workable, lies between Nos. 1 and 2. This is called 
the " iron coal," because of a bed of iron ore associated with it ; but it is so entirely 
local in its character, that I have not thought proper to enumerate it as one of our series 
of workable coals. 

On Michart's farm, two miles north of Napoleon, Holmes county, this seam appears in 
greater force than anywhere else that it came under my observation. There it is com- 
posed of two benches of one foot each, separated by three feet of iron ore, said by the 
owner (for it was not fairly shown) to be massive, dark, block ore. Other parties 
represent it as one foot of ore to two of shale. In either case it is a valuable ore bed, 
and its relationship to the coal is such that it can be mined at a very slight cost. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



31 



cent. ; the Canfield cannel from eleven to nineteen per cent. ; while cannel 
from Darlington, just east of the line of Pennsylvania, contains from 
twenty-eight to filty-two per cent, of earthy matter, and an average of 
thirty-five per cent. The latter coal is now largely mined, and sold at a 
price but little below that of our best varieties. The Stra-ffbridge has 
much greater heating power than the Darlington coal, and ought to com- 
mand at least an equal price. 

The true application of coals like the Strawbridge, as it seems to me, is 
to the generation of steam, especially in locomotives. Having no ten- 
dency to cake in the fire, and burning as freely and with nearly as little 
smoke as wood, such coal can be used in a locomotive engine almost 
without change in the fire box. For such use it matters little whether 
the percentage of earthy matter is a little greater or less, as the ashes are 
so readily discharged from the furnace. 

Where Coal ~No. 2 appears on the east side of the Killbuck, it is a true 
cannel. (See analysis JSTo. 2.) 

Analyses of Coal No. 2. 

No. 1. Millersburgh, Holmes county, (three miles southwest) Strawbridge's cannel 
coal, eight feet thick. (Wormley.) 

No. 2. Millersburgh, Holmes county, (three miles northeast) cannel, two feet thick. 
(Wormley.) 



Specific gravity 

Water , 

Volatile combustible 

Fixed carbon 

Ash 

Total 

Sulphur 




100.00 
1.55 



Coal No. 3. 

This coal underlies the lower or blue limestone. It is almost every- 
where of workable thickness, I . e., from three to six feet. At Mr. Glasgo's 
in western Holmes county, it is cannel, three feet thick, good. At 
Daggan's mine, Knox township, it is six feet thick, in two nearly equal 
benches, one bituminous, the other cannel. In Salt Creek township, 
Holmes county, it is four feet thick, bituminous in places in two benches, 
separated by two feet of fire clay, in others without partings. In the 



■32 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

hills south of Napoleon it shows three feet of coal, in three benches of 
one foot each, with partings of fire-clay of equal thickness between them. 
On the east side of the Killbuck in Mechanic township, it is true cannel, 
said to be eight feet thick, but not worked or so exposed that its value 
«an be determined. Northeast of Millersburgh, at Mast's, Collier's and 
Chambers' mines, it is about four feet thick, semi cannel, good ; at Har- 
ger's mill, eastern part of Holmes county, five feet thick, part cannel, 
part bituminous. 
The section of Coal No. 3 at Mast's mine is as follows : 

Blue limestone 5', 

Coal r 6" 

Fire-clay 8" 

Coal 2' 6" 

Black shale 1' 8" 

Coal 1' 

Fire-clay 5' 

At Collier's mine, two hundred yards south, the seam exhibits this 
structure: 

Blue limestone 5' 

Coal :.. 4" 

Black shale r 6" 

Coal 2' 6" 

Blackshale i 1' 6" 

Coal 6" 

Fire-clay ,.......' 5' 

In Stark county, Coal No. 3 is known as the " Limestone Vein," and is 
worked over a large area. About Canton and north to Gtreentown, it is 
from three and a half to four and a half feet thick, a tender caking coal 
of medium quality. East of Canton it is overlaid by the gray limestone 
seam No. 5, is generally worthless, sometimes wanting; the Newberry 
coal thirty inches thick, of excellent quality; and No. 6 (the "Upper 
Vein ") four to six feet thick, and generally very good. This latter coal 
supplies the wants of the coanty; and as Coal No. 3 thins in that direc- 
tion, \% loses its consequence. 

Near Massillon, Coal No. 3 is very thin, while No. 1 is good. Hence a 
theory (without foundation) has become general, that " where the Mas- 
sillon coal is good, this limestone vein is poor," and nice versa. 

In Summit county, Coal No. 3 occurs in the southeastern townships, as 
at Mogadore, etc., but is thin and of no value. The same is true of its 
outcrops in Portage and Mahoning counties. 

In Coshocton county this seam of coal acquires unusual importance in 
Bedford and Jefferson townships. It is here cannel, and, as we often 
find this bed, divided into several benches. Its maximum thickness is 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



33 



seven feet, and the best portions are as pure as any cannel I have seen in 
Ohio. At Wheeler's mine it presents the following characteristic section : 

Blue limestone 3' 

Bituminous coal 5" 

Calcareous shale 4" 

Bituminous coal 1/ 5" 

Cannel coal V 6" 

Cannel coal 2' 6" 

Shale 2" 

Fire-clay 4" 

Bituminous coal - 4" 

Fire-clay 3' 

This I also suppose to be the cannel coal of Flint Kidge, Licking 
county 5 but I have not yet made the observations necessary to connect 
that with the Coshocton county localities. 

In the valley of the Connotten, Tuscarawas county, Coal No. 3 is five feet 
thick — cannel, worthless. At Hammondsville, in the valley of Yellow 
Creek, this is the " Creek Vein," three to four feet in thickness, bitumin- 
ous. In the valley of the -ittle Beaver, at New Lisbon, it is " Green's " 
and " McClymond's " coal. In Canfleld, Mahoning county, No. 3 is the 
seam worked at Infelt's and Bruce's mines. Between this point and New 
Lisbon it is visible in several localities, exhibiting nearly the same 
character throughout ; a highly bituminous, caking coal, from three to 
tour feet in thickness, but containing a large percentage of sulphur. 



No. 


1. 


a 


2. 


a 


3. 


u 


4. 


u 


5. 


u 


6. 



Analyses of Coal No. 3. 

Glasgo's, near Nashville, Holmes county, cannel 3' (Wonnley.) 

Mast's coal, N. E. of Millersburg, Holmes county, semi-cannel . . 4£' (Wormley. ) 

Collier's coal, N. E. of Millersburg, Holmes Co., semi-cannel 5' (Wormley.) 

Greentown, Summit county, bituminous 3'-4' (Wormley.) 

Creek Vein, Yellow Creek, bituminous 3J' (Newberry. ) 

Green's coal, New Lisbon, Columbiana county, bituminous (Newberry.) 



5. 



6. 



Specific gravity . 



Water 

Volatile combustible . 

Fixed carbon 

Ash 



Total 



Sulphur 

Coke 

Color of ash . 



1.292 

3.90 
40.50 
49.95 

5.65 



1.282 

4.20 
32.20 
56.60 

7.00 



1.305 

3.85 
33.95 
56.40 

5.80 



3.25 
38.75 
55.05 

2.95 



1.290 

2.50 
36.60 
56.30 

4.60 



100.00 

1.55 
Pulverulent. 
Fawn. 



100.00 

3.34 
Compact 
Gray. 



100.00 

2.06 
Compact 
White. 



100.00 

1.73 
Compact. 
White. 



100.00 

2.05 
Compact. 
Brown. 



1.301 

1.30 
37.10 
57.15 

4.45 



100.00 

1.95 
Compact. 
White. 



34 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



Altitudes of Coal No 3. 



10. 
n. 



(The Blue Limestone Seam.) 

Above Lake Erie 

At Eli Glasgo's, west side of Holmes county 634 feet. 

Millersburgh, central part of Holmes county 363 " 

Scare's mine, Trail Creek, eastern part of Holmes county 473 " 

Dover, Tuscarawas county 272 " 

Zoar Station, Tuscarawas county 300 " 

Tunnel, Tuscarawas Branch R. R., Tuscarawas county 386 " 

Salineville, (in well) Columbiana county 210 " 

New Lisbon, Coluaibiana county.. 390 " 

Actor, Columbiana county , 340 " 

Near mo ath of Little Beaver, Columbiana county 126 " 

Linton, Jefferson county 116 " 



Coal No. 4. 

Coals Nos. 4 and 5, lying between the two limestones, can be almost 
always found when sought at the proper horizon, but in Holmes county 
they are thin and of little value. Both, however, become much more 
important in passing toward the east. In Holmes county Coal No. 4 is 
not constantly present, and nowhere, that we have observed, does it 
exceed two feet in thickness.* In the valley of the Tuscarawas, between 
Dover and Zoar Station, it lies near the grade of the railroad, and is 
overlaid by sandstone, by which it is frequently cut out, but where attain- 
ing ils full dimensions, has a thickness of three feet ; a bituminous coal 
of indifferent quality. The section of this seam exhibited in the railroad 
cut at Zoar Station is so instructive, that I venture to represent it in the 
following wood cut : 

Section- of Coal No. 4 at Zoar Station, Tuscarawas county, O. 




1. Sandstone. 2. Shale. 3. Coal No. 4. 4. Fire-clay. 



* In Mechanic township, Holmes county, on the property of the Killbuck Mining 
Company, it is about two feet in thickness, overlaid by red shale with nodules of iron 
ore. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 35 

Here the coal seam is seen to be, in places, overlaid by a soft argilla- 
ceous shale. Over this is a heavy bed of sandstone, which locally cuts 
out both the shale and coal. The story told by this section is plainly this, 
that after the coal was deposited, it was covered with a fine, clay-mud, 
such as forms the roof shales of many of our coal seams. Subsequently 
strong currents of water passed over this surface, cutting away both 
shale and coal along the channel lines, and depositing in these and over 
all great quantities of sand, that was subsequently consolidated into 
sandstone. 

From the valley of the, Tuscarawas to that of Yellow Greek, Coal No. 4 
passes beneath the divide and is concealed. At Hammondsville and 
Linton, however, the Yellow Creek valley cuts within two hundred feet 
of the bottom of the Coal series, exposing Coal No. 3, and twenty feet 
over it Coal No. 4, here known as the " Strip Vein," two and a half feet 
in thickness, a highly caking coal, but working handsomely in blocks and 
of great parity. From this region it has been extensively exported as a 
gas coal, while the slack produced in mining it has been made into coke, 
which is regarded as of excellent quality. 

In the valley of the Little Beaver above New Lisbon, Coal No. 4 is seen, 
a few inches in thickness, buried in a mass of bituminous shale. At 
Letonia, where the New Lisbon railroad crosses the Pittsburgh, Fort 
Wayne and Chicago railroad, No. 4 is a bituminous coal, two and a half 
feet in thickness, remarkably free from sulphur and ash, in fact one of 
the purest coals in the State. Here it is extensively coked, and furnishes, 
the fuel used in the successful iron works in this locality. Still further- 
north, in the edge of Canfield, Mahoning county, this seam of coal is two.. 
and a half feet thick, the upper six inches bituminous, the lower two feet 
cannel. At Wetmore's mine in Canfield, it is five feet in thickness, alls 
cannel of good quality. Near Palestine, and at Darlington, Pennsyl- 
vania, this is the " Darlington Cannel," from eight to thirteen feet in 
thickness, but containing a large percentage of ash. In the valley of the - 
Little Beaver, just below New Lisbon, Coal No. 4 is represented, by, 
twenty feet of bituminous shale. 

Wherever assuming the cannel character, this coal seam ha&alarge 
percentage of ash, and also contains the remains of fishes and mollusks, 
thus illustrating the truth of the conclusions to which, from these and 
other facts, I was years ago led, viz., that cannel coal owes Us peculiar 
character to the large amount of water in which the carbonaceous matter it 
contains was suspended ; that it was, in fact, formed in the open lagoons of 
the coal marshes, where the- softer portions of vegetable tissue, perfectly' 
macerated, accumulated with more or less transported sediment and mingled 
with the remains of aquatic animals. 



36 



GEOLOGICAL, SURVEY OP OHIO. 



Analyses of Coal No. 4. 

No. 1. Wetmore's Cannel, Upper bench, Canfield 5 (Newberry.) 

" 2. Wetmore's Cannel, Lower bench, Canfield 5' (Newberry.) 

" 3. Letonia, Columbiana county, bituminous 2' 6" (Newberry.) 

" 4. Strip Vein, Hammondsville, bituminous 2' 6'' (Newberry.) 

" 5. Darlington Cannel 8'-13' (Silliman.) 





1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


Specific gravity ... 


1.438 

1.65 
33.56 
45.65 
19.14 


1.295 

1.53 
40.63 
46.26 
11.58 


1.213 

2.56 
39.60 
56.04 

1.80 


1.256 

2.13 

34.86 

55.78 

7.23 


1.357 

0.74 


Volatile combustible. . . 


30.01 
39.90 


Ash 


29.35 






Totals 


100.00 

2.63 
Pulverulent. 
White. 


100.00 

2.04 
Pulverulent. 
White. 


100.00 

.53 

Compact. 
White. 


100.00 

.43 

Compact. 
Reddish. 


100.00 




2.31 


Coke 


Pulverulent. 




Gray. 





Coal No. 5. 

This coal seam lies beneath the gray limestone. In Holmes and Tus- 
carawas counties it is rarely more than two feet in thickness, and is 
therefore of comparatively little value. At Hecker & Burnett's lime- 
kiln, one mile east of Millersburg, it is mined with the limestone above 
and the fire-clay below, and is used as a fuel for burning the lime. The 
section at this point is as follows : 



1. Gray shale with kidney ore near base, to top of hill. 

■2. Clay shale or indurated clay, burning bright crimson, and valuable for 

fine "face brick" and terra eotta 6' 

3L Gray limestone 4'-6' 

4. Coal No. 5 2' 

-5. Fire-clay (good) 6' 

<&. Gray shale 15' 

.7. Drab sandstone (good building stone) 25' 

;8. JPIaee of Coal No. 4 (coal covered) 

IS. Gajay shale 35' 

10. Blue > limestone 3' 

■11. Shale 20' 

12. CoalNo.3 (cannel) 3'-6 

13. iiFire-clay 

14. Slope covered 120 feet to railroad at Millersburg, 243 feet above Lake Erie. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 37 

i 
On J. Armbach's land, lot 33, Salt Creek township, Holmes county, the 

gray limestone is six feet in thickness, the coal below it three and one- 
half feet thick. Selected specimens are of good quality, and much like 
Mast's coal, but there are many sulphur and clay seams in the coal, which 
substantially spoil it. On George Armstrong's land, lot 31 of same town- 
ship, the gray limestone and coal are of the same character and thickness 
as above, and are 99 feet above the blue limestone. 

About Canton, in Stark county, both limestone coals (Nos. 3 and 5) are 
visible, the upper one extensively mined. It is sometimes six feet thick, 
but is usually slaty, and contains much suphur. 

Near Zoar, in Tuscarawas county, Coal No. 5 crops out in a great num- 
ber of localities, but is nowhere that I have observed it, over two feet in 
thickness. It is just that in the Fairfield hills and in the valley of the 
Connotten, above Zoar Station. After passing Hanover Summit, where 
it is covered, we have in the valleys of Yellow Creek and Little Beaver 
an important coal seam beneath the limestone, and which is probably 
identical with the upper limestone seam of the western counties. This is 
the "Roger Vein" of the Yellow Creek valley, and the "Whan Seam" of 
the vicinity of New Lisbon. The "Roger Vein" on Yellow Creek, is 
three feet in thickness, a caking coal of fair quality. The " Whan Coal " 
is three to five feet in thickness, working large, and free burning. It has 
much the appearance of the Briar Hill coal, but contains a larger per 
centage of volatile matter, and more suphur. 

In Tuscarawas county, above the upper of the two limestones I have 
described, comes in a seam of coal which is there of considerable import- 
ance, but which I have been unable to identify with any of the seams 
mined east or west of this county. In the vicinity of Millersburg, the 
distance between the upper limest'one and coal seam No. 6, is, in some 
localities, as little as twenty -five feet, and no coal seam occurs in this 
interval. Going eastward, the limestone and the sandstone over No. 6 
become more widely separated, and about Mineral Point, in Tuscarawas 
county, this space is something like seventy feet, filled with argillaceous,, 
often bituminous shale, in which are three seams of coal, the uppermost; 
(Coal No. 6) just under the sandstone; the second, twelve to eighteen! 
inches thick, twenty-five feet below, are impure and worthless cannel ; 
the lowest, four feet thick (twenty feet lower), a very hard, bright and 
excellent coal, containing too much sulphur and too much volatile matter 
to be advantageously used as a furnace coal, but very free burning, andi 
highly valued as a steam coal. This is known as the "Newberry" coal at; 
Mineral Point, and is worked at the mines of Mr. Holden. It is also 
worked at the tunnel three miles above. At Mineral Point, and on the 



38 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



west bank of the Tuscarawas, near Zoar, this seam is locally duplicated 
so as to be of double its average thickness. A strongly marked band of 
iron ore lies immediately over it. On the south side of Huff's run, on 
the Holmes farm, this coal seam appears better than in any place where 
it is now worked. Though at present somewhat difficult of access in this 
locality, there is such a body of it in the massive hills that stretch south- 
ward from the valley of Huff's run, and the coal is so handsome and val- 
uable, that it will doubtless some time be the basis of a great mining 
business in this region. 

I give below analyses by Dr. Wormley of type specimens of Goal 
No. 5, adding one (No. 4) of Coal 5 a, or the " Newberry" coal. Both 
the " Whan Coal" and this are much better than would be inferred from 
these analyses. 

Analyses of Goal No. 5. 

No. 1. Bennington coal, south of Nashville, Holmes county 2' 6'' 

No. 2. Roger coal, Salineville 3' 6" 

No. 3. Whan coal, New Lisbon - 4'-5' 

No. 4. Tunnel coal, near Mineral Point, Tuscarawas county 4' 





i. 


2. 


3. 


4. 




1.345 

2.30 
29.30 
57.80 
10.60 


1.304 

1.65 
37.35 
56.80 

4.20 


1.15 
40.45 
53.75 

4.65 


1.375 




3.20 


Volatile combustible 


39.70 




52.95 


Ash 


4.15 






Total 


100.00 

4.42 

Compact. 
Fawn. 


100.00 

2.03 
Compact. 
Gray. 


100.00 

3.51 
Compact. 
Reddish. 


100.00 




2.64 


Coke 


Compact. 









Coal No. 6. 

This is one of the most interesting and important coals of the series. 
It lies under the " Mahoning sandstone," and over the upper of the two 
limestones I have referred to. On the western side of Holmes county it 
has a thickness of two feet. Near Millersburg it is the coal mined by 
Judge Armor, Mr. Saunders, Day & Ohattuck, the Holmes County Coal 
Company, &c. ; is from five to six feet in thickness, generally in two 
benches separated by a slate parting. In the mine of Mr. Saunders the 
«coal is in three benches, top fifteen inches, middle two feet, bottom eigh- 
teen inches in thickness. At Judge Armor's mine, a half mile north, there 
are but two benches of nearly three feet each and much alike in quality. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



39 



The coal of this mine may be considered typical of the seam — breaking 
irregularly with broad, smooth, black, resinous surfaces, rather tender 
and containing considerable sulphur. It is highly cementing in charac- 
ter, and makes a bright and handsome coke if properly treated, but such 
as holds too much sulphur to make it popular as a furnace fuel. The 
faults of this coal will be almost completely corrected by washing. This 
will remove nearly all the sulphur and the slate that comes from the part- 
ings, and will make it possible to produce from it, at small expense, a 
coke which will be first class in quality. This coal is much liked for the 
generation of steam, and is the type of a " steamboat coal" on the Ohio, 
where the draft in the furnaces is so strong that an adhesive coal is pre- 
ferred. 

At Fredericksburg, Wayne county, this seam is worked at the Wayne 
Hill mines by Mr. C. H. Clarke, and is three and a half feet in thickness; 
its composition is expressed in the subjoined analyses made by Mr. W. A. 
Hooker, E. M. : 



Specific gravity 

Moisture 

Volatile combustible 

Fixed carbon 

Sulphur 

Ash.., 

Total 




100.00 



Color of ash — fawn. 

Coke 60 per cent., hard, bright, silvery. 

A cubic yard weighs 2,160 lbs. 

Gas 4 cubic feet per lb. ; illuminating power high. 



In the valley of Trail Creek, eastern part of Holmes county, this seam 
is worked at the mines of Adam Scare and Henry Coley. Iu is here three 
and a half feet thick, a white-ash coal, more free from sulphur than fur- 
ther west. At Patterson's mine, Dundee, it is still better, and four and a 
half feet thick. 

In all this region this coal is overlaid by a black bituminous shale, full 
of shells — Chonetes mesoloba, Semipronites umbraculum, Aviculojpecten oc- 
cidentalism Produotus equicostatus, Myalina Swallovana, etc. Very gener- 
ally these shells are replaced by sulphide of iron. 

In Tuscarawas county, Coal No. 6 is seen in all the hills about Mineral 
Point. It is but little worked there, but is the coal mined by John Black 



4:0 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

on the south side of Huff's Bun. It has also been worked for many years 
on the Zoar Furnace property, on the Davy and Holmes farms at Mineral 
Point Station, and at the Tunnel three miles above.. In all this region 
it is from three and a half to four feet thick, a caking coal of medium 
quality. In the valley of the Oonnotten, at New Cumberland, it is five 
feet thick ; the upper bench greatly improved in quality. From this local- 
ity it thickens going east, and has been opened at some points in Carroll 
county where it is seven feet thick. In the central portion of this county 
it lies too deep to be reached, as the Barren Measures with their red 
shales form the surface rocks. 

In southern Tuscarawas, and in Coshocton county, this seam furnishes 
most of the coal mined. It is the seam worked at Coal Port, Port Wash- 
ington, Trenton, &c. In this region it ranges from three to six fe'et in 
thickness, and varies considerably in purity, but has a prevailing, I may 
almost say constant, character as a tender, adhesive, but "strong" and 
valuable coal. It is well adapted to the generation of steam, and its best 
varieties are preferred to any other Ohio coal for blacksmith's use. 

In Stark county, Coal No. 6 underlies much of the surface east of Can- 
ton, approaching within four miles of that town on the east and south. 
In Pike and Osnaburgh townships it is especially good, from three and a 
half to six feet thick — usually about four — in two benches, with a slate 
parting. The lower bench furnishes coal of such purity that it is hauled 
by wagons from Osnaburgh to Massillon, for use by the blacksmiths. 
Near Louisville it is somewhat worked, but is not quite so much esteemed. 
At Eobertsville, south east from this point, it is overlaid by coal No. 7, 
the "Black Band Seam," with its associated iron ore. Near Mapleton it 
is four to six feet thick, black and good. Thence east and south it forms 
a sheet cut only by the valley of the Sandy. It is mined at Waynes- 
burg, Pekin, Malven, Oneida, &c, and occupies most of Carroll county. 

In the highlands that form the divide between the waters of the Big 
Sandy and Yellow Creek, the Mahoning and Little Beaver, Coal No. 6 
reaches continuously from the Tuscarawas valley to the Pennsylvania 
line. In all this interval it is the main seam of the series, ranging from 
four to seven feet in thickness ; everywhere a caking coal. It is marked 
at Bochester, New Chambersburg, Hanover Station, &c, near the summit 
of the C. & P. railroad. 

In the valley of Yellow Creek, Coal No. 6 is the " Big Vein " of Saline- 
ville, Hammondsville and Linton, and ranges from four to seven and a 
half feet in thickness. It is also the "Big Vein" of the Shelton and 
Arter farms near New Lisbon. Throughout this region it yields a highly 
bituminous, caking coal, containing too much sulphur to be used for gas, 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 41 

but destined, when washed and coked, to play an important part in the 
future industries of this remarkably rich district. East of New Lisbon, 
Coal No. 6 is less thick but purer. It is Dyke's Coal on Camp run, the coal 
of the Carbon Hill, Enon Valley and other mines near Palestine, and is the 
ic Upper Freeport " coal of the Pennsylvania geologists. 

At the mouth of Yellow Creek the " Big Vein " is underlaid by four 
inches of cannel, which is literally full of the remains of fishes and am- 
phibians. We have already obtained from this locality more than twenty 
species, all new to science and of great interest. The fishes are for the 
most part species of Goelacanthus and Hurylepis ; the latter a new genus 
found only here. One species of Palaeoniscus occurs here ; two of Ehizo- 
dus, and many spines and teeth of sharks. The amphibians were aquatic 
carnivorous salamanders, allied to Archegosaurm, Ophiderpeton, Urocor- 
dylus, and to the living Membranchus. Some of them were several feet in 
length and of remarkable and interesting structure. 

All these animals were apparently the inhabitants of a lagoon in the 
coal marsh. While it continued to be a lagoon, carbocaceous mud, de- 
rived from the decomposition of the soft parts of the plants growing in 
the water and the surrounding marsh, accumulated at the bottom, with 
innumerable remains of the various animated forms, that for ages lived 
and died in the water above. There came a time, however, — after enough 
of this carbonaceous mud had gathered to form a layer of cannel four 
inches thick — when, just as so many of our little lakes are " growing up " 
now, the lagoon was closed and ultimately all filled up by the peat that 
formed its margin. This peat produced the ordinary cubical coal which 
composes the mass of the seam. 

Both the fishes and amphibians will be found figured and described in 
the first volume of our final report. 

Analyses of Goal No. 6. 

By Dr. Wokmlbt. 

Saunders' coal, middle bench, Millersburg, Holmes county 5' 

Adam Scare's, near Berlin 3' 6" 

Salineville," Big Vein" - 5'-6' 

Linton, "Big Vein" 7' 6" 

New Lisbon, " Big Vein," (Arter Farm) 7' 

Dyke's coal, Camp Kun, upper bench 4' 

" " lower bench 4' 



No, 


. i. 


a 


2. 


u 


3. 


a 


4. 


tt 


5. 


tt 


6. 


a 


7. 



42 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 





1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


Specific gravity 


1.369 

5.10 
39.00 
51.70 

4.20 


1.277 

3.85 
34.65 
58.60 

2.90 


1.280 

1.40 
34.60 
59.55 

4.45 


1.276 

2.60 
35.17 
55.80 

6.43 


1260 

3.45 
35.56 
56.36 

4.63 


1.266 

1.35 
34.15 
62.00 

2.50 


1.286 
1.70 


Volatile combustible. 

Fixed carbon 

Ash 


42.70 

53.85 
1.75 






Total ........ 


100.00 

2.26 

Compact. 
Purple. 


100.00 

2.66 
Compact. 
Brown. 


100.00 

2.11 

Compact. 

Gray. 


100.00 

2.63 

Compact. 

Gray. 


100.00 

2.50 

Compact. 

Gray. 


100.00 

0.99 

Compact. 

Yellow. 


100.00 
1.45 


Coke 


Comp'ct 




White. 



Altitudes of Coal No. 6. 



(The "Big Vein") 

Above Lake Erie. 

1. Eli Glasgo's, three miles south, of Nashville, Holmes county, (wes- 

tern part 748 feet. 

2. Nashville, Holmes county, (western part) 688 

3. Fredericksburg, (Wayne Hill mines), Wayne county 600 

4. Judge Armor's mine, Millersburg, Holmes county 549 

5. Judge Saunders' mine, " " 534 

6. Day & Chattuck's " " 524 

7. Two miles east of Millersburgh 583 

8. Berlin, Holmes county, Dr. Pomerene's mine 660 

9. Adam Scare's mine, Trail Creek, eastern Holmes county 653 

10. Henry Coley's mine, " " " 615 

11. Patterson's mine, Dundee, Tuscarawas county; (western part) 558 

12. Zoar Station, Tuscarawas county (eastern part) 462 

13. Mineral Point, " " 445 

14. Tunnel, Tusc. Br. E. R., Tuscarawas county, (eastern part) 495 

15. Robertsville, Stark county, (eastern part) 499 

16. Hanover Station, Columbiana county, (western part) 560 

17. New Chambersburg, " " (Whittlesey) 629 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 43 

Above Lake Erie. 

18. New Lisbon, Columbiana county 515 feet. 

19. Achor, Columbiana county 430 " 

20. Salineville, Columbiana county 310 " 

21. . New Cumberland, Carroll county 447 " 

On a more southerly line : 

22. Western Coshocton county. 476 " 

23. Coshocton 248 " 

24. New Comerstown 293 " 

25. Port Washington 260 " 

26. Lockl7 295 " 

27. Urichsville 275 " 

Coal No. 7. 

This coal lies in the tops of the highest hills in the western part of 
Holmes county, where it is known as the " Taylor Coal," is from four to 
six feet in thickness, open burning, and very pure. Unfortunately the 
area it occupies is small. Throughout most of Holmes county it is either 
wholly cut away or left in the summits of the hills. In the Fairfield hills 
of Tuscarawas County, which reach up to the Barren Coal measures, it is 
three to three and a half feet in thickness, of rather poor quality. It here 
underlies the famous Black Band ore of that district. At Salineville it is 
the "Strip Vein," on lower Yellow Creek the " Cumberland " or " Groff 
Vein." In most of Columbiana County, it is confined to the highest lands, 
and is little worked; but at Palestine it is the coal mined by Burnett and 
Joy, and, like most of the coals of that vicinity, is of excellent quality. 

This is the highest workable seam of coal in Ohio below the Pittsburgh 
bed, although a thin seam — sometimes two feet in thickness — is found 
above it. It is overlaid by the great mass of colored shales which form 
the Barren Coal Measures, and which compose the tops of the hills border- 
ing Yellow Creek ; extending thence southward to Marietta. 

With the exception of the Briar Hill coal, there is probably no seam 
which along its outcrop, north of the National Eoad, will supply a first- 
class furnace coal. The coal of the upper seams is almost universally 
cementing in character, furnishing a fuel in many instances well adapted 
to the generation of steam and for the puddling furnace, but such as can 
only be used in the blast furnace after being coked. In several localities 
these caking coals are sufficiently pure to be used for the manufacture of 
gas — as at Hammondsville, Palestine, Letonia, etc. — but the quantity of 
sulphur which they contain is generally so large that they require more 
purification than can be economically effected. It should not be inferred, 
however, from these remarks, that the immense store of fossil fuel con- 
tained in the region under consideration is of such qualify as not to be 



4A GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

usefully employed in the arts ; but it is necessary that some process should 
be adopted for ridding our coals of the sulphur by which they are so gen- 
erally contaminated before they will become available for the most im- 
portant uses, and before their full value will be developed. Here, as it 
seems to me, is a field where intelligence and enterprise are capable of 
producing results of the very highest importance, not only to the residents 
of this region, but to the State at large. By the introduction of the im- 
proved processes of coal washing and coking now in constant use in many 
parts of the Old World, these coals may be made to produce a furnace 
fuel quite equal in value to oui" best open burning coals. I do not hesi- 
tate to predict, that within a few years this region will be dotted over 
with furnaces supplied with fuel prepared in this way. A more thorough 
discussion of the subject will, however, be found in that volume of our 
final report devoted to Economic Geology. 

The cannel coals which abound in our Coal Measures all contain ,as 
much as ten per cent, of ash. But for this they could probably be trans- 
ported to New York and compete with the English cannel, which is there 
the favorite and fashionable household fuel, and which sells for from 
twenty to twenty-five dollars per ton. But the Wigan English cannel 
has only about three per cent of ash, and, while the difference between 
the heating power of the two varieties is not great, the volume of ash left 
by our coals would be regarded as an insurmountable objection by those 
who use the English cannel, not only for its cheerfulness, but its cleanli- 
ness. 

Our cannel coals supply a large volume of the best illuminating gas, 
and they will doubtless be somewhat used for this purpose in the future, 
but the coke made from them is of inferior quality, and any considerable 
percentage of it would impair the value of the coke produced in the retorts 
of the gas companies ; and this goes far toward paying the cost of the 
coking coals they use. In my judgment, the best use to which our cannel 
coals can be applied, at present, is for fuel for locomotives. Burning, as 
the cannels do, so much like wood, they can be used in ordinary locomo- 
tive furnaces with little or no change; and, since their heating power is 
twice that of wood, and they crop out along the sides of several of our 
railroads, they seem to me destined to supply the place of wood, now in 
many places becoming somewhat scarce. 

IKON OEES. 

The quantity of iron ore in that portion of our territory which I have 
been describing, is very large, but probably somewhat less than that found 
in the southern portion of our coal field. The Kidney ores exist in greater 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 45 

or less abundance in every township within the coal area, and they have 
formed a large part of the ore hitherto used in the furnaces located in this 
region. The value of these ores has, however, I fear been somewhat over- 
rated, inasmuch as by the washing away of the shales which originally 
contained them, they have been concentrated in the surface materials, 
where they have been readily accessible and most cheaply mined. When, 
after a longer or shorter time, these surface accumulations shall have been 
exhausted, I fear that it will only be in rare instances that these ores 
will be found of sufficient richness to pay for drifting. 

Conspicuous bands of Kidney ore are found at several horizons in the 
JJower Coal measures, the first over Coal No. 1, and associated with the 
local bed called the Iron coal. This is most noticeable in Holmes county. 
The second, over the Blue limestone and Coal No. 3. In the eastern coun- 
ties of the coal field the ore is very abundant at this level, and, in western 
Pennsylvania, for this reason, the limestone with which it is associated is 
called the Ferriferous limestone. In Columbiana county the deposits of iron 
at this horizon are very rich; forming tiers of nodules extending sometimes 
through twelve or fifteen feet of shale. In other localities the upper por- 
tion of the Blue limestone is a calcareous iron ore ; and Black-band — as 
in the valley of the Little Beaver — is introduced as another element into 
this ferruginous belt. 

In Tuscarawas county, at Dover and Mineral Point, the richest accumu- 
lation of Kidney ore is over the Gray limestone, and in the roof shales of 
the Newberry coal. In Columbiana county there is some Black-band in 
the same position. In Mahoning county, from eight to eighteen inches of 
excellent Black-band ore is found associated with Coal No. 1, and this has 
been used in the furnaces of this region for more than twenty years. 
The most important deposit of Black-band ore is, however, found above 
Coal No. 7, at the base of the Barren Coal measures. In Tuscarawas 
county it attains, in some localities, a thickness of sixteen feet. On the 
old Zoar-furnace property in Pairfield township it has been worked for 
nearly forty years. At the same horizon is a very irregular bed of lime- 
stone which, on the Zoar lands, is so largely charged with iron as to be- 
come a very good iron ore. The ferruginous matter is here somewhat 
irregularly distributed between the bituminous shale to form the Black- 
band, and the limestone to form what is called " Mountain ore." 

At Louisville, Bobertsville, &c, in Stark county, the Black-band stra- 
tum to which I have referred, occupies a large area of the highest land, 
and attains a maximum thickness of something like twenty feet, but it is 
less rich in iron than in Tuscarawas county. The yellow limestone, with 
which it is associated, is here from eight to ten feet in thickness. 



46 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

Passing eastward to the hills bordering Yellow Creek near Salineville, 
we find the horizon of the Tuscarawas Black-band marked by beds of 
blood-red shale. The ferruginous matter is here apparently diminished 
in quantity and disseminated through so large a mass of clay as to be 
worthless as an ore, but it serves to mark this horizon with great dis- 
tinctness. 

The Black band ores of the region under consideration are certainly of 
great importance. Forming as they do continuous sheets of nearly uni- 
form richness, they constitute a reliable basis for mining operations, and 
there is no question that they can be profitably made the special object of 
mining effort. 

It sometimes happens, as at Letonia, that the roof shale of a coal seam 
is charged with iron and becomes a Black-band ore. This can then be 
removed with little trouble or cost. Such associations of the fuel and 
the ore are known to occur in several localities, and it is probable that 
others will be found as a reward to future search. Few persons are 
accurately informed in regard to the characteristics of Black-band ore, 
and the stratified ore of Letonia was not suspected to have any value 
until, some years ago, I called attention to it. 

I subjoin analyses made by Dr. Wormley, and others, of various speci- 
mens of Black-band ore from Ohio, and also of the famous Scotch Black- 
band, the discovery of which has given so great an impetus to the iron 
manufacture in Scotland. 

Analyses of Iron Ores from Holmes, Tuscarawas and Columbiana counties. 

By Peop. Wormley. 

1. Kidney Ore, over Coal No. 6, Saunders' mine, near Millerstrarg, Holmes county, O. 

2. Nodular Ore, under Coal No. 6, Judge Armor's mine, near Millersburg, Holmes 
county, O. 

3. Shell Ore, Tuscarawas Iron Company, Dover, O. 

4. " " " calcined. 

5. Mountain Ore, " " 

6. " Zoar Station. 

7. Kidney Ore, Franklin, Wayne county, O. 



GEOLOGICAL SUEVET OP OHIO. 



47 





1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 




11.45 
30.18 

"56.M 
1.20 
2.80 
1.30 


8.75 
1.72 
36.33 
34.65 
0.40 
0.60 
7.86 


8.96 
64.17 
7.60 
1.35 
2.60 
7.35 


2.28 
8.46 


2.65 
13.08 


6.10 

17.28 

38.38 

19.59 

0.90 

1.10 

8.93 






15 00 




32.40 




75.00 
1.85 
0.60 

"5.94" 

3.64 
1.26 
0.12 


42.50 

2.20 

trace. 

3J.85 


21.57 




1.60 




5 30 




15.15 






Carbonate of magnesia 

Magnesia 


0.76 


5.37 


6.50 


5.63 


6.13 


3.52 




0.643 
trace. 


0.575 
2.20 


0.863 
0.18 


0.057 
0.22 


0.99 
0.02 


4.379 




405 






Total 


99.293 

35.67 
2.272 


98.455 

41.80 
3.254 


99.573 

36.31 
3.434 


99.15 

52.50 
4.706 


98.137 

29.75 
3.311 


99.42 

32.23 
3.132 


99.324 




30.74 




3.339 







8. Kidney Ore, H. C. Bowman, New Lisbon, O., nucleus. 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 



" " shell. 

Tea Garden, from highest bed,. 
Over Coal No. 3, McClynjond's mine. 
Foulke farm, Little Beaver, Columbiana county. 

U " (C 

Lesley's Run, Middleton tp., " 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



Water — combined 

Silicious matter 

Carbate of iron 

Sesquioxide of iron 

Manganese oxide 

Alumina 

Carbonate of lime 

Lime (as phosphate) 

Carbonate of magnesia. 

Phosphoric acid 

Sulphur 



Total. 



Metallic iron 

Specific gravity. 



9.20 
68.08 
7.62 
2.80 
1.60 
5.20 



10.55 
11.25 



71.88 
1.90 
1.20 
1.96 



5.88 

19.02 

51.78 

11.06 

2.55 

1.20 

5.70 



4.76 
0.59 
0.18 



0.31 
0.51 
0.08 



1.82 

0.703 

0.22 



100.03 

38.21 
3.658 



99.64 

50.32 
3.211 



99.93 

32.56 
3.226 



9.66 

59.79 

10.02 

0.40 

0.80 

11.78 

0.60 

6.39 

0.51 

trace. 



99.95 

35.88 
3.188 



3.77 
9.00 
66.01 
5.35 
3.45 
1.40 
4.05 
2.27 
2.27 
1.92 
0.43 



99.92 

35.61 
3.182 



6.62 
68.53 
5.31 
3.10 
1.90 
4.63 
3.85 
1.44 
3.26 
0.35 



5.45 

26.22 

27.99 

19.84 

0.90 

2.90 

8.75 



5.41 

1.534 

0.140 



98.99 

36.09 
3.629 



99.134 

27.40 
3.184 



48 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



Analyses of Blade-band Iron Ore. 

1. Mineral Ridge, Mahoning county. (Dr. Wormley.) 

2. Zoar Furnace, Tuscarawas county. " 

3. " calcined. (Mr. Potter.) 

4. Tuscarawas Iron Company, Dover, Tuscarawas county. 

5. " " " " calcined. 

6. Scotch Black-Band ore. (Dr. Colquohon.) 





1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


Water 




4.00 


1.25 


15.00 


0.25 


1.41 




18.30 


35.17 




7.70 

"30.32' 

39.31 

9.50 




3.03 




30.50 

11.84 

26.82 

8.94 


"27.1.6 
66.50 


21.10 

26.22 

23.02 

8.79 








17.02 


1.40 








75.00 


0.23 




53.03 




trace. 
1.00 
1.05 


1.30 
4.02 


0.30 
1.05 

2.00 

1.06 
0.07 
0.61 


0.70 
1.70 
1.70 

0.88 

""o!ii" 

0.492 


0.60 
1.65 


0.63 












2.80 


3.33 




0.97 


2.50 






1.48 
trace. 
0.773 


1.77 




0.18 
trace. 


0.31 
0.55 












Total 


99.60 

27.12 

2.494 


99.51 

25.63 
2.341 


100.00 

46.55 
3.371 


99.712 

24.06 
2.320 


99.573 

52.50 
3411 


100.00 




41.20 


Specific gravity 









Analyses of Iron Ores from Oollingwood, Yellow Creek Valley, by Prof. J. L. Cassells ; furnished by E. K. Collins, Esq. 



Numbers. 


1. 


2. 


3. . 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


u 


C3 

C5 






O 

■s 

•l-f 




O 
& 

o 








O 
C 

a 

-*^ 

CQ 

a 

h1 


U 
O 
« 

a 


a 
3 




10. 


11. 


12. 


13. 


14. 


15. 


16. 


17. 


Loss m roasting 

Moisture at 212° 


14.80 

2.45 

40.00 


16.00 

2.60 

38.00 


21.20 
2.10 

50.20 


28.00 

1.95 

59.40 


29.60 

1.60 

57.60 


27.60 

2.25 

78.00 


21.20 

1.80 

56.00 


24.40 
1.75 

62.66" 

2.80 


28.00 

1.85 

64.75 


26.40 

1.50 

63.30 


10.40 

1.20 

25.00 


17.60 

1.00 

37.40 


21.20 

0.80 

61.25 


21.60 

2.10 

48.00 


29.20 

1.85 
67.40 


T.56" 
40.00 


2.30" 


Sesquioxide of iron 


37.20 




0.40 


"V.45" 
1.60 

*4'25" 

1.35 

0.55 

.20 

50.00 


T.26" 

trace. 

3.80 
13.30 

0.75 

.25 

28.46 


1.20 
0.40 

"i&O 

12.50 

.46 

.29 

19.60 


T.27' 

3.60 

"2.6O' 

5.25 

.50 

.25 

27.23 


1.20 





0.85 


1.20 


21.20 


29.60 


6.00 


7.60 




30.80 


38.50 












0.73 
























Magnesia 


1.46 
5.44 
4.60 
0.35 
.10 
45.20 


2.19 

0.75 

4.00 

.35 

.16 

25.20 

0.80 

40.29 
3.095 


0.75- 

1.85 

17.40 

.40 

.15 

10.00 


0.60 

0.65 

17.25 

.40 

.10 

16.00 


2.20 

1.80 

7.20 

.75 

.45 

40.20 


5.86 

1.40 

3.20 

.25 

.90 

21.20 


1.20 

2.00 

15.55 

.15 

.50 

13.20 


2.18 

1.00 

17.20 

| .52 

20.60 


trace. 

0.60 

3.00 

.25 


1.70 


4.60 


Alumina 


4.00 

.50 

.12 

13.20 


12.74 
.36 
.10 

26.60 
2.40 

39.20 


6.40 


*2.00 








Silica and insoluble 


16.80 
0.10 


14.00 





Metallic iron 

Specific gravity. 


28.00 
3.251 


26.60 
3.138 


35.14 
3.261 


41.58 
3.476 


40.32 
3.421 


54.60 
3.480 


45.32 
3.660 


43.61 
3.568 


17.50 
2.757 


26.18 
3.034 


42.87 
3.272 


33.60 
3.022 


47.18 
2.944 


31.92 
3.500 


"3I664 



* Clay. 






50 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



FIRE CLAYS. 

Nearly every coal seam in the series is underlaid by a bed of fire-clay of 
greater or less thickness. Usually these clay-beds are three or four feet 
thick ; but that which underlies the " Strip Vein " on Yellow Creek is 
sometimes twelve feet. These clays differ much in character and value, 
but every county within the coal area may be said to possess abundant 
supplies of this useful mineral. In Summit county only a single stratum 
is worked— the Springfield clay underlying Coal No. 3 — but there are now 
in that county something like forty potteries supplied from this source. 

In Holmes, Stark, Tuscarawas and Columbiana counties there are 
many beds of fireclay of excellent quality. Most of these are, like the 
Springfield clay, eminently plastic and well adapted to the manufacture 
of stone-ware. Of this class I would specially mention the clay which 
underlies the Gray limestone and Coal No. 5 at Millersburg, and that on 
the Robbins farm, near New Lisbon, as giving promise of unusual excel- 
lence. Clay of similar, and perhaps of equally good quality, will prob- 
ably be found at a hundred other localities, but I specify these simply to 
designate the type of clay to which I refer. 

Quite another quality of fire-clay — and of more rare and peculiar prop- 
erties — is that mined by Mr. Holden, at Mineral Point, Tuscarawas Co. 
This is not at all plastic, and yet is exceedingly resistant to the action of 
fire. As a consequence, it is destined to be largely employed in the man- 
ufacture of fire-brick; fragments of this clay being cemented by just 
enough of the plastic clay to hold them together. Practically this clay 
corresponds to the " cement," or once-burned clay, employed in precisely 
the same manner by the fire-brick makers of New Jersey. 

The manufacture of our fire clays is an industry yet in its infancy, but 
one destined to great expansion. Our furnace men are paying for Mount 
Savage or Amboy fire-brick from $80 to $90 per thousand, while, by the 
judicious use of the best materials we have, brick nearly or quite as good 
may be furnished at little more than half this price. 

A fuller exposition of this subject will, however, be given in the volume 
of our final report, devoted to Economic Geology. 

The following are the analyses referred to above : 
Fire-clay, Mogadore, Summit county. (Dr. Wormley.) 



" Mineral Point, Tuscarawas, county. (Dr. Wormley.) 

" Port Washington, Tuscarawas county. (Dr. Wormley.) 

" New Lisbon, Columbiana county, D. Harbaugh's. (Dr. Wormley.) 

« « « « « " 

" " " " Robinson's farm. " 

" Millersburg, Holmes county, Heeker & Burnett's. " 

Clay oyer coal, Millersburg, Holmes county. (Dr. Wormley.) 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



51 





1. 


2, 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


*7. 


8. 




5.45 
70.70 
21.70 


11.70 
49.20 
37.80 


3.54 
59.95 
33.85 


60.70 
37.20 


7.25 
52.10 
38.50 


8.55 
58.25 
27.19 
3.26 
1.10 
0.97 


4.60 

59.10 

27.62 

2.38 

0.53 

2.65 

5 and 

) 3.12 


4.95 




59.40 




30.20 








0.40 
0.37 


0.40 
0.10 


2.05 
0.55 


1.55 
0.36 


1.60 
0.51 


1.07 




1 10 




















3 28 


















Total 


98.62 


99.20 


99.94 


99.81 


99.96 


99.32 


100.00 


100.00 



9. Fire-clay, Jefferson county, E. K. Collins. (Jas. S. Chilton.) 

10. " " " (J. L. Cassells.) 

11. " Stourbridge, England. (Dr. Bichardson.) 

12. " Mt. Savage, Maryland. (J. M. Ordway.) 

13. " Amboy clay," (cretaceous) Woodbridge, N. J. (Geo. H. Cooke.) 

14. " German clay," (used for glass pots), Coblentz, Germany. 

15. " Missouri clay," St. Louis, Mo. (Dr. A. Litton.) 





9. 


10. 


11. 


12. 


13. 


14. 


15. 


Water 


10.10 

63.62 

22.74 

2.81 

0.02 

0.61 


7.20 
63.60 
27.00 
1.00 
0.45 
0.70 


12.50 

61.15 

25.09 

1.10 

1.30 


and org. mat. 

12.744 

50.457 

35.904 

1.504 

0.133 

0.018 

trace. 


12.67 

46.32 

39.74 

0.27 

0.36 

0.44 


13.70 
50.20 
34.13 
0.87 
O.30 
- .18 
0.39 


10.00 




61.02 




25.64 


Iron oxide 


1.70 
0.70 


Magnesia 


0.08 




0.48 










0.25 
















sulphur. 
0.45 


Total 


99.90 


99.95 ' 


101.05 


100.760 


99.80 


99.77 


100.32 



HYDEATJLIC CEMENT. 

AmoDg the other useful minerals of the Lower coal series the hydraulic 
limestones should receive some notice. These are limestones with which 
were mingled in their deposition a larger or smaller quantity of clay, and 
this imparts to them the property of forming a mortar which hardens 
under water. I have, in my former report, referred to the fact that we 
are importing hydraulic cement from western ]STew York and from Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, to the value of more than $100,000 per annum. I also 
said that within our own territory there were undoubtedly varieties of 
limestone capable of producing hydraulic cement fully equal to that made 
in any other portion of the country. Limestones possessing the requisite 



52 GEOLOGICAL, SURVEY OF OHIO. 

properties are found in various parts of the State, and at several geological 
levels, especially in the Upper Silurian strata, which from this circum- 
stance have received the name of the Water-lime group. Argillaceous 
limestones are, however, not confined to this group. The limestones Of 
the Coal measures are found in certain localities to take on the character 
which fits them for the manufacture of cement. A change of this kind 
may be quite local, so that there are probably many points where stone of 
the requisite quality can be obtained. Two such, at least, are known to 
me, one at Barnesville, in. Belmont county, where excellent water-lime is 
made by Messrs. Parker ; the other at New Lisbon, where the " White 
limestone " over a. considerable area contains an unusual amount of earthy 
matter, and is capable of producing cement of good quality. This is 
evinced not so much by the analyses given below — for here analyses are 
but imperfect guides — but by the fact that hydraulic lime was manufac- 
tured from this stone at New Lisbon during the construction of the Sandy 
and Beaver canal, and was used in all the locks. Its excellence is attested 
by the condition in which this masonry is now found. In many instances 
the stones themselves would break before the cement which binds them 
will yield.* 

Analyses of Hydraulic Limestones. 
By Dr. P. Schweitzer. 

1. Limestone from Whan farm, New Lisbon, O. 

2. " " Hephner's Hollow, New Lisbon, O. 

3. Parker's Cement stone, Barnesville, Belmont Co., O. 

4. Limestone from H. C. Bowman, New Lisbon, O. (Dr. Wormley.) 

1. 2. 

Water 0.239 0.344 

Loss by ignition 4.737 4.487 

Insoluble residue 13.851 15,754 

* Here, as elsewhere, the valuable properties of the hydraulic limestone are restricted 
to somewhat narrow limits, both vertically and laterally. Much of the rock which looks 
as though it must be good, is quite worthless. Some excellent cement has been made 
from it, but all the trials made of stone from other quarries than that first worked, have 
proved failures. At Ottawa and on Put-in-Bay Island, where much of the lower portion 
of the Water-lime group appears, some of the layers afford excellent cement, while 
others scarcely distinguishable from them by the eye, or by chemical analyses, are of no 
value as hydraulic limes. 

Nearly the same may be said of the strata of the Water-lime worked at Eosendale, 
New York. Some are good, and others quite valueless. The only reliable test is experi- 
ment. 

Many interesting facts bearing on the subject have been gathered, and will be given 
in detail in our report on Economic Geology. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 0¥ OHIO. 53 

1. 2. 

Ox. iron and alumina 10.301 2.941 

Protox. iron 1.400 None. 

Carbonate of lime 68.555 70.496 

Carbonate of magnesia 1.091 6.066 



Total 100.174 100.088 

3. 4. 

Silica 8.47 Silica 5.80 

Alumina 4.85 Alumina 8.20 

Iron 3.10 Carbonate of iron 14.50 

Carbonate of lime 72.10 Carbonate of lime 69.30 

Carbonate of magnesia 11.15 Carbonate of magnesia 1.86 

Moisture and loss 0.33 Water and loss 0.33 



Total 100.00 Total 99.99 

I have now referred very briefly to the most interesting facts observed 
in the geology of the field, where most of my own time during the past 
summer has been spent. It is proposed to continue the investigations 
begun in this region through another season, when it is hoped that by 
combining the observations made by all the members of the corps who 
shall have been engaged in the study of the Coal measures, we shall be 
able to present a full and accurate exposition of the structure and re- 
sources of this, the most important subdivision of our Geology. If this 
work is well and thoroughly done, it will much more than repay the State 
for the entire cost of the Survey. 



PART II. 



REPORT OF LABORS II THE SECOND GEOLOGICAL DIS- 
TRICT, DURING THE YEAR 1870. 

BY 

E. B. ANDREWS. 



REPORT OF LABORS IK THE SECOND GEOLOGICAL DIS- 
TRICT, DURING THE YEAR 1870. 



BY 



CHAPTER I. 



Prop. J. S. Newberry, Chief Geologist : 

Sir : — Field-work was resumed in the Second Geological District in the 
spring of 1870, as early as the weather would permit, and was continued 
until late in November. 

I was assisted by Wm. G. Ballantine, A.B>, who was with me in 1869, and 
William B. Gilbert, A.B. Talfourd P. Linn was a volunteer aid for a few 
weeks, and also Mr. Albert Campbell, manager of Hecla Furnace, who de- 
voted his whole time to us while engaged in the examination of Lawrence 
county. Hon. John Campbell, of Ironton, also contributed greatly to the 
success of our work in the same county, not only by his valuable local inform- 
ation, and by accompanying us in most of our work, but also by furnishing, 
free of expense, means of traveling, and by almost numberless other acts 
of kindness and courtesy. 

Mr. Ballantine was employed three months, and Mr. Gilbert six months. 
I cannot commend too highly the service rendered the State by these as- 
sistants. To the indefatigable and skillful labor of Mr. Ballantine I am 
indebted for most of the sections taken in Hocking, Athens and Vinton 
counties. Mr. Gilbert rendered equally valuable service, and a large 
part of the sections in Jackson, Scioto and Lawrence counties were taken 
by him. To the invaluable labors of both of these young gentlemen I 
shall have frequent occasion to allude in the paragraphs of this report. 

BOWLDERS AND SURFACE DRIFT. 

Very large bowlders were found scattered through the eastern part of 
Fairfield county. A fine collection is seen at the dam at Bees' 'Mill, on 
Bush creek, near the village of Bushville. They have been rolled into 
the stream as a support to the dam. Some of these must weigh several 
tons. There are, in this region, large deposits of drift gravel bordering 



58 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

Busk creek. This gravel corresponds to the deposits seen in the vicinity 
of Newark, where drift action is shown on a large scale. The forces 
which carried bowlders and gravel were evidently exerted in an unusual 
degree through all the eastern part of Fairfield county. A bowlder, near 
the roadside, a few miles north-east of Lancaster, is the largest I have 
met with in the State. Most of it is buried, but judging from the exposed 
part, I should infer that it might weigh a hundred tons. A granite bowl- 
der was seen on high ground in the town of Somerset, Perry county. 

A white quartz bowlder was found on one of the small tributaries of 
Salt creek, near Allensville, in Vinton county. The location of drift bowl- 
ders, near Ashland, Boyd county, Kentucky, mentioned in my last report, 
was revisited, and bowlders of white quartz, some as large as a nail-keg, 
were found. They are very numerous, and are reported to cover an area 
of several miles. This is the most southern point where regular drift bowl- 
ders have been seen by me. They are on the high hills bordering the Ohio 
river at least two hundred feet above the bed of the stream. It is a mat- 
ter of some interest that we often find the bowlders, in a given locality, all 
of one kind of rock. In Kentucky, near Ashland, so far as examined, 
they are all of white quartz. At a location a few miles east of Lancaster, 
Fairfield county, in Ohio, bowlders of limestone are found of very large 
size and in great abundance. Here, while there is some admixture with 
other drift materials, yet the characteristic bowlders are limestone, and 
Mr. A. Freed, of Lancaster, writes that " many thousands of bushels of 
lime have been burned from them. They extend from the Marietta road, 
near the boundary line of Pleasant and Berne townships, a distance of, 
perhaps, five miles to the north, chiefly on the headwaters of B. Eaccoon. 
They are highly fossiliferous." They were probably derived from one 
locality, and were doubtless brought bodily by an iceberg or ice bergs. 
It is difficult to explain this peculiar localization of drift limestones in any 
other way. 

OHIO BLACK SLATE OE HURON SHALE. 

No additional investigations have been made of this formation. In the 
report for 1869 I gave the thickness of this slate, as found on the Ohio 
river, to be 320 feet. Prof. Orton finds it considerably thinner at points 
further north, where he has investigated it. 

By the analyses of Prof. Wormley, the volatile matter in this slate is 
as iollow.s : 

No. 1, sample obtained in Cemetery, at Chillicothe 8.40 per cent 

No. 2, sample obtained at Rookville, Adams county 10.20 " 

No search has been made for fossils in this slate. Several years since 
I obtained specimens of Lingula subspatulata and Discina capax, which 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 59 

were examined and identified by Prof. A. Winchell. It is an interesting 
fact that the Professor identified similar forms from the stratum of black 
slate in the Waverly group, aboat 140 feet above its base. 

"WAVERLY SANDSTONE GROUP. 

Little time has been found for additional investigations of this group, 
but, so far as opportunity has been afforded for gathering facts, we find 
the general conclusions of our last report verified. The formation is, in 
most of its range, divisible into three parts, the middle being coarse and 
often a conglomerate, while that above is composed of fine-grained sand- 
stones, and that below of sandstones and shales. In the lower part inter- 
stratified sandy shales are very abundant. 

The conglomerate portion of the Waverly is seen at Black Hand and 
vicinity, between Newark and Zanesville, and at Lancaster and other points 
on the Hocking river. It is also well developed in Benton township, 
Hocking county. My assistant, Mr. Ballantine, reports having found it 
largely developed on Queer creek. He says that " six miles east of 
Bloomingville, Queer creek flows over a coarse conglomerate, very dark 
colored. The stream makes two little cascades, four and five feet respect- 
ively. This conglomerate corresponds to that at Scott's Creek Falls, near 
Logan. It is immediately overlaid by fine-grained Logan sandstone." It 
will be remembered that, in the last report, that part of the Waverly 
lying above the Waverly conglomerate was designated, for convenience, 
the Logan Sandstone, it having been first investigated in the vicinity of 
Logan, Hocking county. 

u On the land of William Lemon," Mr. Ballantine adds, '■' Queer creek 
makes the descent of ' Cedar Falls, 7 five miles east of Bloomingville. Here 
the stream dashes into a sort of canon made in the Waverly. The rock 
is a coarse, heavy sandstone, much discolored by iron, and, in many 
places, conglomeratic. The whole descent, nearly perpendicular, is eighty- 
five feet. The place abounds in hemlock, laurel, ferns and mosses, and is 
quite a picturesque spot. Above the conglomerate, in the immediate 
vicinity, unmistakable Logan sandstone comes in. The face of the cliff, 
at ' Cedar Falls,' is, in some places, slightly honey-combed. Approaching 
Bloomingville from the east, fine opportunities are afforded for studying 
the Waverly conglomerate. It stands out from the hills in bold ledges. 
The Logan sandstone may always be recognized above it." 

Oil wells, bored at Bloomingville, reached the great Ohio Black Slate 
about four hundred feet below the surface. Adding to these four hundred 
feet of Waverly below the surface, the conglomerate and the Logan sand- 
stone above, we find the whole thickness of the Waverly formation in 



60 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

this region to be about the same as on the Ohio river, where we meas- 
ured it in 1869, viz : 640 feet. 

No examinations have yet been made of the Waverly along what may 
be called its conglomerate line, between Blooiuingville and the Ohio 
river. 

An excursion was made from Lancaster east to Somerset, iu Perry 
county, in which we found the Upper Waverly or Logan sandstones, well 
developed, in the neighborhood of Rushville, Fairfield county. Rushville 
is on a high hill on the east side of Rush creek. A measurement, by 
barometer, showed the height of the street, in the village, in front of the 
office of Doctor Lewis, to be 189 feet above the creek at Rees' mill. The 
Logan sandstones and shales are seen to extend almost to the top of the 
hill. They contain almost all the, fossils peculiar to the Logan beds. 
Near Rees' mill some *new and interesting forms of bivalve shells were 
found. 

INEQUALITIES OP THE SURFACE OF THE WAVERLY. 

In prosecuting the work of the survey in the lower Coal measures, sec- 
tions were carried down to the Waverly sandstone wherever it was possi- 
ble. It was soon found that the upper surface of the Waverly was far 
from being an even plane, but was, on the other hand, quite irregular. 
To determine this definitely, it was first necessary to find some well defined 
and unmistakable stratum which is continuous and constitutes a marked 
geological horizon. If we take the "Putnam Hill" limestone as such a 
base lino, it is found that at a large number of places in Perry and Mus- 
kingum counties the top of the Waverly is from 90 to 100 feet below. 
Where the Maxville limestone rests upon the Upper Waverly, the two 
limestones are generally a little more than 80 feet apart. At " Bald Hill," 
two miles south-east of Newark, the top of the Waverly is from 125 to 
130 feet below the Putnam Hill limestone. In Vinton county, a mile and 
a half east of Allensville, in Richland township, the top of the Waverly 
is 123 feet below the same seam of limestone. In section 29, in the same 
township, about three and one-half miles south-west of the last named 
localities, the top of the Waverly is found to be more than 180 feet below 
the Putnam. Hill limestone, a difference of 60 feet in that short distance. 

There are also several elevations and ridges of Waverly which show 
thtmselves within the geographical limits of the Coal measures. One of 
these is found a few miles north of McArthur, in Vinton county, and 

* Prof. F. B. Meek has since named the following new forms from this location : Allo- 
risma (Sedgwickia ?) pleuropistha, Grammysia Yentricosa, Grammysia t rhomboides and 
anguinolites obliquus. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 61 

another near Hamden in the same county. At the latter place we find a 
deposit of the Lower Carboniferous ("Maxville") limestone resting upon 
the Waverly. Prom the Hamden ridge the surface of the Waverly dips 
pretty rapidly to the south and south-west, and it is in this latter direction 
that we find accumulated upon the Waverly the largest deposit of Coal- 
Measures Conglomerate seen in the District. No other undulation was 
observed to the south, although it is not improbable that such undulations 
may exist in Jackson and Scioto counties. But the general subsidence 
probably continued to increase toward the south. A section taken at 
Scioto Furnace, in section 28, Bloom township, Scioto county, showed the 
Putnam Hill limestone to be 200 feet above the top of the Waverly. Tak- 
ing the Putnam Hill limestone, therefore, as the geological horizon to 
measure from, it is evident that there was at the time of the formation of 
the lower Coal-measures strata a greater and more rapid subsidence to 
the south than to the north part of the District. 

Should we take for our base line of measurement, not the Putnam Hill 
limestone, but the Nelsonville seam of coal, which, in Perry county, is 
about 80 feet above the Putnam Hill limestone, we shall find other and 
more marked evidences of subsidence in the southern part of the District. 
This seam of coal has now been traced from the north to the south line of 
the District, and, indeed, several miles into Kentucky. The details of 
the proof of this remarkable continuity will be given hereafter, but it is 
obvious, that, if thus continuous, it affords a most excellent geological 
horizon from which measurements above and below may be made. From 
Nelsonville the seam, traced to the south, was found to pass directly un- 
der the well known Ferriferous limestone, of Yinton, Jackson, Scioto and 
Lawrence counties. This limestone everywhere carries upon its upper 
surface, sometimes adhering and sometimes separated by a little shale, an 
iron ore which in those counties is everywhere known as the " limestone 
ore." 

Now we have already seen that the Putnam Hill limestone seam holds 
a relation of varying distance from the top of the Waverly, and that from 
Vinton county, south, there was a manifest subsidence of the Waverly. 
This unusual subsidence contiuued up to the time of the formation of the 
strata lying between the Putnam Hill limestone and the southern exten- 
sion of the Nelsonville seam of coal. 

While in Perry county the Nelsonville coal is only about 80 feet above 
the Putnam Hill limestone, we find the interval between the two, in sec- 
tion 7, Milton township, Jackson county, to be nearly 140 feet. It is pro- 
bably a little greater farther south. The whole matter may be illustrated 



62 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

by the following diagram, which fails, however, to represent fully all the 
changes of level in the rocks referred to. 



_JE*W»fc- JTeTs e/nvtTle CotCb. Zbrrvferoits X.-imascone. 



-* ■* -— 



fay 1 "' 

U-apei* Ufavetly Sandstone. 




Fig. 1. 

The Waverly sandstone group is remarkably well marked in its litho- 
logical characteristics. There is reason to believe from its containing 
ripple marks, false bedding and strise made apparently by shore-ice, that 
it was deposited in shallow water. Further west in Illinois and Missouri 
the ocean was deeper, and we find large accumulations of limestone of 
the Lower Carboniferous types. The shallow waters of the Waverly ocean 
contained a rich vegetation of the marine forms of Spirophyton cauda-galli 
and allied species, and fucoid stems are most abundant. In the Upper 
Waverly, or Logan sandstone, we find, in addition to the above, at least 
three varieties of an unnamed form of vegetation, which have left traces 
of themselves in innumerable impressions of vermicular marking. These 
are peculiarly characteristic of the Logan sandstones. It is more than 
probable that the Logan deposits, and with them the Maxville limestones, 
which were doubtless formed in depressions in the Logan, were brought 
up above the water and remained for an indefinite period as a vast 
stretch of sandy flats. It is possible that during this period more or less 
surface erosion took place, but to what extent, my observations, thus far 
do not furnish data for any definite answer. 

When afterwards, a subsidence of the Logan had taken place, we find, 
at points where generally the submergence was the greatest, although 
not always, an accumulation of the gravel or pebbles of the true Coal- 
measures Conglomerate. This submergence allowed the ocean to attack 
with erosive force the higher continental land, probably lying to the east 
or north-east, and with this erosion came the materials which constitute 
the Conglomerate and all the sedimentary strata of the Coal measures. 

This submergence was doubtless very slow, for the higher areas of the 
Logan remained near the water level for a period long enough for coal 
vegetation to accumulate sufficiently to form seams of coal which now 
rest almost immediately upon the Logan. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 63 

MAXVILLE LIMESTONE. 

A few miles east of Bushville, in Eeading township, Perry county, Lut 
near the Fairfield county line, was seen the Maxville limestone. It is first 
seen on the farm of J. A. Beatty, but a mile or two farther east it is exposed 
at different points near the Zauesville and Maysville turnpike. It is quar- 
ried and used for macadamizing the road, for which use it serves a good 
purpose. At no point did we see the underlying strata, but the limestone 
is unmistakable, and without doubt the fine-grained Logan sandstone lies 
directly below it. 

Over the Maxville limestone were found 8 or 10 feet of soft, coarse 
sandy shale, and above this 40 or 50 feet of a soft laminated sandrock. 
Above this is a coarse sandrock rich in impressions of Lepidodendra. 

The location of the remarkable deposit of Lower Carboniferous lime- 
stone, at Newton ville, Muskingum county, was revisited and a considerable 
colleetion of fossils made. This is one of the patches of limestone found 
always resting upon the top of the Logan sandstone (or upper Waverly,) 
called in my last report the Maxville limestone. 

The following is a list of the fossils found- at Kewtonville, so far as 
they have been identified by Prof. Meek. This list was published in the 
American Journal op Science, February, 1871 : 

LIST OP SPECIES AND GENERA. 

1. Zaplirentis. A small undetermined curved conical species. 

2. Seaphiocrinus decadactylus Hall ? Described from the Chester group 

3. Productus pileiformis McChesney. Drescribed from the Chester group. Thought 

by Mr. Davidson to be the same as P. com d'Orbigny. 

4. Productus elegans N. and P. Described from the Chester group. Some of the speci- 

mens may be the form Prof. McChesney described from the same horizon under 
the name P. fasciculatus. 

5. Chonetes. Undetermined species. 

6. Athyris snbquadrata Hall. Described from the Chester (Kaskaskia) grsup. 

7. Athyris trinuclea Hall sp. Described from the St. Louis (Warsaw) groups. 

8. Spirifer (ilartinia) contractus M. and W. Described from the Chester group. 

9. Spirifer. Undetermined fragments of perhaps two species. 

10. Terebratula. An undetermined, small oval species showing the fine punctures 

under a lens. 

11. Aviculopecten. Undetermined species. 

12. Allorisma. Undetermined fragments, apparently like A. antiqua Swallow, described 

from the Chester group. 

13. Naticopsis. A small undetermined species. 

14. Straparollus perspeetivus Swallow, sp. Probably a more elevated form of S. plani- 

dorsatus M. and W. Both are described from the Chester group. 

15. BeUeropiKon subleavis Hall. Described from the St. Louis (Warsaw) limestone. 

16. Pluerotomaria. A small undetermined cast. 

17. Nautilus. A small undetermined compressed, discoidal species with the very nar- 

row periphery truncated. 



64 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

18. Nautilus. A large sub-discoid undetermined species, with an open umbilicus and 
only slightly embracing volutions that are somewhat wider transversely than 
dorso-ventrally, and provided with a row of obscure nodes around near the 
middle of each side. Very nearly allied to N. sjoectabilis M. and W. from the 
Chester group, but more compressed and having narrower and apparently one 
or two more volutions. Specimens mere fragments. 

Iu his letter to me, Prof. Meek adds : " From these fossils, it is clearly 
evident that the limestone, from which they were obtained, belongs, as 
you had supposed, to the horizon of the Lower Carboniferous limestone 
series of the Western States. They also show that it does not belong to 
any of the inferior members of that series. 

Of the 18 or 20 species of fossils sent from this rock, about one-half are 
represented in the collection only by specimens that are too imperfect for 
specific identifications ; though none of them, so far as their characters 
can be made out, appear to be allied to known forms from any horizon 
below the St. Louis limestone. 

Of the remaining species, five can be identified confidently with Chester 
forms, and three others are either identical with Chester species, or most 
closely allied to forms of that age. Hence we may safely say that eight 
of the species are Chester types. Two, however, seem to be identical with 
species described from the St. Louis limestone further west. 

From these facts I can scarcely doubt that we have in these local 
masses of limestone a representation of the Chester group of the Lower 
Carboniferous limestone series; though it is possible that there may 
also be some representation of the St. Lonis limestone of the same series 
at some of the outcrops. *##### 

The discovery of these beds is, I believe, the first indication we have 
had of the existence of any member of the Lower Carboniferous limestone 
series Of the West in Ohio. They also seem to show that the old Car- 
boniferous sea did not extend to this region during the deposition of any 
but the later members of the lower limestone series, although we know it 
had done so previously, that is, during the older Waverly period." 

I hope to be able to make additional collections of organic remains 
from this interesting limestone. If, as Prof. Meek intimates, two groups 
of the more western Lower Carboniferous limestones are represented in 
the Ohio Maxville limestone, viz : the Chester and the St. Louis, it may 
be found possible to subdivide the Maxville into two distinct layers, the 
upper representing the Chester, and the lower the St. Louis group. It is 
a fact of no little interest, that these little local patches of limestone, 
never exceeding 15 or 20 feet in thickness, and generally not more than 8 
or 10 feet, represent, by their fossils, two groups, which, in Illinois, attain 
very great thickness. Prof. Worthen, in the Illinois Reports, gives the 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



65 



Chester group as 800 feet in thickness, and the St. Louis group as 200 feet. 
In Kentucky, on the Ohio river, a few miles above Sciotoville, the Maxville 
limestone is 46 feet thick, while in Carter county, further south, it is found 
nearly 100 feet thick, and contains many large caves. In my explora- 
tions in that region, several years ago, I failed to find any fossils in the 
limestone, except some stems of crinoids, and these were very rare. 
North of my district, Rev. Mr. Herzer informs me that he has never found 
the Maxville limestone, but it is not impossible that patches of it may be 
found in Coshocton and Holmes counties. In addition to the locations of 
this limestone in my district, mentioned in my last report, it is found on 
the Zanesville and Maysville turnpike, near the west line of Perry 
county; at Eeed's mill, one mile north-east of Hamden, Vinton county; 
(see Fig. 2) ; near Enoch Canter's, sec. 24, Hamilton township, Jackson 
county, (see Fig. 3,) and on the Harrison Furnace lands, sec. 24, Clay 
township, and sec. 7, Harrison township, Scioto county. 



gAg» Irtn Qm. 



3&axrftteX<imetbimt, 







6' <mfzrMlU'e Shalt, 
B'4''ms$Br Sloek Coal. 

/2 , jfEET JS fofr Seen. 

s' ElSB^l Saniilfrock. 
7 X f§^gg@3?Zt«j<mi6? lyre- 

iJFereClcvj 
fSJiale, 

&~ - 




Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

Generally the Maxville limestone carries an ore upon it, which, at 
Enoch Canter's, in Jackson county, has been somewhat extensively mined, 
and used with favor in the " Jackson " furnace. 

Near Austin Thomson's, Richland township, Vinton county, we found 
in a hard white sand rock, separated from the top of the Logan or Upper 
Waverly sandstone by only a layer of white clay, silicious nodules con- 
taining comminuted fossils, which led me to believe that they represented 
the horizon of the Maxville limestone and were the product of the same 
waters and at the same date. The same facts were observed at one or two 
other points. In these places the waters were probably very shallow, and 
the organic forms of the more quiet basins were in some way commingled 



66 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

with the fine white sand and formed calcareous concretions. The calca- 
reous matter was afterward replaced by silica from the pure sand. 

Analysis. — A sample of the buff-colored portion of the Maxville lime- 
stone obtained from' the land of J. H. Roberts, Newtonville, Muskingum 
county, was analyzed by Prof. Wormley, with the following result : 

Silica 15.20 

Iron and Alumina (chiefly iron) 4.40 

Lime, Carbonate 49.80 

Magnesia, Carbonate 30.15 

Total 99.55 

No tests have yet been made of this limestone as a material for hy- 
draulic or cement lime. 

CONGLOMERATE OF THE COAL MEASURES. 

Eesting upon the Logan or Upper Waverly we find over limited areas, 
true Ooal-Measures Conglomerate. It is not, as is often thought, an 
evenly spread deposit of coarse sand and gravel, or pebbles, constituting 
a floor on which the strata of the productive Goal Measures were laid. 
In the 2d District the Conglomerate is the exception rather than the rule. 
Nor is there generally a coarse sand-rock in the place of the Conglomer- 
ate, which may be called, as is often done, a Conglomerate by courtesy. 
In the exact horizon Where, by the theory, the Conglomerate should be, 
we find more often fine clay shales, coals, ores, etc., etc., of the lower 
Coal Measures. An examination of the maps of Grouped Sections will 
furnish illustrations of this. The decided localization of the Conglom- 
erate along the base of the Coal Measures will be readily seen by refer- 
ence to Fig. 1, already given on page 62. 

There is a little conglomerate in the vicinity of Newark and in the hills 
bordering the Licking river between Newark and Zanesville. Near New- 
ark the true conglomerate is found in a coarse pebbly sand-rock, from 10 
to 15 feet thick. I have never found it thicker in that region. How far 
south of Newark it extends, I have not been able to ascertain. None 
was found along the Zanesville and Maysville turnpike, between Somer- 
set and Eushville, at the line of contact between the Logan and the 
Coal Measures. 

la the examinations made by my assistants in 1869, along the Cincinnati 
and Muskingum Valley Eailroad, it was thought that a little Conglomerate 
was seen near the west line of Perry county. It is a question, whether 
this was true Ooal-Measures Conglomerate or Waverly conglomerate. 
Whichever it might be there was very little of it. South of that point, 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



67 



no true Coal-Measures Conglomerate has been seen until we reach the 
confines of Jackson county, near the Marietta and Cincinnati Bailroad. 
The heavy ledge of sand-rock resting directly upon the Waverly at Cin- 
cinnati Furnace is, I think, the geological equivalent of the true Con- 
glomerate, which is largely, developed a few miles south of the railroad. 
INear Allensville, in Richland, "Vinton county, a few miles north of Cin- 
cinnati Furnace, a seam of coal is found resting directly upon the Wa- 
verly, with only a fire-clay between. There is no conglomerate above 
this coal. In the western part of Jackson county, the conglomerate is 
well developed but lies apparently in a vast heap with little of even and 
regular distribution. It is often very coarse and made up of white quartz 
pebbles as large as hens' eggs. Mr. Gilbert reports finding these pebbles 
with a diameter of 4 or 5 inches. 

I have, as yet, no conclusive evidence that this body of ^Conglomerate 
extends eastward under the Coal Measures. It is apparently only a local 
heap of gravel and pebbles, with determinate limits on the north and 
east, and only continuing to the south as a very thin and often inter- 
rupted layer. This heap is very uneven and contains in it what may be 
called depressions or bays, and in these we find coal and associated strata 
regularly deposited, 




'«V^ ,, "Ui"-!-l l ''"V Caaban Cnu/lomtrxee. 



tfMjfafftr 



Fig. 4. 

The general outline of the Jackson county conglomerate is proximately 
given in Fig. 4, and the position of two small deposits of Maxville lime- 
stone lying nearly east of the northern and southern extremities of the 
Conglomerate. The northern end of the Conglomerate is a little north of 



68 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

the line of the Marietta and Cincinnati Bailroad, at Cincinnati Furnace, 
in Vinton county. The southern end is in the north-eastern corner of 
Scioto county. South of this point a little conglomerate is found, but it 
is always thin, and in many places it is altogether wanting. 

A longitudinal section or profile of the conglomerate is also given in 
Fig. 4. So far as our observations have extended, the deposit is thickest 
towards its northern part, as represented in the figure ; at one point it 
measured over 130 feet. Wherever possible, sections were made along 
the eastern edge of this conglomerate ridge, and everywhere the con- 
glomerate thins out to the east. At the points marked Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4, 
in the outline of the conglomerate in Fig. 4, sections were taken. No. 1 
represents a section from conglomerate sand-rock, near Cincinnati Fur- 
nace, to the Maxville limestone, one mile north-east of Hamden. Both 
formations rest upon the Logan sandstone. But at Hamden there is no 
conglomerate. From an examination of the cuts of the railroad east of 
Cincinnati Furnace, I am led to believe that the conglomerate scarcely 
extends a half mile east of the furnace. At No. 2, we have a section on 
Pigeon creek, Washington township, Jackson counts, northwest of Mr. 
Jacob Sells'. Here the conglomerate rests upon the Logan and is 80 feet 
thick, constituting a bold cliff overhanging the creek. Just across the 
valley, not a third of a mile away, the upper 50 feet of the conglomerate 
are gone and replaced by strata of coal, clay shales, etc., of the regular 
Coal-Measures rocks. The lower 30 feet were not exposed, so that it was 
impossible to tell whether they were or were not of conglomerate char- 
acter. 

At No. 3, we have a section on Salt creek to the northwest of Jackson, 
Jackson county. On the northwest the conglomerate measures over 130 
feet, while two or thiee miles nearer Jackson, it is found to be thinned 
down to 8 feet. In both cases the conglomerate rests upon the Logan. 

At No. 4, in Hamilton township, Jackson county, the conglomerate is 
well developed, while to the east, perhaps two miles, in the neighborhood 
of Enoch Canter's, we have the Maxville limestone, but no conglomerate 
whatever. 

From these facts it is evident that the conglomerate is limited in its 
eastern extension. I have no well authenticated proof of its continuance 
to the east under the productive Coal Measures. It may exist, but I 
think only in limited deposits, as we find it in Jackson county. It is 
doubtless in isolated heaps or ridges, and not anywhere evenly distrib- 
uted. Another part of Fig. 4 represents the coal seams resting on what 
may be termed benches of the conglomerate, with, of course, the usual 
under clav intervening. The Jackson " Shafi'' coal rests on a white coarse 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 69 

sand-rock, often passing into a regular conglomerate. We sometimes 
find the "Anthony " coal, in its more western outcrop, resting upon the con- 
glomerate at a higher level. 

The study of the Jackson county conglomerate has led me to suppose, 
that in the wearing away of a pre-existing continent by the ocean, the 
waters reached a region of old strata, largely filled with quartz veins and 
the fragments of quartz rock, rounded and worn by the waters, were 
left in the position now seen. The uniform character of the conglomerate, 
made up exclusively of quartz pebbles, would seemingly imply that in the 
origin of the mass there was little possibility of the commingling of 
pebbles of other kinds. This uniformity of lithological character is, 
apparently, inconsistent with the supposition that the conglomerate was 
distributed after the manner of a general drift, whatever the agency 
causing the drift might have been. The peculiar localization of the con- 
glomerate, in patches along the western margin of the great Central or 
Appalachian coal-fields, also implies a localization of cause. Without 
dcubt, similar accumulations of quartz-gravel and pebbles are now taking 
place along existing coasts. The great size of the pebbles of the Jackson 
county conglomerate would seemingly forbid the supposition that they 
had been transported by ocean currents any very great distance from the 
place of derivation ; but, nevertheless, as. the ocean advanced landward 
they might be left far behind, and actually far out in the shallow sea. 
Mid-ocean currents are not believed to be adequate to such transportation, 
although the deep-sea dredgings by the British naturalists reveal smaller 
pebbles and gravel commingled with the sedimentary mud of the deep 
. ocean bed. Such a mass, or heap, of coarse pebbles as the Jackson county 
conglomerate, could never have been in the deep sea bottom, for if so, 
there would have accumulated on its flanks and over it, sedimentary 
strata, whereas we find coal seams on its flanks and top. It is also 
evident that this conglomerate ridge must have been, in part at least, 
lifted above the surface of the water, and resembled, proximately, the ex- 
isting sand ridges off the coast of the Oarolinas, as, for example, the one 
separating Pamlico Sound from the Atlantic. The coal seams on the 
^anks of the conglomerate were, necessarily, sub-serial in origin. The 
exact location of the pre-existing continent from which the quartz peb- 
bles were derived cannot, of course, be definitely known. Prof. Henry 
D. Rogers, of the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, derives all the mate- 
rials of the sedimentary strata of the Palaeozoic rocks from a continent 
to the southeast. Prof. Dana gives the location a north-eastern, and 
Prof. Hall an eastern direction. If such a heap of very coarse conglom- 
erate, as we find in Jackson county, were brought from a considerable 



70 GEOLOGICAL SUEVEY OF OHIO. 

distance^ and left in a channel-way of a strong ocean current, then the 
current, doubtless, flowed from the north-east or the south-west, in the 
direction of the major axis of the deposit. If, on the other hand, the 
deposit was an off-shore one, the materials having been obtained from the 
shore, and rounded by the attrition of the beach, then the place of origin 
was evidently toward the east. There are some reasons which point to 
this latter view, that our conglomerate is such an off-shore accumulation, 
and derived its materials from land lying proximately eastward. 

Some very interesting facts relative to the distribution of sediments 
directly over the Ferriferous limestone of the Coal-measures will hereafter 
be given. 

A careful study of the very large number of sections given in the maps, 
which accompany this report, will show that the changes in the lithologi- 
cal character of the rocks of the lower Coal-measures, from sandstones, 
often very coarse, to fine clay-shales, are sometimes so sudden and abrupt, 
that the strata must have, apparently, been accumulated not very far from a 
shore, for they resemble accumulations now taking place along indented 
shores having frequent alternations of ,rough and quiet waters ; nor were 
these accumulations made in deep water, because they are intercalated 
between seams of coal, which are of sub- serial origin. 

There are to be found, at various horizons in the Coal measures, con- 
glomerates, as will be noticed hereafter, but none of these are of great 
extent, and never show the same extremely coarse materials, as the con- 
glomerate at the base of the Coal-measures. So far as the Survey has pro- 
gressed in the 2d Geological District, these upper conglomerates are 
found in the southern part, over the area of the greatest subsidence, and 
where the deposits of sand, gravel and pebbles indicate very considerable 
transporting power of the waters. 

The general principles which guide the geologist in the study of the 
deposition of mechanical sediments, are so ably and clearly given by Prof. 
H. D. Eogers, in the Pennsylvania Geological Report, vol. II, p. 779, that 
I quote the following passage : 

"We may assume it, also, as our established law, upon which we may 
safely rely in our geological reasonings, that the relative coarseness or 
fineness of the sedimentary matter in a given stratum measures approxi- 
mately the relative strength or feebleness of the watery currents that 
strewed them; and, furthermore, that the degree of thickness of a land- 
derived or mechanically formed deposit is a criterion of its relative 
proximity to the ancient shores from which it was swept. Guided by the 
familiarly-known transporting functions of moving water, in which we 
witness every gradation of velocity, from speeds too swift for any depo- 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 71 

sition, to motions too sluggish for the further floating of the suspended 
matter, we must infer that the greatest number of sea-borne sediments, 
not merely sheets of gravel and sand, but the "widest layers of clay, are 
in their component beds and in their aggregate bulk, very thin, even to a 
feather edge, at both their landward and seaward margins ; their land- 
ward from excess of velocity ; their seaward ones, from exhaustion of 
material. It is plaiu that by carefully observing in any stratum all its 
gradations in respect to its aggregate thickness, the coarseness of its con- 
stituent fragments and particles, the nature of its organic remains, as 
implying shallow or deep waters, and the quality of its materials, as 
traceable to comminuted rocks of the dry land, or to chemical precipitates 
derivable only from water, the geologist — if the scale of the deposit is 
large — is enabled, by assembling his data, to ascertain with considerable 
accuracy, the quarter whence the formation was derived, and the relative 
strength of the transporting currents ; indeed, if he proceeds with cau- 
tion, he may, by summoning to his. aid the facts and deductions of 
physics on the one hand, and those of natural history on the other, gain 
not a little insight into the physical geography of the globe, at its best 
recorded successive epochs. The attempt at a restoration of the ancient 
geographies of the earth, in the sense of the relations of its lands and 
waters, and the distribution of its living tribes, is one of the highest aims 
of geology, in the cautious inductive pursuit of which the science is grad- 
ually taking rank by the side of astronomy itself, for the sublimity of 
the field it opens and its marvellous capacity of revealing the unknown." 
The first work in all sciences, preliminary to obtaining the grander gen- 
eralizations, which, when found, reveal the thoughts and plans of the 
Creator, is the careful gathering of facts. As this work demands the 
utmost patience and toil, sometimes requiring successive generations of 
observers, it is too often attempted to be done in a very hasty* and care- 
less manner. There is a twilight region between the illuminated known 
and the dark unknown, and too frequently our so-called scientific theories 
and speculations belong exclusively to the twilight region. Science strictly 
implies the known. All speculations and theories, in which the unknown 
is a factor, can be considered only as provisional, or mere temporary 
scaffolding to aid in the building of the edifice of true science. 

THE COAL MEASTJKES. 

Before entering upon a discussion in detail of the counties examined 
in 1870, it is necessary to make a few general and preliminary state- 
ments. It has already been shown that the surface or top of the Logan, 
or upper Waverly, does not present an even line, but shows a very con- 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 

siderable depression toward the south part of the 2d District. There 
are, besides, smaller local undulations of surface which could not be rep- 
resented on the maps. So far as observations have been made hitherto — 
and these observations have extended along all, or very nearly all the 
base of the Coal Measures of the 2d District — the conglomerate is only 
in local development. 

In some places a seam of coal is found resting directly upon the Logan 
sandstone, with only the usual under-clay between. This implies that at 
these points there were areas above the water upon which vegetation 
grew as upon a marsh. These areas were encircled by water in which 
sands and clay sediments were being accumulated. In subsequent sub- 
sidence the coal-marsh vegetation was buried by sediments, and thus the 
materials were permanently secured which, in the changes and interac- 
tion of the elements of the vegetation, formed a seam of coal. Doubt- 
less the subsidence was not always uniform over large areas, nor was the 
filling in of sediments uniform, so that when one part was brought above 
the water and the vegetation grew, there might remain other portions of 
the given area still in submergence. In this way seams of coal often 
become very irregular in their distribution. 

An examination of the large maps will show that some of the seams of 
coal are entirely local, having doubtless been formed on low islands of 
very limited extent. These islands, over certain areas, were ever emerg- 
ing, and hence we are likely to find, at almost any horizon, a seam of 
coal. Sometimes we find well marked intervals in which there was a 
more general and perhaps more rapid subsidence and a larger incoming 
of sands, making heavy beds of sandstone; and of clay sediments which 
now constitute thick beds of shale. Sometimes the sand and clay are 
intermingled, and the shales are sandy. 

An examination of the maps will show the difficulty of grouping the 
coal seams by numbers and. arranging them in numerical order. The 
lower coals are the most difficult to group. For example, the " Shaft," 
"Anthony" and "Hill" seams, found in the vicinity of Jackson, Jack- 
son county, are only a local group, not certainly found to the north. The 
upper or "Hill coal" probably has a considerable southern extension. 
About 75 feet below the Ferriferous limestone is, in the southern coun- 
ties, a seam of coal which is in a measure persistent. It will be found 
indicated in several sections on the maps. 

The coal under the Ferriferous limestone, is, we think, the Kelsonville 
seam. It becomes thinner toward the Ohio River, and sometimes reveals 
itself only as a mere trace of a seam ; but in Kentucky it becomes thicker, 
and is of great economic value. This is the most continuous seam found 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 73 

in our lower Coal Measures. It is, where best developed in Perry county 
and in the vicinity of Nelsonville, a coal of unusual purity and value. In 
Kentucky it has authenticated itself as a superior iron-making coal. It 
deserves careful investigation all along the line of its outcrop, in the 
hope of finding other locations -where it may exhibit equal purity and 
excellence. 

The seam of coal first above the Ferriferous limestone is also quite 
continuous from .the middle of Vinton county south to the Ohio Eiver. I 
have called it the "New Castle" seam, from the name of the mining point, 
in Lawrence county, where it is more extensively mined than elsewhere 
in the 2d Geological District. It is probably more used in that county 
than the coal from any other seam. 

The " Sheridan" seam of coal, 66 feet above the Ferriferous limestone, is 
named from the Sheridan mines on the Ohio Eiver above Ironton. It is 
also quite persistent through the southern part of the District. It has, 
however, been practically developed at only a few points. In Walnut 
township, Gallia county, the coal of this seam is of fine thickness and 
of remarkably fine quality. 

There are several seams of coal, higher in the series than the Sheridan 
seam, found in the eastern part of Lawrence county and in the south- 
eastern corner of Vinton county. These are given in the maps. We 
have indicated on the maps all the coal seams seen, however thin, be- 
cause it is very desirable to know their stratigraphical position, since 
future research may find them in places thick enough for profitable work- 
ing. All coal seams are liable to change for the better or worse, either 
in respect to quantity or quality. The quantity depends chiefly upon the 
length of time the vegetation making up the coal was allowed to grow 
and accumulate ; the quality is largely dependent upon the freedom from 
sulphur and from foreign sedimentary matter brought into the coal- 
marsh by tidal or other overflows. What causes one coal to be more 
sulphurous than another is not well understood. Uo two coals are alike 
in the contained percentage of sulphur, and the same seam is liable to 
great differences in this respect, even in the same mine. The nature of 
the roof or stratum directly above the coal sometimes determines the 
value of the coal. The more impervious the roof to water, the better the 
quality of the coal, as a general rule. Sometimes we find what were per- 
haps tideways or channels intersecting the old coal-marshes, and these 
old channels are now filled, sometimes with sandstone, sometimes with 
shale, and these take the place of the coal. I present a group of four 
sections, in Fig. 5. 



74 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 





'aett. 



DBnofrocft • 




M*m<We Ore. 
JstrMSfom . 



(focal ■ 
'late. 
OOlZ. 



^$j£ enr 'rugvn,o us 

Caotl. 




Xii/ffiestane. 



J^Cob exposed. 



&&", 



Fig. 5. 



These sections all represent exactly the same geological horizon, and 
show how the various forces at work modified the stratification. No. 1 
was taken in Vinton township, Vinton county; No. 2 near Gallia Furnace, 
Gallia county; No. 3 near Olive Furnace, and No. 4 a mile or two from 
Hecla Furnace, Lawrence county. In No. 1 the lower coal — the equiv- 

i" 

alent of the Nelsonville seam — is seen -with a parting of slate 7 inches 
thick, which assures us that at one time the coal marsh was inundated, 
and a deposit of sediment laid down, which, compressed, now measures 
7 inches in thickness. Generally such partings are blackened by the 
bitumen derived from the coal at the time the vegetation went through 
the process of bituminization. In Nos. 2 and 3 the coal presents essen- 
tial y the same appearance as in No. 1. In ~No. 4 nothing below the Fer- 
riferous limestone was exposed. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 75 

In No. 1 the Ferriferous limestone, the " limestone ore" and the upper or 
" New Castle" coal are all wanting, and we have, in place of the two 
former, 9 feet of finely laminated black slate, and of the latter, a heavy, 
coarse sand-rock. 

While, generally, we find that after the subsidence of the marsh in 
whicb the lower coal seam was formed, there came in a body of shallow 
water, clear and free from much sediment, and from this water the lime- 
secreting forms of life elaborated what is now the Ferriferous limestone 
which often exhibits distinctly the fossilized remains of mollusk and radi- 
ate, yet sometimes, as in No. 1, there was an area in which the water was 
charged with sediments, commingled with carbonaceous matter destruc- 
tive of most forms of marine life, which now constitute the 9 feet of black 
slate over the coal. 

Why the iron ore should not be found in No. 1, is difficult of explana- 
tion, unless we suppose that the waters of this basin were isolated from 
the waters in which the ore was deposited, and contained no iron. 

In No. 2, the upper or Newcastle coal is represented by two streaks of 
coal imbedded in the sand-rock. These are not proper seams, but only 
the vegetable matter which had been floated from some coal marsh, not 
very far away, and imbedded in the accumulating sand. 

In No. 3, the whole group is exhibited, the upper coal showing a part- 
ing of slate 7 inches thick, and above it a sand-rock. In No. i, the lower 
coal was not exposed. During the progress of the subsidence there were, 
before we reach the time of the formation of the upper coal, three periods? 
during which a land surface was exposed, and on this surface vegetation 
took root and grew, thus forming three very thin beds of coal. Bach coal 
has under it the usual under clay, the soil in which the vegetation grew. 

In place of the sand-rock over the limestone iron ore, as seen in the sec- 
tion given, we often find the ore covered by clay shales. Many of these 
will be seen on the maps of Grouped Sections. I have found by examina- 
tion that the clay-shales and sandstones are arranged in alternate belts 
along the surface of the limestone. If we go back in thought to the time 
when the Ferriferous limestone and its superincumbent ore had just been 
deposited, we shall find that they were buried by alternate sands and 
mud; an area of sand bordered by another of mud, and thus alternating. 
This is illustrated by the following figure : 



76 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 








Fig. 6. 

A similar alternation of strata can be traced far to the north. On the 
Marietta and Cincinnati Eailroad, the Nelsonville coal is covered by 
heavy sand rock. On Meeker Bun, in York township, Athens county, we 
find a heavy deposit of clay shales over the same coal. At Nelson ville 
and directly on the Hocking we find the heavy sand-rock. At Straits- 
ville, and vicinity, we find the shales again, while on the heads of the 
"West Fork of Sunday Creek we find a very heavy sand-rock. Lower 
down the West Fork the shales appear and probably continue over a con- 
siderable area. Where the same seam crosses the Cincinnati and Mus- 
kingum Valley Eailroad, at the tunnel, we find the sand-rock again. 

There are two different explanations of this peculiar alternate arrange- 
ment of the deposits.' One supposes the materials brought down from 
adjacent land having an indented coast and distributed, as we sometimes 
now find them, on our Eastern coasts. In favorable places there would be 
gravel bars and sandy flats extending for a greater or less distance into 
the sea, while between these bars there would be deposits of mud and 
finer materials. These alternating deposits would, theoretically, have the 



GEOLOGICAL STJKVEY OP OHIO. 77 

direction of their axes at right angles to the general line of the shore. 
Practically, however, the direction would be greatly modified by the 
ocean currents. 

By the other, and perhaps less tenable theory, this arrangement of the 
sands and clays, would perhaps imply that the materials were washed 
into the places, as now found, by the waves and tides of the sea, and that 
the shore line was parallel with the general direction of the belts, i. e., 
it extended in a northwest and southeast direction. Possibly, a similar 
arrangement of sands and fine sediments may be taking place along the 
lines of our present coasts. The materials came from the land but were 
subsequently assorted and distributed by the water of the ocean. 

How far distant the land might have been, and how high the land was, 
are matters of mere conjecture. It is the opinion of Prof. Leo Lesquereux, 
who has studied our coal-fields more carefully and successfully than any 
one in our country, that the lands of the Carboniferous era were low and 
flat. In his recent contribution to the 4th Yol. of the Illinois Geological 
Reports, page 492, Prof. L. writes: "From all appearances, the land, es- 
pecially on our Western coal-fields, was, at the Carboniferous period, 
represented merely by a series of flat swamps, separated by lagoons, and 
therefore the whole vegetation of the land was essentially of the boggy 
kind. But even if at this epoch there was any elevated land, the extreme 
atmospheric humidity should have forced upon it the same vegetation as 
that of the bogs, as it happens in our time in some parts of Ireland and 
Germany, where, under the influence of atmospheric humidity, peat bogs 
ascend on inclined slopes to the top of high mountains. Prof. Schimper 
says, in speaking of the ferns which constitute the essential vegetation of 
the coal formation, 'there is no other natural order of plants whose in- 
tensity of vegetation so much depends upon atmospheric humidity. 
Ferns are true natural hygrometers, whose individual as well as numerical 
development is always in direct proportion to the humidity of the climate 
wherein they live. Therefore the land vegetation of the Carboniferous 
period must every where bear the same general character.'" 

While, therefore, these two very distinguished palaeontologists agree 
that if higher lands existed, the vegetation on them would be the same 
as on the marshy low lands, yet we nowhere find a seam of coal extend- 
ing over the higher grounds, or what might be supposed to be ridges or 
hills of the Carboniferous era. This, however, is easily explained, for the 
waters which in the subsidence of the low lands, would cover the vegeta- 
tion with sands and clays, would also tear away and destroy the vegeta- 
tion along the hill-sides. In this fact we may find a possible explanation 
of the existence of large quantities of vegetable debris, imbedded in our 



78 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

sandstones and other strata, which are now stratigraphically removed from 
any seam of coal. We often find the trunks of trees thus imbedded in 
sandstones. 

At Zaleski, in mining the Nelsonville coal, a fine bowlder of gray 
quartzite was found half imbedded in the coal, and the other half in the 
overlying shale. The quartzite is very hard, and the bowlder was rounded 
and worn by friction before it came into the coal. The dimensions of the 
bowlder are not far from 17 inches in the longer diameter, and 12 inches 
in the shorter. Adhering to the stone in places are portions of coal and 
black slate which show the smooth surface called " slickensides." These 
indicate movement and pressure. Doubtless the bowlder had settled into 
the coal while the coal was in a comparatively soft state at the time of its 
bitumization. 

How the bowlder came there, is a question not easily answered. That 
it came in at the time of the deposition of the sediments which constitute 
the shale over the coal, is doubtless true. But currents from which com- 
paratively fine sediments are dropped, would hardly have force enough 
to move heavy bowlders. The usual explanation of isolated bowlders, 
such, for example, as are found over our prairies, is that they were dropped 
from melting icebergs or other floating ice. This explanation would require 
us to account for the existence of ice during the period of the productive 
Coal-measures. A part of the vegetation of the coal period was allied more 
or less closely to the modern ferns, but these, of very large size, are found 
chiefly in the tropics. Coal is, however, found in arctic regions. This 
fact has been supposed to indicate a warm climate during the coal period. 
There are two equally important elements in all calculations respecting 
the origin of coal. The first is a sufficiently warm atmosphere to secure 
luxuriant and abundant vegetation; the second, a climate sufficiently 
cool to prevent such decay of the vegetable matter as would forbid any 
accumulation. There is little or no accumulation of vegetable matter in 
the hot, damp climate of the tropics, the decay counterbalancing the 
growth. On the other hand, the peat vegetation accumulates in wet bogs 
in comparatively cold climates. Whether there may have been, after the 
submergence of the Zaleski coal, at some point more or less remote, a 
shore on which ice may have been formed, which floated the bowlder in 
question, or it was brought down by river ice from some higher and colder 
part of the old continent which was skirted by the coal producing low- 
lands, it is impossible to say. 

Sir Charles Lyell in 'his " Students' Elements of Geology," published in 
1871, gives the following paragraph on the climate of the coal period; 
" As to the climate of the coal, the ferns and the coniferse are, perhaps, 



GEOLOGICAL STJKVEY OF OHIO. 79 

the two classes of plants which may be most relied upon as leading to 
safe conclusions, as the genera are nearly allied to living types. All 
botanists admit that the abundance of ferus implies a moist atmosphere. 
But the coniferse, says Hooker, are of a more doubtful import, as they 
are found in hot and dry and in cold and dry climates, in hot and moist 
and in cold and moist regions. In New Zealand the coniferse attain 
their maximum in numbers constituting 1-62 part of all the flower- 
ing plants; whereas, in a wide district around the Cape of Good Hope 
they do not form 1-1600 of the phenogamic flora. Besides the conifers, 
many species of ferns flourish in New Zealand, some of them arborescent, 
together with many lycopodiuins, so that a forest in that country may 
make a nearer approach to the Carboniferous vegetation than any other 
now existing on the globe." 

New Zealand is in latitude 40 degrees south of the equator. 
The Putnam Hill limestone everywhere contains fossils. The best loca- 
tions for gathering them, thus far noticed, are Flint Ridge, Bald, (or 
McFarland's Hill,) 2£ miles south-east of Newark, ard at a location a mile 
west of Somerset, Perry county. The following forms, recognized by Prof. 
Meek, are very abundant. The list is very incomplete. 

Productus equicostatus, Shum ; P. Nebrascensis Owen ; P. semi-reticu- 
latus; P. punctatus, Martin; P. longispinus, Sow; Spirifer cameratus, 

Morton ; S. — — ,? ; Chonetes mesoloba Nor. and Prat. ; Chonetes ? ; 

Athyris subtillata, Hall; Lingula umbonata? Cox; Discina ?; 

Streptorhyncus crassus, Meek and Hayden ; Myalina recurvirostris, Meek 
and Worthen; M. Swallovinus, McChes.; Aviculopecten carbonarius, 
Stevens; A. Coxanus, Meek and Worthen; A. occidentalis, Shum.; 

A. n. s. ; Avicula longa, Geinitz; Pecten a viculatus, Swallow ; 

Edmondia ? ; B. 1 ; Alloriama t ; Area 1 ; Bellerophon 

Montfortianus ; B. f ; Pleurotomaria ? ; Nautilus ? ; Micro - 

don tenuistriatus, Meek and Worthen ; Synocladia bi-serialis, Swallow ; 

Polypora ? McCoy; Fenestella ?; Petalodus ? 

A large collection of the Putnam Hill limestone fossils has been made, 
and Prof. Meek is now studying them. The fossils of the Ferriferous lime- 
stone have not yet been carefully gathered. 



80 GEOLOGICAL SURYEY OP OHIO. 



CHAPTER II. 

HOCKING AND ATHENS COUNTIES. 

In the prosecution of the -work of the survey in 1870, there was a division 
of labor between my assistants, Mr. Ballantine and Mr. Gilbert ; the former 
taking Vinton county and the small portion of Hocking county, lying 
between Vinton county and the Hocking river, and also a very small 
portion of the north-west corner of Athens county. Mr. Gilbert worked 
south of Vinton, in Jackson, Scioto and Lawrence counties. My own 
personal labors were divided between the two assigned fields. 

HOCKING COUNTY. 

That portion of this county south of the Hocking river, which lies 
properly within the productive Coal measures, is found in Star, Green, 
Washington, Falls and Benton townships. The western limit of the Coal 
measures formation forms a very irregular line, and it is possible that a 
very small portion of the south-eastern corner of Laurel township may 
come within the limit. 

In Falls township, the rocks of the Coal measures lie high in the hills, 
and as there was seen little of special economical value we have no de- 
tailed statement to make respecting the township. There is, doubtless, 
some iron ore to be found there. 

In Washington township both coal and iron ore were found. 

On the land of J. W. lies, section 19, the following geological section 
was made: 

Feet. Inches. 

1 — Blue limestone (not measured) 

2— Blueelay ,. 3 

3 — Bituminous slate 8 

4 — Sandstone, unevenly bedded 3 

5— Coal 3 

6— Clay, blue 4£ 

7 — Coal (1 foot 3 inches seen, 4 feet claimed) 1 3 

This grasp is seen in Sec. No. 5, Map ~8o. I. 

On the land of Leander Emerine, section 21, the following section was 

made: 

Feet. Inches. 

Blue limestone (not measured) , 

1— Not seen 13 

2 — Coal (reported) 3 3 

3— Not seen 7 

4— Coal 5 

5— Clay : 8 

6— Coal.. 1 6 

See Map I, Sec. 7. 



GEOLOGICAL, SUKVEY OF OHIO. 81 

On the land of Eobert Gordon, section 21, a section was made extend- 
ing from the blue limestone up to the buff limestone, about 125 feet. 
Below the blue limestone, the usual coal was seen, but its thickness was 
not measured. About four feet below the upper, or buff limestone, was 
found a stratum of iron ore, measuring from 5 inches to 12 inches in 
thickness. This section is given in Map I, No. 8. 

On the land of Henry Trimmer, section 30, the following section was 
made : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Disintegrating sand rook (not measured) 

2. Blackshale 6 

3. Coal 3 6 

4. Not seen 9 

5. Blue or Putnam Hill limestone (not measured) 

6. Notseen 13 

7. Coal 3 

8. Clay 2 

9. Coal 4 

See Map I, Sec. 9. 

On the land of Phillip Johnson, section 34, the blue fossiliferous lime- 
stone was found 2 feet thick, and upon it a large deposit of iron ore. The 
ore consists of 4 inches (bottom) of very sandy "red ore " and 18 inches 
limonite ore. The deposit is one of unusual thickness. The ore is thought 
to be too much contaminated with sand to be very valuable. It may be 
found in the neighborhood more free from this undesirable admixture. 
It is worthy of careful investigation by parties interested. From 6 to 8 
feet above the ore is a seam of coal, claimed to be 2 J feet thick, the lower 
4 inches being cannel coal. There are 6 inches coal above, separated by 
3 to 4 inches bituminoas slate. Above the coal are 3 feet 4 inches blue 
clay, then 8 inches bituminous shale, then 7 inches coal, and above all a 
sand rock, of which four feet were seen. This group is given in Map I, 
No. 10. The blue limestone of this locality is reported as excellent for 
lime, the lime making a strong mortar for walls, and is preferred by the 
citizens to Maxville lime. 

Near New Mount Pleasant, in Washington township, coal is found quite 
high in the hill, and mined for neighborhood use. At the bank of Thomas 
Harris the seam showed the following structure, viz : 13 inches coal 
(bottom), \ inch clay, 8 J inches coal, 1 inch clay, and 1 foot 6 inches coal; 
total, 3 feet 3J inches coal. The seam has a slate roof. The coal is used 
for blacksmithing. Another seam of coal, reported to be 2^ feet thick, is 
found 27 feet higher. Eighteen feet below the chief seam is an out crop 

G 



82 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

of limonite ore. Fifty-five feet below the ore is a seam of highly bitum- 
inous slate 16 inches thick. This slate may possibly pass into coal in the 
neighborhood. Below the slate was seen dark clay. 

On the land of Jacob Nimon, section 20, a seam of coal measuring 1 
foot 8 inches, was seen. Sixty-four feet below is a seam of bituminous 
slate, 15 inches thick, with 16 inches of finely laminated slate above it. 

In the same section, on the land of J. M. Ferguson, three seams of coal 
were found. The middle one was reported to be "not quite four feet 
thick, and a clay parting near the center." The old drift had fallen in 
and no measurements could be made. Twenty-seven feet above, is a 
seam of coal which was thought by Mr. Ballantine to be the equivalent 
of the seam seen on the land of Jacob Mmdn. Eighty-two feet below 
the middle seam is a third one, measuring eight inches. This latter ex- 
posure was seen one-fourth of a mile east. 

On the land of Daniel Schaal, section 30, a seam of coal 15 inches thick 
was seen, overlaid by blue slate. The relations of this coal were not de- 
termined. The coal is poor. 

On the land of J. K. Johnston, section 29, the blue limestone, highly 
fossiliferous, was seen. This is probably about the western limit of this 
well marked limestone. 

By the foregoing statement it will be seen that the seams of coal in 
Washington township are generally quite thin. Where reported the 
thickest, the old mines had generally fallen in, and no measurements were 
possible, nor was it easy to get representative samples for analysis. 
The fossiliferous blue limestone of Washington township is believed to be 
the equivalent of the Putnam Hill limestone. There is a general corre- 
spondence in fossils, and its stratigraphical position warrants this belief. 

There is probably much more iron ore in the township than was seen, 
but there being no market for it, little explorations for It have been made. 

Benton Township. — No coal seams were found exposed in this township. 
Most of the township lies on the Waverly formation, and the Coal-measures 
rocks are only found on the highest lands in the southeastern part of the 
township. The Logan sandstone, or upper Waverly, and the Waverly 
conglomerate, are well developed, and are seen along all the streams. 

On John Hoy's land, six miles east of Bloomingville, Queer creek flows 
over a coarse conglomerate, very dark colored. The stream makes two 
little cascades of four feet and five feet, respectively. This conglomerate 
corresponds to that at Scott's creekfalls near Logan, described in the Report 
for 1869. On the land of William Lemon, 5 miles east of Bloomingville, 
Queer creek makes the descent of " Cedar Falls," plunging into a canon 




''ptftttufit.ui-l. 



ENTBAKCE TO THE BOCK HOUSE, HOCKING COUNTY. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 83 

eroded from the Waverly rocks. The rock is a coarse, heavy sand rock, 
mnch discolored by iron, and in many places showing pebbles. The fall 
is nearly perpendicular, and about 85 feet. Above the conglomerate 
comes in the Logan sandstone group. This region presents unusual op- 
portunities of studying the Waverly conglomerate, and the wild and pic- 
turesque scenery will amply repay a visit. 

Laurel Township. — This township is similar in its general geological 
character to Benton. In this township is the famous "Bock House," a 
description of which has been given by Mr. Gilbert, as follows : 

" The Rock House is a inagificent corridor, or arched room, of great 
length, high up in the cliff, having on one side the solid rock, and on the 
other, toward the face of the cliff, six vast columns, which have been 
rounded and shaped by water and frost. The cliff at this point is 115 feet 
high. In this region, and especially along the banks of Queer creek, is 
the most picturesque scenery to be found in Southern Ohio. The stream 
flows through the Waverly conglomerate. In this immense deposit of 
sandrock it has cut channels, undermined cliffs, and excavated tunnels. 
Occasionally it plunges abruptly over a fall of nearly a hundred feet, to 
gather its shattered waters together again and flow smoothly through a 
narrow valley which the water has cut from the solid rock. The rock as- 
sumes the most fantastic shapes. Here it is a perpendicular cliff, capped 
with evergreens, there it is an overhanging shelf, forming a roof to shelter 
cattle or grain. Every turn of the road presents new features of the 
scenery. Perhaps the most famous of the strange formations in this re- 
gion is the Eock House, above described, and of which a pencil sketch is 
given. The place is often visited, and would be a place of fashionable 
resort if it were more accessible. The whole country around is fruitful 
in Indian legends. These cliffs and caves were the natural fortifications 
of the red men. One cave is pointed out as the place where the Indians 
made gunpowder ; in another they smelted the ores of silver. If, how 
ever, one is incredulous enough to inquire how the Indians learned to 
make gunpowder, or what they did with silver, he gets no satisfactory 
answer." 

Starr Towhship.—A good section of the strata was obtained near Union 
Furnace, formerly known as the " Five Mile Furnace," in section 23. This 
section is given in Map I, No. 1. The section reveals the same blue fossil- 
iferous limestone which is so generally found in Washington township. It 
is seen near the furnace, but has not been regarded as a suitable limestone 
for furnace use. A sample of it has been analyzed by Prof. Wormley, 
chemist of the survey, with the following result : 



84 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

Silica 36.89 

Alumina and sesquioxide of iron 9.20 

Carbonate of lime 52.60 

" " magnesia * 1.21 

Total 99.90 

The large percentage of silica renders this limestone of little value for 
furnace use. 

About 130 feet above this limestone is another, which is gray when 
freshly broken, but weathers buff. This is doubtless due to the presence 
of iron. The stone is not regarded as adapted to furnace uses. 

Eighteen feet below the buff limestone is a thin seam of <coal about 2 
feet thick, with a clay parting \\ inches thick 11 inches from the top. It 
has been mined for neighborhood use. Bight feet below the coal is a 
stratum of " kidney " ore, reported to be 4 inches thick. Nine feet below 
this ore is another, which is much thicker. It is reported to be some- 
times 4 feet thick, but this thickness must be quite exceptional. An 
analysis of this ore has been made by Prof. Wormley, with the following 
result : 

Specific gravity 2.653 

Water combined * 13.42 

Silicious matter 24.40 

Sesquioxide of iron. 60.75 

Alumina 

Manganese Trace. 

Carbonate of Lime 0.89 

Carbonate of magnesia Trace. 

Phosphoric acid Trace. 

.Sulphur 0.38 

Total 99.84 

Metallic iron 42.53 

The above ore has been supposed to contain phosphorus, but Prof. 
Wormley failed to find more than a trace. The sample analyzed was 
taken from a pile lying at the furnace. The ore was rejected many years 
ago, and a tradition of its worthlessuess has been handed down. The 
present superintendent has never tried it. 

Twenty-eight and a half feet below this ore is a thin seam of coal, re- 
ported to be eight inches thick. 

There is a trace of coal just below the blue limestone. Sixteen and a 
half feet below the limestone is a stratum of ore 3 inches thick, called 
the "little block" ore. Ten arid a half feet below this ore is a very thin 
stratum of ore called the " sand block " ore. About 6 feet below this ore 
is a very thin seam of coal only 4 inches thick. The ores for the supply 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. S5 

of the furnace come, in part, from ore lands controlled by the company, 
and the rest is brought to the furnace by the citizens of the vicinity, and 
comes from several different seams. These ores vary considerably in 
richness and purity, but the furnace makes, nevertheless, a very satisfac- 
tory quality of iron. 

The furnace uses charcoal, and native ores exclusively. The limestone 
for flux is brought from a deposit of "Maxville" limestone found a little 
below Logan, on the east side of the Hocking river. The following are 
the dimensions of the furnace, furnished by Mr. Culbertson, the financial 
agent: 

Statistics of Union Furnace. 

Height 32 feet. 

Diameter across tbe boshes .- 9 feet 4 in. 

Batter of boshes 9 in. to the foot. 

Diameter of top of hearth 34 in. (circled.) 

Diameter of bottom of hearth 30 in. " 

Depth of hearth 6 feet. 

Height of dam stone 1 foot 6 in. 

Height of twyer above bottom of hearth 2 feet 10 in. 

One twyer, 4 inches diameter. 

Pressnre of blast; 6 pounds. 

Temperature of blast, about 900°. 

Half charge — 33 bush, charcoal, 1,150 lbs. ore, and 60 lbs. lime. 

Sixty half charges in 24 hours. 

General average production, 11-J tons per day. 

Of this production, two-thirds is No. 1 foundry iron, and one-third No. 2 foundry 
and mill iron. 

On the. land of John Backus, about 1J miles west of the Union Fur- 
nace, the following section was made : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Coal 1 6 

2. Light-colored shale 10 

3. " Red ore," reported average 8" to 12", here 1 6 

4. Not seen 46 

5. Coal, reported 1 3 

6. Not seen 55 

7. Blue limestone 

See Map I, Sec. 2. 

On the land of Matthew D. Wolf, 1J miles south-west of Lick Run 

Mines, the following section was made : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Dark blue fossiliferous limestone <- 

2. Notseen 20 

3. Coal, (probable place) 1 8 

4. Notseen 83 

5. Buff limestone 



86 GEOLOGICAL SUEVEY OF OHIO. 

Feet. Inches. 

6. Not seen 18 

7. Coal, reported thickness 4 

8. Soft blue shale 45 

9. Not seen 12 

10. Nelson ville coal, reported 5 

See Map I, Sec. 3. 

On the land of P. Chidester, sec. 35, Starr township, a seam of coal was 
found of good thickness, divided as follows : Coal, 1 foot (top) ; clay, 
parting from 1 in. to 6 in. ; coal, 2 ffc. 7 in. ; clay, 1 in. and 6 in. coal (re- 
ported) ; making a total of coal of 4 ft. 1 in. The coal has a slate roof. 
This seam of coal was thought by Mr. Ballantine to be the probable 
equivalent of the Nelsonville seam, but he had no time to verify the suppo- 
sition, and hence the section is not given on the map of grouped sections. 
About 27 feet above this coal was a trace or " blossom " of another seam 
of coal. Forty feet below the main coal is a stratum of iron ore and twelve 
feet lower another stratum. Neither of these ores has been opened, and 
no good investigation could be made. Twenty feet below the lower ore is 
a thin seam of coal, reported to be 18 in. thick. 

ATHENS COUNTY. 

York Township. — Following the strata to the east of Starr township we 
find in York township, on the lands of the "Hocking Coal, Coke and 
Mining Company," on Lick Run, the Nelsonville coal and the two lime- 
stones, the buff and the blue, in the hills above it. The Nelsonville seam 
is largely mined and the coal shipped by the Columbus & Hocking Valley 
Eailroad. The seam measures 6 ft. 6 in., and exhibits a structure similar 
to that of the same seam at Nelsouville. Over the coal is the same heavy 
sand-rock seen about Nelsonville. Forty-six feet above this coal is a very 
thin seam of coal, measuring only 9 inches. This seam, on the land of 
Matthew D. Wolf, about 1£ miles south-west, is reported to attain a thick- 
ness of 4 feet. About 18 feet above this coal, and separated by intervening 
shale, we find the buff limestone, from 8 in. to 12 in. thick. No fossils 
were detected in it. One hundred feet higher is the dark blue fossiliferous 
limestone. This limestone measured from 6 to 12 in. Below the Nelson- 
ville seam of coal is a lower coal seam, reported to be 3 ft. thick. The 
intervening strata are chiefly shales. The section showing the rocks 
above mentioned at the Lick Bun mines is given in Map I, No. 4. 

Following the same group over to Meeker Bun, we find at T. M. Boyles', 
sec. 16, York township, the Nelsonville coal, apparently fully developed. 
On both branches of Meeker, on the lands of John L. Gill, Esq., it reaches 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 87 

a thickness considerably above the general average. The seam was traced 
from near the mouth of Meeker to Nelsonville, and north-west to the Lick 
Eun mines. Twenty-seven feet above the large seam is another which 
measures 3 ft. in thickness. This coal has been dug and used by Mr. 
Boyles. About 46 ft. above this is another seam of coal, with the buff 
limestone a few feet below it. No measurements could be made, but the 
coal was reported to have been once opened and found to be 4 feet thick. 
About 80 feet higher is the usual dark blue fossiliferous limestone, separ- 
ated from the coal below by sandstones and shales. Twenty seven feet 
higher takes us to the top of the high knob, which was found to be 207 
feet above the grade of the C. & H. V. E. E. at the mouth of Meeker Eun. 
A general section of the strata on Meeker Eun is given on Map I, No. 6 

On the lands of John L. Gill, near the mouth of Meeker Eun, 10 
feet of shale were seen above the Nelsonville coal. No sand rock was 
exposed. The shale over the coal insures the seam from disturbance from 
the sand rock, and also the full thickness of the seam. Here the coal 
measured 8 feet in thickness, exclusive of the usual slate partings. It is 
a remarkably fine development of coal. Twenty-seven feet above Nelson- 
ville seam is another, 3 ft, thick, overlaid by 6 ft. of black bituminous slate, 
containing Lingulae. Forty-six feet above this seam is the "blossom" of ■ 
another, reported to be 4 ft. thick where once opened. This seam, on 
Floodwood Greek, measures 6 ft. There is another seam of coal about 30 
ft. below the Nelsonville seam. Under this seam is a heavy body of white 
fire clay. Nine or more feet below the Nelsonville coal are nodules of 
siderite ore, containing coal plants. 

On the land of Thomas Juniper, in the same township, the buff and 
blue limestones were both seen — the former a sort of breccia and measur- 
ing 18 in., and the latter measuring only 6 in. Twenty-four ieet below the 
blue limestone was seen a trace or " blossom" of a coal seam. 

About a mile below the mouth of Meeker Eun the Nelsonville seam of 
coal is well exposed in a railroad cut, but here the sand rock above replaces 
the upper part of the coal, or "cuts it away," in the popular phrase. This, 
however, is not everywhere the case, and where there is no such disturb- 
ance the coal measures 8 feet in thickness. The blue clay shales under 
the coal at this point are filled with finely preserved coal plants. 

From this point the Nelsonville coal gradually dips to the south-east to 
Salina and Chauncey, in Dover township, Athens county, where it is 
reached by shafts. At Salina thexoal is about 100 feet below the surface, 
or about 100 feet below a seam of coal seen at different points in the 
neighborhood, and sometimes called the "Bayley's Eun" coal. Salt water 
is reached at 570 feet below the surface. This necessitates the conclusion 
that the source of the brine is in the Waverly rocks. 



88 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

The Is elsonville coal in tliis neighborhood has been mined some 30 years. 
Where measured by Mr. Ballantine it was 5 feet 8 inches thick, with a 
parting of clay 3 in. thick, 3 ft. 3 in. above the bottom of the seam. The 
seam may be a little thicker at other points, as 6 feet is claimed to be the 
usual thickness in this region. No special investigation of the quality of 
the coal in this neighborhood was made. The coal serves an excellent 
purpose for the uses to which it is exclusively applied at Chauncey and 
Salina. Between Salina and the mouth of Meeker Bun are some coal 
mining enterprises projected, but no special investigations were made of 
the rocks between those points. On one of the branches of Floodwood 
Creek, a seam of coal 6 feet thick was opened 65 feet above the Nelson- 
ville seam, but the entry had fallen in when I visited it. It is evidently 
a more caking coal than the Nelsonville. 

Passing over the ridge dividing the waters of the Hocking from those 
of the Raccoon Valley, we find on the east branch of the Baccoon, in the 
south-western part of York township, the same general group of rocks 
found on Lick Bun and Meeker Bun. 

On the land of Jacob Werheim the following section was taken : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Buff limestone 1 

2. Not seen 8 

3. Yellow shale : 4 

4. Sandstone 9 

5. Blue clay shale 9. 

6. Sandy carbonate of iron (siderite) 5 

7. Dark colored shale, lower part slaty 3 8 

8. Coal 1 2 

9. Clay 1 

10. Coal 10 

11. Not seen to level of Raccoon Creek. 10 

See Map I, Sec. 11. 

On the land of Jacob Bauersock, 1£ miles above Carbondale, on Baccoon 
Creek, the following section was made : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sand rock - 15 

2. Blue shale 3 6 

3. Coal 1 3 

4. Not seen, hut containing a huff limestone 36 

5. Coal, reported 2* to 3 

6. Raccoon Creek ; 

See Map I, Sec. 12. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 89 

Oa the land of E. J. Brandenburg, section 19, the following strata were 
seen: 

Feet. Inches. 

1„ Blue fossiliferous limestone 

2. San dstoDes and shales 24 

3. Coal, reported thickness 3 

4. Shale for the most part 20 

5. Sandrock 20 

6. Not seen 22 

7. Compact gray limestone weathering huff ? 

8. Not seen and sandy shale 15 

9. Black hituruinous slate passing upward into hlue clay 3 6 

10. Coal , 1 6 

11. Clay 1 

12. Coal 1 5 

13. Clay and hlue shale 

See Map I, Sec. 14. 

At Carbondale, section 36, Waterloo township, Athens county, we find 
a coal largely mined by the Carbondale coal company. From this point 
there is a branch railroad down the Eaccoon to the Marietta & Cincinnati 
railroad, at Mineral City. The Carbondale seam of coal presents three 
divisions. The top 10 in. coal, next below, 3 in. to 4 in. clay parting ; then 
2 it, 5 in. coal with 1 in. clay parting below; then 7 in. of bottom coal, 
making in all 3 ft. 10 in. of coal. The lower 4 in. of the upper part are 
not esteemed and are not shipped. . 

Some small fragments of the buff limestone were found 64 feet above 
the coal. If this is the approximate place of the limestone, then this coal 
is the equivalent of the Nelsonville seam. Its dry burning quality would 
also indicate the same equivalency. This coal is- used on the locomotives 
of the M. & C. E. E., and is also shipped to supply various markets on the 
line of the railroad. Its use on the locomotives would indicate a relative 
freedom from s lphur, but it would probably not be pure enough for iron 
making. It is an excellent house coal. 

The position of this coal is given in Map I, No. 15. 

On the land of J. F. Sheffield, N. W. quar. sec. 30, Waterloo township, 
the buff limestone was seen and the Carbondale coal 68 feet below it. 
Twenty feet above the Carbondale coal was a thin seam of coal, not meas- 
ured, and 92 feet above the same seam another seam was reported. 

On the land of George Carter, in the same section, the buff limestone 
was seen with the blue fossiliferous limestone 96 feet above it. A coal 
was reported in the bed of the Eaccoon creek 50 feet below the buff lime- 
stone. See Sec. No. 16, Map I. 

On Trace creek, about f mile southwest of J. Beckley's, the Carbondale 



90 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

seam was found showing the following divisions : 1 ft. coal, slaty, (top) 
3 in. clay, 2 ft. 4 in. coal, 1J in. slate and 4 in. coal (bottom). Over the 
coalwere from 2 in. to 8 in. shale and clay, and above these a sand rock. 
Bight feet of shaly sand rock were seen below the coal. 

On the land of Charles French, in Waterloo township, 1£ miles above 
Mineral City, on the Eaccoon, we find the Carbondale coal. Its structure 
here shows coal 2 ft. (top) 1 in. clay parting and 6£ in. coal (bottom). There 
is in this region a manifest irregularity in the thickness of the seam. Where 
measured, there are 4 in. black shale over the coal and above the shale a 
heavy sand rock. Below the coal is blue clay passing down into 10 ft. 
arenaceous shale. 

This section is given in Map I, No. 13. 

At Mineral City, in Waterloo township, the same seam of coal is keen. 
Mr. Ballantine traced the seam all the way down from Carbondale and is 
confident of its continuity. Here it is divided as follows: 1 ft. 8 in. to 2 
ft. top coal, with 1 in. clay parting, and 6£ in. bottom coal. Above the 
coal are 4 in. black shale and above this a sand rock, of which 10 feet 
were seen. The buff limestone was not seen at this place, but the blue 
fossiliferous limestone was found 160 feet above the coal. This is the 
proper interval and serves to identify this coal with the Carbondale and 
the Nelsonville seam. The Mineral City section is given in Map I, No. 18. 

The same seam of coal was found near the top of the tunnel on the M. & 
C. E. E., about a fourth of a mile east of King's Switch St •tion. The 
seam at the east end of the tunnel shows one farting of clay from 1 in. to 
2 in. thick, while at the west end there are two partings, the lower one 
from 1 in. to 2 in. and the upper 3 in. thick. Here the measurements gave 
6 in. coal (top) 3 in. clay, 2 ft. coal, 1 in. to 2 in. clay and 6 in. coal (bot- 
tom). Above the coal are 15 in. light colored shale separating the coal 
from the very heavy sand rock above. This coal is given on Map I, 
No. 19. 

In the King's switch tunnel was found a finely preserved trunk of one 
of the trees of the Coal period. It is a Sigillaria and resembles S. Oweni 
Lesq. The trunk measured 4 ft. 6£ in. in height, with a circumference of 
5 ft. 9 in. at the bottom, and 3 ft. 1 in. at the top. Much of the original 
bark is perfectly represented. It was taken out of the tunnel by Mr. S. S. 
Lindley, of Athens, from whom it was obtained for the State Cabinet. 

In the railroad cut approaching King's Switch, we find ouly 10 in. coal. 
Above it are 2 in. clay and 5 in. bituminous slate, and over the slate the 
sand rock is here more fissile than usual. 

The mines at King's Switch are in the same seam of coal, but where it 
is considerable thicker. Here the coal has the following subdivisions : 



GEOLOGICAL SUKVEY OF OHIO. 9l 

6 in. coal (top), not used, 4 in. clay parting, 2 ft. 1 in. coal, 2 in. clay part- 
ing, and 5 in. coal (bottom.) Directly over the coal, shales were seen, but 
the soil covered most of the overlying strata. A trace or "blossom" of 
coal was seen 90J ft. above the main coal. 

The position of this coal is represented on Map I., No. 20. 

Considerable coal has been mined at this place by Mr. King, and shipped 
to various markets along the railroad. 

The remaining portion of Athens county will be examined hereafter, 
our plan of working up our Coal measures systematically requiring us to 
devote our time to the lower measures which lie in the western part of 
the county. 



92 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



CHAPTER III. 



VINTON COUNTY. 



Passing westward from King's Switch we enter Vinton county. In the 
discussion of the equivalencies of strata, it was necessary to pass from 
Starr township, Hocking county, into York, Athens county, and from 
that township trace the Nelsonville coal south through Waterloo to the 
Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad. We have traced the Nelsonville coal 
to Mineral City and to King's Switch. 

At Moonville Station, Brown township, on the M. & C. R. R., the 
same seam of coal is found. The difference of railroad level, accord- 
ing to statistics kindly furnished by John Waddell, Esq., Chief Engineer 
of the M. & C. R. R., between Mineral City and Moonville, is only three 
feet, but the coal seam is much higher above the road at Moonville than 
at Mineral City. This will be seen by reference to Map I., No. 21. In 
going westward we necessarily descend in the geological series. 

The " Mineral City " seam of coal, at the mines of Mr. Coe, pre- 
sents the following sub divisions: coal (top) 4 in., clay parting 3 in., coal 
2 ft. 1 in., clay parting 1 in., and coal (bottom) 5 in. The sand rock comes 
in directly above the coal. Forty-one feet below this seam is another, 
which shows itself in the railroad tunnel. This is only 15 in. thick, with 
2 ft. black shale above it. Thirty-four feet below this seam is another 1 ft. 
4 in. thick. Below this coal, separated by 3 ft. finely laminated black 
slate, is an irregular stratum of siderite ore, from 4 in. to 15 in. thick. 
From 3 ft. to 4 ft. below this ore is another seam of coal 18 in. thick. 
This whole section is seen on Map I., STo. 21. 

A considerable quantity of coal has been mined at Moonville and 
shipped by the M. & C. R. R. to various markets on the line of the road. 

Further west, on the line of the railroad, we find, at Hope Furnace 
Station, the " Mineral City " coal pretty high in the hill, under a heavy 
sand rock. There is a difference of railroad levels, between Moonville 
and Hope Furnace Station, of 11 feet. The coal at the latter point was 
formerly mined by the Zaleski Company, which owns the land. The coal 
seam gave the following measurements : 5 in. coal (top), a variable part- 
ing of clay, to 6 in., 2 ft. 6 in. coal (bottom.) Above the coal is a varia- 
ble stratum of shale, perhaps 1 ft. thick, upon which is the heavy sand 
rock. There is, apparently, much irregularity in the upper part of the 
coal and in the shales. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 93 

On the land of David Keeton, a half mile west of Hope Furnace Station, 
the same seam of coal shows these divisious, viz : 6 in. (top), 4 in. clay, 
2 ft. 3 in. coal, 1 in. clay and 5 in. coal (bottom.) The sand rock rests on 
the coal. Forty one feet below this coal was seen the Moonville tunnel 
coal. This is the usual' interval. 

A section of the rocks at Brewer's cut and vicinity is given on Map I., 
No. 22. 

Here the " Mineral Oity " and tunnel coals are seen in their proper 
places. In the cut are two seams of coal, doubtless the same as revealed 
in Sec. No. 21, Map I. 

About one-fourth of a mile south-west of the cut, a highly fossilifer- 
ouh calcareous shale, very dark colored, was found in the bank of Bac- 
coon creek. This calcareous shale becomes a somewhat earthy limestone 
farther west, and is traceable through most of Vinton county, and south 
into Jackson county. Everywhere it is a guide to the stratigraphical 
position of the rocks below it. I have little doubt that it is the same 
stratum as that seen at Union Furnace, in Starr township, Hocking 
county, as given in Sec. 1, Map. I. 

The distance is about 10 miles, but in this distance there has been a> 
subsidence of about 70 feet, that is, it is near Brewer's cut, so much 
lower, taking the geological horizon of the Nelsonville, or the Mineral 
City seam of coal as the basils of measurement. It has already been seen 
in the general discussion of the district, on page 61, that there has been 
a corresponding subsidence of the underlying Waverly rocks. 

The thickness of the calcareous shale, near Brewer's cut, as measured 
by Mr. Ballantine, is from 2J ft. to 3 ft. In many places, farther west, it 
is much thicker, but it is often thinner. It is often highly fossiliferous, 
and is doubtless the geological equivalent of the Putnam Hill limestone 
of Muskingum, Licking and Perry counties, as shown in the Geological 
Eeport of Progress of the Second District for 1869. 

Under the calcareous shale, near Brewer's Out, is a seam of coal sepa- 
rated from the shale by 1 inch of clay. There are 10 inches of coal, (top) 
5 inches clay parting, and 18 inches coal, (bottom) with the usual under- 
clay below. 

A general section made on the lands of the Hope Furnace company may 
be seen on Map I, No. 23. This furnace is in Brown township, Vinton 
county, and is connected with the M. & C. E. E. by a short branch rail- 
road. The seam of coal mined at the furnace is probably the equivalent 
of the "Mineral City" seam. It measures 2 feet 6 inches in thickness, 
and is separated from the coarse sand-rock above by 8 inches of shale and 
clay. A little below the coal is a stratum of white fireclay, with 3 inches 



94 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

or 4 inches of iron ore on the top of it. A little more than 70 feet above, 
is a stratum of buff limestone 2 feet thick, with a little ore upon it. There 
were no opportunities to investigate this limestone carefully, but it is be- 
lieved to be the equivalent of the limestone which generally weathers 
buff, and hence called the buff limestone, and which is found so com- 
monly in Starr and York townships. Twenty feet above this limestone is 
an upper coal seam, but no measurements could be taken. Ten feet above 
the coal is a thin stratum of iron ore. The two coals were 92 feet apart. 
Below the main coal another seam was reported by Mr. Burtenshaw, the 
furnace manager. It is about 18 feet below, and has a reported thickness 
of 18 inches. 

Ninety feet below the main coal is a thin seam of only 10 inches, and 
over it are nearly 6 feet of highly bituminous slate, very thinly lami- 
nated. . Remains of fossil fishes were found in this slate. There are in 
this slate two layers of nodular siderite ore, the lower 3 inches thick, and 
the upper 2 inches. Above the black slate is a heavy sand-rock, of which 
25 feet were seen. 

On the Hope Furnace company's lands, about half a mile west of Hope 
Furnace Station, 2 feet of gray fossiliferous limestone, rich in crinoids, 
were seen, with some ore resting upon it. The thickness of the ore was 
not measured. Fifteen and a half feet above the limestone, and sepa. 
rated by a fine grained fissile sand-stone, was a trace or " blossom " 
of another seam of coal. Thirty-three and a half feet below the lime- 
stone was seen the place of another coal seam, thought by Mr. Bal- 
lantine to be the same as the "Tunnel" seam seen on David Keeton's 
laud in the neighborhood. Although the exact stratigraphical position of 
this local deposit of limestone was not quite satisfactorily ascertainedj and 
no place is given it on the map of sections, yet it is quite possible that it 
represents the well known Ferriferous limestone of southern Vinton? 
Jackson and Lawrence counties. 

Two miles north east of thefurnace, on Big Sand creek, a seam of coal 
was seen in the bank about 15 feet above the bed of the stream. The 
coal showed the following divisions: 1 foot 6 inches (top), 1 inch slate 
and 1 foot coal (bottom). Above the coal, and separated by 3 feet 6 inches 
bluish shale, were 4 inches slaty coal, with bituminous slate above. Over 
the slate 15 feet of sandstone and shales were seen. 

The Hope Furnace uses charcoal for fuel. The ores in the vicinity have 
not proved satisfactory in quality and quantity, and now the ore is 
brought from the neighborhood of McArthur station. Of late years the 
furnace has made a very uniform and excellent quality of iron. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 95 

Statistics of Hope Furnace. 

This furnace is owned by Putnam, Welch & Co. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack , 35 

Diameter of boshes 10 6 

Batterof " per foot 8| 

Height of hearth 6 

Diameter " at top 4 2 

" " " bottom 3 4 

One twyer of 4£ inches diameter. 
Pressure of blast not known. 
Temperature of blast, 950°. 
Production, 15 tons per day. 

" during 1870, 2,827 tons, No. 1 Foundry iron. 

Proportions of " half charge : " 

Ore, (roasted) 1,150 to 1,225 lbs. 

Limestone, 70 lbs. 

Charcoal, 35 bushels ; or an average of 140 bushels to a ton of iron. 

At Zaleski, Madison Toicnship, the " Mineral City," or Nelsonville 
coal, is somewhat extensively mined. The seam at the "Bung Hole" 
mines presents the following divisions : Goal, (top) 6 inches; clay parting, 
3 inches ; coal, 2 feet 10 inches ; clay parting, 1 inch ; and 7 inches coal, 
(bottom) making in all nearly 4 feet of coal. . Over the coal is shale of 
varying thickness, and over the shale the usual sand-rock. 

The coal is dry burning, and makes a popular grate coal. The coal has 
less sulphur than many coals, and indeed less than the same seam at sev- 
eral other points. 

Seventy-five feet below the coal, chiefly mined at Zaleski, and the one 
containing the quartzite bowlder, referred to in chapter I, is another 
seam of coal which was formerly wrought by the Zaleski company. It is 
a more caking coal than the upper, and is more contaminated with sulphur. 
It was tried by Mr. Bobson, the first agent of the Zaleski company, in 
the blast furnace with undesirable results. 

Between these two coals, Mr. Bobson found two seams of iron ore, one 
called by Mr. B. a limestone ore because it rests upon a thin limestone. 
The old pits have fallen in and it was impossible to find either the ore or 
limestone. The ore was not considered satisfactory, and for many years 
the supply of ore for the Zaleski furnaces has been brought from further 
west by railroad. 

About 60 feet below the middle coal seam is the lowest seam, seen near 
the junction of the branch to the mines and the M. & C. B. B. The sec- 
tion is as follows: 



96 GEOLOGICAL STJKVET OP OHIO. 

1. Calcareous shale, highly fossiliferous the same as that seen at 

Brewer's Cut and the equivalent of Putnam Hill limestone. . 10 feet seen 

2. Coal 1" 2 in. 

3. Clay and slate parting " 5 " 

4. Coal 2 " 3 " 

5. Black slate. 
Level of railroad. 

This coal would answer a purpose for household use, but is inferior in 
quality to that of the upper seam. 

Mr. Robson found two seams of ore between this coal and the middle 
seam, but they are not exposed now and no observations could bo made. 

A general section on the Zaleski lands is given on Map I, No 24. 

The following are the statistics showing the structure and working of 
the Zaleski furnace : 

Statistics of Zaleski Furnace. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 48 

Diameter across boshes 11 6 

Batter of boshes per foot 11 

Height of hearth 5 6 

Diameter of hearth at top , 2 6 

" " " bottom , 2 2 

3 twyers, height above bottom of hearth 2 6 

Pressure of blast not known. 

f 1050 lbs. ore. 
Half charged 33 bush, charcoal. 

1.50 lbs limestone. 
38 half charges in 24 hours. 

Average daily production in 1869-70 11J tons. 

Total production from May 10, 1869, to March 14, 1870 2445 tons. 

!1745 tons No. 1 foundry. 
150 " " ' 2 " 
550 " mill iron. 

Swan Township. — A few sections were made in this township, but it was 
difficult with the limited time at our command to connect our observa- 
vations with those made elsewhere. The most remarkable and interesting 
fact observed, was an exposure of undoubted Logan sandstone, or Upper 
Waverly, in the valley of the Brushy Fork, near the centre of the town- 
ship. On the land of William Swain, Sec. 21, from 30 to 40 feet of fine- 
grained Logan sandstone were seen along the stream. It contained the 
usual Spirophyton cauda galli, Vermicular markings, etc. 

A section here is as follows, beginning at the top : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Thincoal 4 

2. Not seen, only sandrook at bottom 55 

3. Bituminous slate 3 

4. Clay 6 



GEOLOGHCAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 07 

Feet. Inches. 

5. Coal 4 

6. Not seen .. 3 to 4 

7. Thin iron ore, supposed to mark the top of the Logan sandstone. 

8. Logan sandstone '. 30 to 40 

On the laud of Hiram Swaim, in the same section of township, the fol- 
lowing rocks were seen: 

1. Sandrock, thickness not seen. Feet. Inches. 

2. Sandy black shale , , 6 

3. Coal- „ 2 6 

4. Not seen , 12 

5. Characteristic Logan sandstone — not measured. 



On the land of Cummings Morehead, Sec. 26, Swan township, was 
obtained the following section of rocks: 

F c dt. Inches. 

1. Slate roof of coal not measured — .. 

2. Coal 9 

3. Clayparting - 11 

4. Coal 1 7 

5. Clayparting 2 

6. Coal 1 2 

7. (Clay under the coal, not measured) 

8. Notseen 55 

9. Coal "blossom" , 

10. Notseen 14 ■ 

11. Coal blossom : 

In Jackson township, Vinton county, little coal was seen, and very few 
exposures could be heard of. - The most interesting observation made was 
the exact stratigraphical position of the coal seam of E. P. Stokeley, Sec. 5. 
The geological section is as follows : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Shaly sandstone 8 

2. Sandstone 3 

3. Clayshales ■. 10 

4. Coal 2 10 

5. Fireclay 3 

6. Notseen 2 

7. Logan sandstone group, extending down to Waverly conglomerate. .120 

8. Waverly conglomerate not measured 



98 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



The section is better understood by reference to Fig. 7. The same 
section is, for the most part, seen on Map I, ]STo. 27. 



3' egg££a6fare«& tbne . 

10' fKj!l*g&h<*Ze ■ 

2 '2f W&S Goal. 
9' eiay. 




3S3iogaw 0cmcHgfoiie. 






Fig. 7. 



Here we find the Waverly conglomerate and the Logan sandstone, or 
upper Waverly, extending up to the coal. Kb true Coal-measures con- 
glomerate is found, but the coal, with its superincumbent shales, rests 
directly upon the Logan sandstone. This valuable section tends to verify 
deductions made elsewhere in regard to the Waverly conglomerate, and 
also in regard to the entire absence, over certain large areas, of the true 
Coal-measures Conglomerate. At this place no Maxville limestone was 
found resting upon the top of the Logan group. 

Prof. Wormley analyzed a sample of the Stokeley coal, with the follow- 
ing results : 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 99 

Specific gravity 1.277 

Combined water 3.90 

Ash 3.05 

Volatile matter 35.90 

Fixed carbon -. 57.15 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 2.00 

Cubic feet permanent gas per lb. coal. 2.92 

This coal has a little more sulphur than, belongs to the best coals, but 
in all other respects the coal is most excellent. The per centage of com- 
bined water is relatively small, and so is that of the ash. The per centage 
of fixed carbon is prettj large, and for all uses the coal is excellent, except 
for iron and gas making, for which purposes the sulphur is an obstacle. 

On the land of Eli Hill, Sec. 10, Jackson township, Vinton county, a 
thin seam of coal was found, reported to be 15 in. thick. This coal is over- 
laid by a layer of thin nodules of siderite ore, from 1 in. to 2 in. thick. 
Above the ore were seen 5 feet of blue sandy shale. 

Richland Township. — This township lies on the western margin of the 
Coal-measures. The deeper valleys have exposed the underlying Logan 
sandstone, so that a few good sections have been made from that horizon 
upward. 

On the highest hills in the vicinity of Allensville a blue fossiliferous, 
earthy limestone is seen, which is at once recognized by its lithological 
character and by its fossils as a limestone found extensively through a 
large part of Vinton county. It is seen everywhere in Elk township, to 
the east of Richland, and is the same as that found just above the lowest 
coal at Zaleski, and near Brewer's cut. At the latter locality the earthy 
character predominates, and it weathers into a calcareous shale. It is, as 
I think, the equivalent of the limestone near Union Furnace, Starr town- 
ship, Hocking county, and is, doubtless, the continuation of the Putnam 
Hill limestone. 

On the land of Mr. Zeigler, about 1£ mile east of Allensville, we find 
the blue or Putnam Hill limestone, with some iron ore on it, 123 feet above 
the top of the Logan or upper Waverly. A seam of fire clay rests upon 
the Logan, and above this a seam of coal. No measurements of the coal 
could be made, the old working having fallen in. Some small fragments 
of coal were seen. Forty feet below the fire clay, and down to the Logan 
sandstone, were two evenly spread layers of conglomerate, measuring 15 in. 
and 4 in., respectively, and separated by 10 in. of fine-grained sandstone. 
The Logan here contains the usual upper Waverly fossils. A section of 
the rocks here is given on Map I, No. 29. 



100 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

On a branch of Salt Creek, a mile and a half from its junction with the 
latter, was found a bowlder of white quartz. No "drift" was seen on 
Salt Creek, and this bowlder is one of those estrays occasionally found 
far to the south of the regular drift deposits. 

On the land of Austin Thompson, Sec. 16, Eichland township, were 
found two seams of coal, and their relations to the upper Waverly estab- 
lished. The lower seam is mined to supply a pretty large neighborhood 
demand. It is 60 ft. above the top of the Logan. Thirty-six feet higher is 
another thin seam of coal. On the Logan rests a stratum of white fire clay, 
and over the clay a hard white sand-rock. In this sand-rock are white 
concretions of flint and lime, made up largely of organic forms, often 
comminuted. Fragments of Fenestella were distinctly seen. It appeared 
probable that these concretions represent the horizon of the Maxville 
limestone. 

I have seen similar forms, having the same geological position, in the 
sand rock at the base of the Coal measures in Licking county. 

Mr. Thompson's seam of coal presents at the mine the following divi- 
sions : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Yellow shale, roof 

2. Coal 7 

3. Slate parting r -• 1| 

4. Coal, the efaoice coal used for blacksmithing 1 3 

5. Coal, more slaty 10 

6. Under clay 3 

See Sec. 2, Map II. 

A sample of the best coal or middle part of the seam was analyzed by 
Prof. Wormley with the following result : 

Specific gravity : t 1.262 

Combined water 6.80 

Ash 1.50 

Volatile matter 30.80 

Fixed carbon 60.90 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 1.08 

This is, in all respects, a very superior coal. The ash is unusually small 
and the amount of fixed carbon is quite large. The percentage of sulphur 
is not excessive, and it is probable that much of it passes off in the vola- 
tile matter. The seam is not thick enough for very profitable mining, 
especially if the more slaty part should be l'ejected ; but it may possibly 
be found of increased thickness in the vicinity, if careful and intelligent 
.search were made. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 101 

On the land of John Coil, section 29, Eichland township, a section was 
taken showing the blue or "Putnam Hill" limestone in its relation to 
the Waverly. The location is about 3£ miles southwest of Mr. Zeigler's, 
where a similar section was made, but it was found that the interval had 
increased in the southwest direction more than 60 ft. The sections were 
taken and verified several times so as to preclude any possibility of mis- 
take. The coal seam at Mr. Coil's is very near the top of the Logan or 
Upper Waverly. The highest point in the Logan exposed was 15 ft. below 
the coal, but it probably comes up to the usual clay under the coal. 
Above the coal is a shaly sandstone, over which is a heavy coarse sand- 
rock. Seventy-five ft. below the limestone w r as detected a trace of a coal 
seam. With the limestone is the following group : 

1. Shaly sandstone, 3 feet, seen. 

2. Clay, 2 feet. 

3. Iron ore, not measured. 

4. Blue or " Putnam Hill " limestone. 

For this Sec. see No. 5, Map II. 

The seam of coal just above the Waverly, on Mr. Coil's land, was meas- 
ured by Mr. Gilbert and found to be 2 ft. 6 in. thick, but it is claimed to 
be 3 ft. 6 in. The coal is somewhat slaty. Prof. Wormley made an analy- 
sis of the coal with the following result : 

Specific gravity 1.348 

Combined water 5.10 

Ash 9.25 

Volatile matter 27.50 

Fixed carbon 58.15 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 1.11 

Cub. ft. permanent gas per lb 2.75 

The ash is a little larger than is desirable, but the coal is, notwithstand- 
ing, a very excellent one. It is hoped that careful explorations may be 
made to find it in larger development. 

In section 3, Eichland township, belonging properly to the north tier 
of sections in Washington township, Mr. Gilbert found a seam of coal 13 
in. thick, about 60 feet above the top of the Logan or Upper Waverly. 
Although thin, it may be found in thicker development in the vicinity. 
Prof. Wormley made an analysis with the following results: 



102 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

Specific gravity 1.350. 

Combined water 5.30 

Ash 4.85 

Volatile matter 36.50 

Fixed carbon i - 53.35 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 1.31 

Cub. ft. permanent gasper lb 3.24 

This indicates a good quality of coal. 

Another seam of coal is found considerably higher in the hills to the 
east of Cincinnati Furnace, which has been mined a little for household 
use by the Cincinnati Furnace Company. Its exact stratigraphical posi- 
tion could not be well ascertained for. the want of some definite base line 
to measure from. The seam is reported to be from 30 in. to 33 in. thick 
with a single slate parting 1 in. thick. Below the underlying fire clay is 
a sand-rock used for hearth-stones at the furnace. 

This coal is probably the same as a seam in the immediate neighbor- 
hood once opened by Hon. Seneca W. Ely, which he reported to be " 30 
in. thick with 1 in. slate parting." 

There was at the time of the formation of the strata in this region a 
marked tendency to the segregation of iron ores, and ore of greater or less 
urity is found at several different horizons. In some places there are 
only small concretions and widely scattered, and at others the masses are 
quite large. The ore chiefly mined is a block ore, pretty high on the hill 
above the level of the railroad, but no exact measurements were made. 
Of late years much of the ore used in the furnace has been brought from 
the neighborhood of Vinton Station. 

At Cincinnati Furnace there is a very heavy body of coarse sand-rock 
resting directly upon the Upper Waverly. Mr. Gilbert measured 46 feet 
cf this coarse rock. The railroad tunnel, at the furnace is excavated in 
the Waverly, which here shows the usual fossils. The stream in Hungry 
Hollow has not only cut a channel down through the coarse sand-rock, 
but also down into the Waverly, to a depth of 75 feet. The cliffs on the 
north side of the stream are very bold, and the summer residence of Mr. 
McLandburg, perched upon one of them, has a very attractive and pic- 
turesque appearance. ' The coarse sand-rock over the Upper Waverly does 
not extend very far to the north or east. On section 29, Eichland town- 
ship, two or three miles north of the furnace, John Coil's coal rests almost 
directly upon the Upper Waverly. Coal is found 3J miles west of the 
furnace. 

Structure of Cincinnati Furnace, operated in 1870 by Messrs. Long & 
Smith : 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 103 

Feet. Inches. 

Height 40 

Diameter of tunnel head 1 6 

" atboshes 10 6 

Height of hearth 4 

Diameter " at top 3 

" " bottom 2 4 

Height of twyers from bottom of hearth 2 

Number of twyers, 2. 
Diameter " 4 inches. 

Pressure of blast, 31 lbs. 
Temperature of blast, 900°. • 
Average daily production, 13 tons. 
In blast about 9 months each year. 
Rule to stop on Sundays. 
Proportions of " half charge : " 

950 to 1,000 lbs, ore (f " limestone ore," and i " native block ore.") 

30 bushels charcoal. 

Limestone not reported. 

A well 1,400 feet deep was bored several years since for oil, about half 
a mile west of the furnace. IsTo oil was obtained. Gas was emitted in 
large quantities at first, and still continues to flow in a less degree, the 
well being partially choked. Mr. Long reports that no limestone was 
struck in the whole depth, and only Waverly and the Black Slate were 
penetrated. The top of the well is in the Upper Waverly or Logan, say 
100 feet from the surface. This would give us 540 feet of Waverly strata, 
and 320 feet of the Black Slate, (assuming these formations to have the 
same thickness as on the Ohio river), and then there should be found the 
limestones which crop out to the west. What peculiar modification of 
the lower limestones caused them to be mistaken for black slate, I have 
no means of knowing,, as the borings are now gone. 

On the land of Matthew Hanna, Richland township, Mr. Ballantine 
made a section from the blue "Putnam Hill" limestone down to the Wa- 
verly, although he was not certain that he found the exact top of the 
latter. The top of the high knob was found to be 265 feet above the bed 
of Salt creek. On the blue limestone was found disintegrated sandy iron 
ore. Seventy feet below the limestone is a seam of coal, reported to be 
from 20 to 24 inches thick. Another seam of coal was reported to have 
been found below this, but was not seen by Mr. Ballantine. The upper 
seam corresponds nearly to a " blossom " of coal found by Mr. Gilbert 75 
feet below the blue limestone at John Coil's, section 29. The section on 
Mr. Hanna's land is seen on Map I, No. 28. 

On the land of B. P. Bothwell, section 1, Richland township, we find 
the blue fossiliferous limestone 6 feet thick. Here in a meadow the sur- 



104 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

face was sufficiently exposed to exhibit the directions of well denned 
vertical joints. These were found by Hon. Homer Jones to be 25". 28° E., 
and S". 68° E. The strata exposed at this point are the following : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. SoU 

2. Light gray shale 5 

3. Coal 1 

4. Blue clay 2 4 

5. Coal -5J 

6. Dark blue clay 1 10 

7. Coal 7 

8. C,lay (reported) 1 6 

9. Coal (reported) 6 

10. Not seen 4 2 

11. Blue limestone, "Putnam Hill" 6 

Eor this section see TSo. 4, Map II. 

On the land of Martin Essick, large plates of mica are reported to have 
been found. As mica does not belong to the Coal formation, except in 
comminuted particles in micaceous sandstone, these pieces must have 
come from a disintegrated granite bowlder, or have been brought there 
by the Mound-builders or by Indians, who were always attracted by this 
beautiful stone. Plates of it are often found in the mounds where they, 
with stone implements and copper ornaments, were buried as the treas- 
ures of him whom the mound commemorated. 

On the hill of George Brown, section 1, Eichland township, a section 
was made of the strata lying above the Putnam Hill limestone. The 
upper seam of coal has. been mined, but no measurements were made. 
The section is given on Map I, No. 26. The blue limestone is 6 feet thick, 
under which were seen 3 feet black shale, highly fossiliferous. 

Elk Township. — On the land of John S. Dillon, section 17, Elk township, 
we find the blue limestone, "Putnam Hill," from 8 feet to 10 feet thick, 
and 34 feet above it a well developed seam of coal. 

The following is a section. See also Map II, No. 6. 

1. Shale, roof. Feet. Inches. 

2. Coal, reported as sometimes wanting 10 to 12 

3. Clay parting 4 to 10 

4. Coal 4 5 

5. Sandstones and shales 34 

6. Blue "Putnam Hill" limestone 8 to 10 

Part of the coal in the above seam is an impure cannel. The seam at 
Benjamin Newland's bank is similar in quality and thickness. Considera- 
ble coal is mined from these banks. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 105 

On tlie farm of Stephen Kline, in section 17, Elk township, the same 
seam gives the following measurements : 

1. Slate roof. Feet. Inches. 

3. Coal 10tol2 

3. Clay parting 6 

4. Cannel ' 9 8 

5. Bituminous coal 1 

Totalcoal 4 8 

On the land of Andrew Wolfe, M. D., section 8, Elk township, a careful 
section was made by Mr. Ballantine. See Map II, No. 1. In this section 
we have three interesting features, the blue or " Putnam Hill " limestone; 
and above it, 137 feet, the buhr, the geological equivalent of the Ferrifer- 
ous limestone, which we find a little way to the south, and from which 
we shall not part company until we reach the Ohio River, in Lawrence 
county j while 83 feet below the blue limestone, we find the Elk Fork coal, 
generally known as the " Wolfe coal." The following are the principal 
items of the section : 

1. Buhr, once quarried for millstones, not measured. Feet. Inches. 

2. Notseen 73 

3. Coal, once mined, reported 4 feet 4 

4. Notseen 5? .. 

5. Iron ore, not measured. 

6. Shales, chiefly 22 

7. Trace or "blossom" of coal. 

8. Sandstone and shale 37 

9. Blue limestone, "Putnam Hill," not measured. 

10. Not well seen, blue shale at bottom 65 

11. Slatycoal 2 

12. Grayshale 16 

13. * Elk Fork coal (no parting) 2 7 

14. Clay. 

Samples were selected by me of Dr. Wolfe's coal for analysis. I had 
no access to the mine, the entry having partially fallen in, and I took two 
samples from a heap at the mouth of the mine, one to represent what was 
apparently the better and the other the poorer part of the seam. I am 
not certain that the selections made represent the seam with entire accu- 
racy. The following are Prof. Wormley's results of analysis : 

* Note. — From 3 to 4 feet are claimed as the thickness of this seam. It is possible 
that our measurement was taken at a point where the coal was not of full average thick" 



106 GEOLOGICAL STIGVJEY OP OHIO. 

Specific gravity • 1.280 1.309 



Combined water 7.50 5.40 

Ash 1.60 6.20 

Volatile matter 32.20 28.20 

Fixedcarbon 58.70 60.20 



Total 100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 0.63 0.66 

Cubic feet permanent gas per pound 3.11 3.11 

Color of ash yellow white 

These analyses show the coal to be of very superior quality. The sul- 
phur is small in both samples. In the first the ash is very small; in the 
second the ash is considerable, yet not excessive. The percentage of 
fixed carbon is sufficiently large for iron making. The coal is dry burn- 
ing. I have little doubt that the coal will be needed ere long for iron mak- 
ing, for which purpose it will, doubtless, serve an admirable purpose. 

On Dr. Wolfe's " Speed place," section 16, Elk township, we find the 
blue or "Putnam Hill" limestone and the "limestone ore" 137 feet above 
it. This ore has been somewhat extensively dug at this point. Directly 
over the ore is a heavy sand-rock. Seventy- three feet below the ore is a 
seam of coal, once mined, but the old drift is now fallen in and no meas- 
urements could be made. This coal is 64 feet above the blue limestone. 
This limestone is 10 feet thick, all of it quite shaly except the very bot- 
tom which is quite solid. Below the limestone, 38 feet, is a sand-rock 12 
feet thick, under which is a shale irregularly bedded 2 feet thick, and con- 
taining nodules of blue or siderite ore. For this section, see Map I, 
No. 30. 

Mr. Ballantine reports finding in the north-west quarter, section 16, 
Elk township, in the bed of Elk Pork, fine-grained sandstone with im- 
pressions of SpiropTiyton cauda-galli. The rock in lithological character 
and fossils, apparently belongs to the Logan Upper Waverly, and I am 
led to think it quite possible that there may be here, in the valley of Elk, 
as we have seen in Swan township, in Brushy Pork valley, a local ex- 
posure of the Logan or Upper Waverly sandstone. The valley is eroded 
down to the top of what is, doubtless, an elevation or ridge of the Upper 
Waverly. If this is so, then it is more than probable that Dr. Wolfe's 
Elk Pork coal is not very far above the Upper Waverly. In physical 
structure, this coal resembles the block coal of the Jackson shafts, and a 
similar coal in Hamilton township, Jackson county. 

The relation of Dr. Wolfe's Elk Fork coal to the bine limestone is given, 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 107 

(see Map II, Sec. No. 1), but not its relation to the Waverly. West of the 
Elk Creek valley, in Richland township, the top of the Waverly lies at a 
far greater distance below the blue limestone. 

On the land of Columbus B. Pilcher, section 15, Elk township, the gray 
Ferriferous limestone is seen. The lower part of it is flinty, and both 
parts contain fossils. There are two seams of coal above the limestone. 
The whole group in detail is as follows : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Coa], reported 4 6 

2. Not seen 50 

3. Coal, reported 3 6 

4. Grayshale 14 

5. Iron ore 6 

6. Sandy gray shale 1 3 

7. Ferriferous limestone and flint , 2 

8. Clay 3 

9. Coal "blossom" 

The limestone ore is of good quality and has been extensively mined. 
It is separated from the limestone by 1 foot 3 inches gray shale. 

In Sec. 8, Elk township, on the land of Joseph Kaler, the blue or Putnam 
Hill limestone was seen, with a seam of coal a little above it. This coal 
was reported to be 4 feet thick. Thirty-seven feet above the limestone 
is another and higher seam of coal, but no definite knowledge of it could 
be gained. Between the two seams of coal was seen much ore scattered 
over the surface. One hundred and nine feet below the limestone, the 
interval not seen in detail but made up mostly of sandstone and shales, 
a thin seam of coal was found, reported to be one foot thick. Below this 
coal were seen 10 feet of shaly sandstone. This section is given on Map 
II, No. 3. 

On the land of Thomas B. Davis a half mile north-west of McArthur, a 
section was taken showing the place of three seams of coal between the Put- 
nam Hill limestone and the "limestone ore." Here the ore and the lime- 
stone (Putnam Hill,) are 137 feet apart. Thirty seven feet above the 
limestone, which is here a hard blue limestone, 8 inches thick, breaking 
up into blocks 4 feet long by 1 foot 6 inches wide, is the evidence or 
" blossom " of a seam of. coal. This is the same as the seam on Sec. 8, 
which is also 76 feet above the limestone. Twenty-seven feet higher, or 
64 feet above the limestone, is another seam of coal, reported to be about 
4 feet thick. Twenty-three feet higher is another coal, reported to be 
between 3 and 4 feet thick. This is regarded as the equivalent of the 
" Dowd seam." Fifty feet above the last coal, is the " limestone ore," 
which has here been dug. For this section see Map II, No. 7. 



108 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 

In Sec. 30, Elk township, on the land of John Huhn, a section was 
taken which revealed two seams of coal below the upper or Ferriferous 
limestone. Here the limestone measured 10 feet, but Mr. Ballantine 
thought the lower 4 feet might have slipped down, if so, the seam is only 
6 feet thick. This is what is usually termed the gray limestone, to dis- 
tinguish it from the blue found 137 feet below ; but at this point it has 
an unusually bluish tint. At the horizon of this limestone on the same 
hill, both iron ore and buhr millstones have been quarried. 

Thirty-seven feet below the limestone, is a seam of coal with the follow 
ing reported measurements : 

Feet. Inches. 

Coal 2 

Clay parting ■ 1 

Coal 4 

Twenty feet below this is a seam of coal reported to be 1 foot 6 inches 
thick. This section is given on Map II, No. 8. 

A section showing the position of seams of coal on the land of the 
Vinton Furnace Company, Sec. 15, Elk township, is seen on Map II, No. 9. 

None of the seams of coal were opened, and no measurements could be 
obtained. The Furnace Oompauy bought the land chiefly for the " lime- 
stone ore." 

On the land of William Huggins, Sec. 14, Elk township, we find a 
" blossom" of a coal seam, believed by Mr. Ballantine to be the equiva- 
lent of the seam immediately under the Ferriferous limestone. Below 
this " blossom," 43| feet is a group of strata, as follows : 

1. Sandrock, roof of coal, thickness not seen. Feet. Inches. 

2. Coal, reported -- 3 

3. Clay t 

4. Flint (various colors) 3 6 

5. Coal 10 

6. Clay ., - 4 

7. Coal 10 

8. Clay ■- 2 

9. Coal 8 

10. Clay. 

For this section, see Map II, No. 10. 

On the land of William Gold, Sec. 22, Elk township, the Ferriferous 
limestone is found with a fine development of limonite ore over it and a 
seam of coal reported 3 feet 4 inches thick a little below. The ore is quite 
irregular, but at one place attains a very unusual thickness. It is re- 
ported to range from a few inches to 9 feet, the reported average being 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 109 

from 2 feet 6 inches to 3 feet. This is one of the most celebrated 
developments of ore in all Southern Ohio. It has been mined by drifts, 
and Mr. Gold reports 10,880 tons taken from less than two acres. 
At one place the limestone and ore are both wanting, but the coal re- 
mains. The horizon of these is occupied by 5 feet of blue shale with a 
heavy sandrock above, of which 15 or 20 feet were seen. The strata on 
Mr. Gold's land may be learned from the following section : 

1. Eeported coal, not measured. Feet. Indies. 

2. Sandrock and shale, etc 35 

3. Ore limonite, average , 2^ to 3 

4. Ferriferous limestone 7 

5. Clay 7 

6. Coal 3 4 

7. Sandstones and shales 33 

8. Coal not measured 

9. Interval, not seen .. 6 

10. Ore, reported 8 

11. Interval, not seen 34 

12. Coal"blossom" 

13. Interval, not seen 36 

14. Coal "blossom" 

This section is seen on Map II, No. 11. 

On the land of Conrad Schmidt, section 27, Elk township, we find a 
seam of coal, reported 3 feet thick, the stratigraphical position of which 
is about 30 feet below the Ferriferous limestone. This seam is claimed to 
be 6 feet thick in places. There are strata below of interest, and we give 
the group, commencing with the coal above referred to : 



Feet. Inches. 

1. Coal 3 

2. Notseen 17 

3. Sand-rock 3 

4. Coal 2 

5. Clay 4 

6. Flint, of various colors 2 6 

7. Notseen '.. 25 

8. Coal 2 

9. Clay 1 10 

10. Coal 4 

11. Cannal coal 1 



The above section is given in Map II, No. 12. 



110 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

On the land of J. Shockey, section 27, Elk township, we find the 
Ferriferous limestone, and with it the following strata : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ferriferous limestone 3 8 

2. Notseen 30 

3. Coal 2ft.5 in. to 3 3 

4. Sandstone 3 in. to 15 in. — average 9 

5. Coal 2 3 

6. Notseen 26 

7. Coal (once worked) , 

The irregular stratum of sandstone in the upper seam of coal is a little 
remarkable. We often find the coal marsh inundated by waters bringing 
in fine sediments which constitute clay or slate partings, but it is very 
rare to find evidence of an overflow with a current strong enough to bring 
in sand. It is possible that this part of the marsh was flooded by a river 
bringing down from the higher land sand which subsequently hardened 
into the sand-rock. 

The above section is given in Map II, No. 13. 

We find in section 34, Elk township, on the lands of Henry Eutsler, 
the " limestone coal," with the overlying limestone (Ferriferous) but sel- 
dom seen. Much ore has been dug from its proper horizon over the 
limestone. The following are the strata seen on Mr. Eutsler's land : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore — not measured 

2. Ferriferous limestone— not measured 

3. Dark shale- -not measured 

4. Coal 1 4 

5. Clay parting 5 

6. Coal 1 8 

7. Clay 1 

8. Coal 1 

9. Sandstone and shale 18 

10. Sand-rock 4 

11. Black clay, reported 2 6 

12. Coal 1 2 



At the "ore diggings" of Patrick McAllister, near Vinton Furnace 
station, we find the Ferriferous limestone with an interesting group of 
iron ores and seams of coal. The following is the whole group : 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 



Ill 



Feet. Inches. 

1. Coal " blossom " , 

2. Not seen, except sand-rock at bottom 33 

3. Clay 5 

4. Ore " limestone," reported 3 

5. Ferriferous limestone, average 5 

6. Clay, estimated 2 

7. Coal — not opened 

8. Sandstone and shale. 39 

9. Coal — not opened 

10. Shale 6 

11. Ore, " gray kidney " ■ 4 

12. Ore, "little fine block " . 10 

13. Sandstone and shales 32 

14. Coal— reported 3 6 

15. Sandstone and shales 36 

16. Ore, "kidney" i 2 

17. Ore, "big red block" 10 

18. Flint — not measured - .. 

19. "Putnam Hill" limestone — not measured 

20. Coal — notmeasured 

For this section see Map II, No. 14. 

Mr. Ballantine obtained a suite of ores from Mr. McAllister for 
analysis. Prof. Wormley reports his analyses as follows : 



Number 1 the lower part of the limestone ore. 



middle " 

top 

"fine block." 

"little fine block." 

"red block.'.' 





1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


Specific gravity (dried at 212°) 


2.709 


2.307 


3.333 


3.018 


2.287 


2.682 


Combined water 


12.65 
17.26 
65.65 
0.05 
1.40 
0.55 
1.28 
0.215 
0.10 


8.90 

22.16 

60.86 

0.0 

3.95 

0.12 

0.83 

2.524 

trace. 


7.50 
6.64 
79.37 
0.0 
1.75 
2.95 
0.56 
0.91 
0.0 


7.75 
10.04 
78.74 
0.30 
1.75 
0.0 
0.64 
0.222 
0.0 


11.60 

13.08 

72.43 

0.0 

1.10 

0.55 

0.83 

0.255 

trace. 


8.75 


Silicious matter 


43.46 


Sesquioxide of iron 


45.95 • 




0.0 




0.50 


Lime 


0.20 


Magnesia 


0.50 




0.971 


Sulphur 








Total 


99.155 


99.344 


99.68 


99.442 


99.845 


100.331 








45.95 


42.60 


55.56 


55.12 


50.70 


32 17 







112 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

The stratigraphical place of the " fine block " is not given in the geo- 
logical section. 

The ores in the above table are all of the hydrated sesquioxide class, 
but show different degrees of hydration. The determinations for sulphur 
show the ores to be remarkably pure in this respect. No. 1 gives only 
0.10 per cent, and the others give none whatever, or only a mere chemical 
trace. 

The percentage of phosphoric acid is greater. It will be remembered 
that the proportion of phosphorus to oxygen in phosphoric acid is 31 to 
40. By reducing the phosphoric acid in Prof. Wormley's table, we have 
the following as the percentage of pure phosphorus: 

No. 1, 0.094-; No. 2, 1.102 ; No. 3, 0.397 ; No. 4, 0.096 ; No. 5, 0.111 ; No. 
6, 0.424. The only ore in which phosphorous is found in objectionable 
quantity is No. 2. 

The coal seam near McArthur, mined by Messrs. Gilman, Ward & Co., 
was thought to be the "Dowd seam." It here presents the following 
divisions: 

Ft. Inches. 

Coal, reported 1 6 

Clay parting 6 

Coal 1 6 

Clay parting 1 

Coal 1 5 

Under-clay 

On the land of Otho L. Marfield, Sec. 27, Elk township, we find the 
Ferriferous limestone and the " limestone ore," which has here been ex- 
tensively dug. Fifty-five feet below the limestone is a seam of cannel 
coal, reported 2 feet thick. The coal seams between the limestone and 
horizon of the cannel were not seen, there being no exposure of the 
intervening strata. For this section see Map II, No. 17. 

A sample of ore from the lands of the Zaleski Furnace Company, not 
far from Vinton Station, was analyzed by Prof. Wormley. It was taken 
from a heap which had been lying at Vinton Station for two years. It 
was originally a blue or siderite ore, but, as the analysis shows, had be- 
come considerably changed by atmospheric action. 

Analysis : 
Specific gravity 

Combined water ... : 4.38 

Silica 8.56 

Sesquioxide of iron 46.65 

Carbonate of iron , 25.68 

Alumina 1-00 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 113 

Oxide manganese 1.45 

Carbonate of lime 3.57 

Carbonate of magnesia 5.60 

Sulphur 2.53 

Phosphoric acid 0.384 

Total 99.804 

Percentage of metallie iron 45.09 

Madison Township lies east of Elk, and contains the Ferriferous lime- 
stone and associated ore in the southern part. The section at Zaleski, 
already given, does not reveal the limestone and ore, although their 
proper place would be just above the "Bunghole" seam of coal. 

Sections were taken in the vicinity of Vinton Furnace, a half mile 

north, of the furnace, presenting the following strata : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Limestone ore 10 

2. Ferriferous limestone 5 

3. Not seen 21 

4. Sand-rock : 3 

5. Slate 1? 

6. Coal 1 

7. Slate 4 

8. Coal 1 9 

9. Slate 2 

10. Coal 1 2 

11. Slate 1 

12. Coal 1 2 

13. Under-clay 

For this section see Map II, No. 16. 

The coal is an excellent one for all ordinary uses. The usual limestone 
coal, i. e., the seam generally found directly under the Ferriferous lime- 
stone, is thought not to exist at this particular point, as explorations, for 
it have not been successful. Mr. Gilbert saw not even a trace of it. 

A section taken a mile and a half south-east from the furnace gives the 

following strata : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore, not measured 

2. Ferriferous limestone, not measured 

3. Blossom of coal below the limestone 

4. Interval from limestone to black slate 30 

5. Black slate with Linguhs and scales of fishes 3 

6. Coal..". 2 6 

This coal is the same as that found a half mile north of the furnace. 
At the latter place there is an aggregate of 5 feet 1 inch of coal, inde- 
pendently of the slate partings. 
8 



114 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 05 OHIO. 

A section given in Map II, No. 15, was made up of two, one taken on 
the hill back of the furnace, and the other taken in the shaft of the coal 
mine. It presents the following named strata : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Limestone ore, not measured 

2. Ferriferous limestone, not measured ; 

3. Not seen 5 

4. Coal 9 

5. Slate : 8 

6. Coal 1 2 

7. Not seen 65 

8. Coal ^ 2 

Top of shaft. 

9. Soil, gravel and elay 20 

10. Blue shale 40 

11. Sand-rock 7 

12. Coal 3 

13. Blackslate r 11 6 

14. Sandstones and shales.. 30 

15. Blacknint 1 6 

16. Sandstone and shales 31 

17. Coal 2 

18. Clay 1 3 

19. Coal 4 

20. Sandstones and shales 23 8 

21. Clay shale 18 

22. Coal 1 3 

23. Clayparting 3 

24. Coal 1 4 

It was claimed that the lower coal was at other points thicker than 
where measured by Mr. Ballantine. The facilities for a careful examina- 
tion of this coal in the shaft were not very good. This seam of coal has 
the same stratigraphical relation to the Ferriferous limestone as the shaft 
coal of Mr. H. F. Austin, Sec. 7, Milton township, Jackson county. By 
reference to Map III, it will be seen that some of the finest coals of Jack- 
son county are found in this geological horizon. These coals will here- 
after be considered. 

Two samples of the Vinton Furnace shaft coal were analyzed by Prof. 
"Wormley, the first sample taken from towards the bottom, and the second 
from above the clay parting 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 115 

Analysis. No. 1. No. 2. 

Specific gravity 1.321 1.281 

Combined water 4.60 4.90 

Ash - 10.60 6.60 

Volatile matter 29.00 30.70 

Fixedcarbon 55.80 57.80 

Total 100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 1.30 0.65 

Cub. ft. permanent gas per lb 2.92 2.99 

This coal has been tried in the Vinton Furnace, but the result has not 
been satisfactory. The sulphur averages 0.975. How much of this 
passes off in the volatile matter of the coal was not ascertained. I ap- 
prehend that if the coal were entirely satisfactory in other respects, the 
sulphur would not be sufficient to destroy its usefulness. The ash, how- 
ever, is unusually large. This would demand a larger quantity of lime- 
stone for flux than is usually allowed. Furthermore, the shaft is deep 
and the seam of coal thin, and doubtless the great expense of mining 
entered largely as an element of failure in the profitable use of the coal. 

To the north of Vinton Furnace, towards Zaleski, the Ferriferous lime- 
stone and accompanying ore are not found. There appears to be an 
entire change in the deposits over the limestone coal, and we generally 
find heavy sand-rock and shales. This state of things continues far to the 
north, through the whole range of the Nelsonville or Straitsville coal. 

The only exception to this is in the layer of flint or buhr found over 
the coal at Flint Eidge, in Licking and Muskingum counties. 

Passing from Madison township into Knox on the east, we find the 

" Mineral City " or Nelsonville coal, with the usual heavy sand-rock over 

it. The section taken by Mr. Ballantine, on the land of Isaac Haney, 

Sec. 35, Knox township, shows the following strata : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sand-rock 15 

2. Shale 1 

3. Coal 1 7 

4. Clayparting 1 

5. Coal 7 

Another section taken on Jacob Porter's land, Sec. 6, in the same town- 
ship, is as follows : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sand-rock 10 

2. Light gray shale 6 6 

3. Coal 4 

4. Clayparting 2 

5. Coal 1 8 

6. Clayparting 1 

7. Coal 6 

. Under-clay 



116 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

The following strata was seen at Henry Packard's mill, Sec. 35, Knox 
township : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sand-rock — (not measured) 

2. Dark shale 2 

3. Blackshale 7 

4. Coal 1 8 

5. Clay parting 1 

6. Coal 5 

7. Interval, mostly gray shale 48 

8. Coal 1 5 

9. Under-clay — (not measured) 

10. Notseen 44 6 

11. Coal and slate reported as found in boring an oil well 6 

For this section, see Map I., No. 25. 

The lower reported coal and slate are thought, by Mr. Ballantine, to be 
the probable equivalent to the lower two coals and included slate seen 
in the Moonville section — Map.L, ]STo. 21. 

On the land of W. 0. Foster, Sec. 6, Knox township, the following sec- 
tion was made : 

Feet. Inches. 
Soil and mounds on top of hill 

1. Sand-rock 10 

2. Limonite ore - 5 

3. Bufflimestone 10 

4. Bine limestone — fossiliferous 8 

5. Interval, with heavy ledges of sand-rock 125 

6. Blossom of coal - 

7. Interval, lower part sand-rock 65 

8. Shale 5 

9. Coal— "Mineral City" seam 2 9 

10. Sandyshales 43 

11. Coal blossom .- 

12. Notseen....- 40 

13. Dark shale (fossiliferons) 4 

14. Coal 15in.to2 

On the land of J. H. Brooks, 1J miles north-east of Boland's Mill, Knox 
township, the following strata were seen : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sand-rock 10 

2. Coal 1 1 

3. Clay parting 3 

4. Coal 1 6 

5. Blue under-clay .. 1 15 

6. Not seen ) 

7. Buff limestone, compact, without fossils - 8 

8. Light gray sandy shales , - - «> 



GEOLOGICAL SXTRTET OP OHIO. 117 

Vinton Township. — la this township we generally find the Ferriferous 
limestone and accompanying ore, but in some places both are wanting. 

At Eakin's Mill, in Sec. 4, the Ferriferous limestone is seen, and a section 
was taken by Mr. Ballantine, which covers a vertical range of 245 feet. 
The following strata were seen, beginning at the summit of the hills : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sandstone and shale, not measured 

2. Compact gray limestone, fossiliferous, (seen) 1 3 

3. Sandstone and shale 31 

4. "Blossom" of coal 

5. Interval, not seen 19 . 

6. "Blossom" of coal 

7. Sandstone and shale 58 

8. Buff limestone, reported 2 

9. Shale and sand-rock, mostly sand-rock 56 6 

10. Coal, not measured 

11. Sandstone and shale :.... 51 

12. Coal, reported 1 

13. Bituminous slate, reported - 2 6 

14. Coal, reported 2 

15. Sand-rock, mostly 21 

16. Iron ore 10 

17. Ferriferous limestone 3 to 4 

18. Black shale 4 

19. Coal, reported 4 

For this section, see Map II, No. 21. 

On the land of Winthrop Sargeant's heirs, on Raccoon creek, a half 
mile below the mouth of Middle Fork, Vinton township, we find the " lime- 
stone coal," but no limestone nor ore in their proper places above it. The 
section is as follows : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sandstone and shales, not measured 

2. Heavy sand-rock — 50 

3. Finely laminated black shale 9 

4. Coal 1 6 

5. Clay parting 7£ 

6. Coal, reported 1 6 

Bed of creek. 

For this section, see Map II, No. 19. 

On the land of Mrs. O'Harra, one-fourth of a mile above the mouth of 
Middle Fork, the Ferriferous limestone and accompanying ore were also 
found wanting. Here a similar laminated shale takes the place of the 
limestone and ore. The limits of the area of Jhis remarkable displacement 
of the Ferriferous limestone and ore were not definitely ascertained. 



118 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

On the lands of the Eagle Furnace Company, Sec. 33, Vinton township, 
Mr. Ballantine found the following strata : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Coal 1)108801)1 

2. Shale 15 

3. Ore, reported 8 in. to 2 

4. Ferriferous limestone 5 

5. Light gray shale 15 4 

6. Coal 1 8 

7. Clay parting 6 

8. Coal 1 4 

9. Clay parting 1 

10. Coal 1 6 

11. Shales, mostly 12 

12. Sand-roct, quarried 13 

13. Coal, not measured 

For this section, see Map II, No. 24. 

A quarter of a mile from the place where the other section was made, 
near Eagle Furnace, the Ferriferous limestone and ore are replaced by 
sand-rock which rests directly upon the " limestone coal." 

No statistics of the structure and production of Eagle Furnace were 
received. 

An oil well was bored in 1867 on the land of John Calvin, Sec. 4, 
Yinton township. At the depth of 95 feet a seam of coal was reported 
measuring 5 feet in thickness. At the depth of 490 feet a fissure 
containing gas was struck. The gas rushed up with great force and took 
fire from the engine fire, 40 feet distant, and burned to a height variously 
estimated from 75 to 200 feet. The burning continued for a fortnight, and 
caused no little consternation among many of the people of the neighbor- 
hood. The gas is still emitted with great force. It seems a great pity 
that so much heating and illuminating power should go to waste. In 
many places this gas would be worth thousands of dollars each year. 
There is, apparently, little diminution of the volume of gas from year to 
year. This fact, and similar ones, indicate the probability that over the 
whole area of the Ohio Coal-measures, and probably in the Waverly also, 
wells might be profitably bored for the gas. 

There is brought up from Mr. Calvin's well a small quantity of salt 
water. 

On Thomas Bowers' land, Sec. 5, Vinton township, is found a thin seam 
of coal, 18 in. thick, with a clay parting 2 in. thick. This is believed to be 
the same seam as that seen above the limestone at Eakin's Mill. 

Clinton township.— Passing west from Vinton township we enter Clinton 
township. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO, 119 

At McArthur Station, the Ferriferous limestone is often well developed 
with the accompanying ore. 

On the land of Eichard Timms, near the railroad station, we find the 
following strata: 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore, reported average 1 

2. Ferriferous limestone, lower part flinty, thickness not seen, estimated 2 6 

3. Interval not seen, estimated 3 

Coal not measured 

Not seen 12 

Ore supposed to be a local deposit 1 

Not seen 15 

"Block ore" in three layers — total... 1 

For this Section see Map II, No. 18. 

An analysis of the " Block ore " was made by Prof. Wormley with the 
following results : 

Specific gravity i 3.182 



Combined water 10.20 

Silicious matter 21.79 

Sesquioxide of iron 65.00 

Alumina 0.20 

Oxide manganese 0.95 

Lime 0.39 

Magnesia 0.76 

Phosphoric acid 0.0 

Sulphur trace. 



Total 99.29 



Percentage metallic iron 45.50 

This ore is remarkably pure containing neither phosphorus nor sulphur. 

On the land of Mr. O. T. Gunning, section 9, Clinton township, there is, 
in places, a fine development of the " limestone ore." At one point it 
measured 4 ft.', but not far away the ore was replaced by the buhr. Some- 
times in this region the limestone is found without either ore or buhr. 
At one point the limestone measured 2 ft. 3 in. The usual coal above the 
limestone was seen, but the workings having fallen in, no measurements 
were made. It is reported to be 4 ft. 2. in. in thickness. 

A coal seam was reported below the limestone, but neither the coal nor 
interval was measured. 

At Hamden Furnace, section 21, Clinton township and vicinity, a sec- 
ion was made giving a vertical range of 179 feet. At some places the 



120 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

Ferriferous limestone and ore were not seen, but at others both were well 
exposed. The following is a combined section : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Coal, reported 2 8 

2. Shale,mostly 25 

3. Phosphorus iron ore, reported 4 

4. Not seen 2 6 

5. Coal, reported. 3 6 

6. Sandstone and shale 21 

7. Limestone ore, reported 10 inches to 1 

8. Ferriferous limestone 6 

9. Gray clay shale 7 

10. Coal.... 1 5 

11. Clay parting 6 

12. Coal 1 3 

13. Clayparting 1 

14. Coal 7 

15. Under clay, not measured .'. 

16. Sandstones and shales 31 

17. Little or red block ore 6 

18. Softsandrock 11 

19. Outcrop of ore, not measured 

20. Soft sand-rock , 9 

21. Coal, 4 inches to 1 

S2. Soft sand-rock 53 

23. Big block ore 4 to 10 

24. Black flint, fossiliferous 5 

25. Sandstone, quarry 30 

26. Sandstone and shale 22 

27. Ore 1| 

28. Sandy shale 12 

For this section see Map II, No. 26. 

The place of the seam of ore rejected on account of its phosphorus was 
believed by Mr. Eallantine to be about 27 feet above the regular limestone 
ore. The saoipl?s for analysis came from the land owned by the Vinton 
Furnace Company, section 16, Clinton township. Prof. Wormley analyzed 
two samples with the following result : 

Specific gravity 3.260 3.018 

Combined water 7.80 10.60 

Silicious matter j - 0.37 1.55 

Sesquioxide of iron 66.87 78,75 

Oxide manganese 2.92 0.80 

Phosphate of lime 7.81 2.88 

Carbonate of lime 12.62 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 121 

Carbonate of magnesia * 1.47 0.63 

Phosphate of magnesia 0.98 

Alumina trace. 2.64 

Sulphur trace. 0.12 

Total 99.86 98.95 

Percentage of metallic iron 46.81 55.12 

Phosphoric acid 3.58 1.85 

This is a peculiar looking ore. It was evidently once a carbonate of 
iron combined with carbonate and phosphate of lime. There is scarcely 
any silicious matter and little alumina. The ore has the appearance of 
having originally been made up largely of comminuted shells, although no 
organic structure can now be detected. If these shells belonged to the 
Lingula family, the existence of phosphate of lime is easily explained as 
these shells, both in the fossil and recent state, always contain it. 

On the land of Wm. Craig, section 8, Clinton township, is a seam of 
iron ore, which has been considerably mined, and is well known as the 
" Craig ore." This ore was thought to correspond in stratigraphical posi- 
tion with an ore on the land of Bphraim Bobbins, a half-mile west of 
Hamden, as seen in section 23, Map II. At the latter place the ore is 
found to be about 40 feet above the Blue or Putnam Hill limestone. 
Assuming the vertical distance between the Blue and the Ferriferous lime- 
stones to be from 135 to 140 feet, the position of the Craig ore would 
therefore be about 95 feet below the Ferriferous limestone. 

The following is the grouping at Mr. Craig's ore bank : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Soil and surface clay 4 

2. Light gray shale 2 6 

3. Soft iron-stained sand-rock 2 3 

4. Gray clay shale 1 2 

5. Dark blue sandy shale 6 

6. Eed limonite ore 10tol2 

7. Blue siderite ore 5 

8. Coal lto2 

9. Clay 1 

10. Sand-rock 

For this section, see Map II, ]STo. 22. 

Analyses of the ore were made by Prof. Wormley. 



122 GEOLOGICAL STJEVEY OP OHIO. 

¥o. 1 is the upper, or red ore, No. 2 the lower part, or blue ore. 

No. 1. Ho. 2. 
Specific gravity 2.814 3.516 

Water 7.50 1.77 

Silicious matter 6.49 3.93 

Sesquioxide of iron 83.74 11.61 

Carbonate of protoxide of iron 70.10 

Alumina 0.70 

Manganese trace, trace. 

Phosphate of lime 0.12 

Carbonate of lime 4.10 

Phosphate of magnesia .' 0.30 

Carbonate of magnesia 6.17 

Phosphoric acid 0.42 

Sulphur , 0.06 0.Q3 

Total 99.86 98.18 

Percentage of metallic iron 58.62 42.00 

By the first of these analyses, it will be seen that the red ore of the 
Craig bank is in all respects a very superior one. It gives a remarkably 
large percentage of metallic iron, (58.62) and a mere trifle of phosphorus 
and sulphur. The ore must work easily in the furnace, and make a nearly 
neutral iron. The unusually large per centage of metallic iron makes it 
a most desirable ore. The physical quality of the ore as soft and chalk- 
like and of little specific gravity, has led some furnace managers to reject 
the ore as not rich enough in iron. To show how little dependence can 
be placed on specific gravity, I refer the reader to the gravities of the two 
ores from the Craig bank. The red ore has a specific gravity of 2.814, 
and the blue ore 3.516 ; but the former yields 58.62 per cent, of metallic 
iron, and the latter only 42.00. At the Buckeye furnace, a dark red 
limestone ore, with a specific gravity of 2.983, yielded the extraordinary 
percentage of 61.52 metallic iron, while a blue ore of the same " limestone 
seam," with a specific gravity of 4.872, yielded only 25.91 per cent, of 
iron. From this it may well be inferred that one cannot tell the value of 
an ore by "hefting" it. The Craig ore was a marine formation, as it 
contains fossils of a marine character. The casts of Producti are re 
markable for the perfection of the muscular impressions, and of the Spiri- 
ferae for the complete preservation of the spirals. 

The most interesting geological discoveries in Clinton township are 
the Tipper Waverly or Logan, in the bed of Little Eaccoon creek, a 
mile northeast of Hamden, and, resting on the Waverly, a deposit of the 
Lower Carboniferous or Maxville limestone. This limestone is seen just 
above the railroad bridge, from which point it continues north to Seed's 
mill, and probably a little distance beyond. At Keed's mill it is 16 feet 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 123 

thiek. Here a part of the formation is brecciated, as is shown in the 
figure on page 65. This section, in its relations, is given on Map II, No. 20. 

Everywhere under the limestone is seen the unmistakable fine-grained 
Upper Waverly or Logan sandstone, with impressions of Spirophyton 
cauda-galli. South of the railroad bridge the limestone is entirely gone, 
and blue shale and Coal-measures sand stone rest directly upon the Logan. 
The Logan, without the limestone below the bridge, is given on section 
No. 25, Map II. Nowhere in this vicinity is there any trace of true Coal- 
measures Conglomerate. It has thinned out and entirely disappeared. 

Combined with the limestone in section 20, Map II, is the stratigraph- 
ical position of the Blue or Putnam Hill limestone, with the proximate 
positions of two seams of coal, one above, the other below it. The Blue 
limestone and coal seams are found in the hills about Hamden. The 
seams of coal are thin, and but little worked. 

Wilkesville Township. — This township lies directly south of Vinton 
township. 

At Hartley's mill, Sec. 24, the " limestone coal " is seen, but the usual 
Ferriferous limestone was gone. Ore, at its proper horizon, is found 
intermingled with the lower part of the sand-rock abeve. 

The whole section, at this locality, is as follows: 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sandy limestone — not measured 

2. Sand-stone . 6 

3. Coal 1 2 

4. Notseen 58 

5. Coal — not measured 

6. Notseen 68 

7. Sand-rock with iron in lower part 6 

8. Blackslate 2 

9. Coal 2 1 

10. Slate parting, thin 

11. Coal 1 1 

12. Slate parting 

13. Coal 1 2 

14. Under-olay 

For this section, see Map III., No. 11. 

The replacement of the Ferriferous limestone by the sandstone is only 
a local matter, the limestone is found near where the section was made ; 
indeed the point of transition, from the limestone to the sandstone, was 
seen by Mr. Gilbert. 

On the land of Mr. Hawk, Sec, 22, Wilkesville, a section was made, in 
which the following strata were found : 



124 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Coal, reported place 

2. Not exposed 20 

3. Ore — not measured 

4. Ferriferous limestone 3 

5. Blackslate 1 

6. Coal 2 

7. Slate parting 3 

8. Coal 1 1 

9. Slateparting : 1 

10. Coal... 1 2 

11. Under-clay 

This section is given on Map III., No. 14. 

On Sec. 10, Wilkesville township, strata are found higher in the series 
than at any other point in Vinton county. A. combined section was 
obtained, which presents the following : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Cannel coal — reported 10 

2. Notseen , 12 

3. Sand-rock 4 

4. Sandy and clay shales — coal plants 5 

5. Coal .: 1 6 

6. Notseen 42 

7. Clay shales - 

8. Coal 2 2 

9. Uuder-clay 

10. Notseen 58 

11. Clay shales 

12. Coal — not measured 

13. Under-clay 

For this sectioD, see Map III., No. 15. 

In the same vicinity a section was made, which gives the following : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore — not measured 

2. Limestone, hard and sandy 2 

3. Notseen 41 

4. Coarse sandstone 20 

5. Shales 1 

6. Coal — not measured 

7. Under-clay - 

See Map III., No. 16. 

One mile south of the place of the above, two coal seams were discov 
ered, in a section, as follows : 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 125 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Coal 1 3 

2. Notseen 95 

3. Sandy shales 8 

4. Coal - 1 6 

5. Under-elay , 

The lower coal in this section is identical with the lowest in Sec. 15, 
Map III. It is of good quality, and has been extensively used for smith- 
ing purposes. 

General Summary of Vinton County. 

This county is rich in iron ore and in coal. The better ore, as a gen- 
eral thing, is the so-called " limestone ore," or the ore resting upon the 
Ferriferous limestone. This remarkable limestone is found in five town- 
ships, viz : Elk, Madison, Clinton, Vinton and Wilkesville. The northern 
limit of the limestone presents a ragged outline, and very often the lime- 
stone is replaced by buhr or flint. This northern limit is found in Elk 
and Madison townships. At one point, in Brown township, a little lime- 
stone was found, which further investigation may prove to be the geolog- 
ical equivalent of the Ferriferous limestone. If so, it is only a local de- 
posit. It is a fact of no little interest that this limestone never reappears 
in our lower Coal measures in the northern part of the Second District. 
There is a limestone in the First District called the " gray limestone," 
which may, perhaps, hereafter be found to correspond proximately in 
stratigraphical position to the Ferriferous limestone. The minute sec- 
tions taken in the more northern counties, by other members of the Geo- 
logical Corps, will, doubtless, determine this point. There is also, in the 
First District, a lower limestone seam, popularly called the " blue lime- 
stone." 

North of Elk and Madison townships, we find the Nelsonville coal, but 
in other important particulars the strata in the northern part of Vinton 
county do not correspond with those of the Southern part. This dissim- 
ilarity has been formerly noticed by our more intelligent furnace men, 
who, in their explorations between the Marietta & Cincinnati Eailroad 
and the Hocking river, report themselves as " lost " in their geological 
calculations. 

There is, doubtless, much good ore, of the block and kidney varieties, 
north and west of the limits of the " limestone ore," but, as there have 
been no furnaces to create a market, comparatively little exploration has 
been made. The " limestone ore," in Elk and the more southern town- 
ships, is often very thick arid of very fine quality. The Craig ore, already 
described, is also a very excellent ore, and very rich in iron. 



126 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

There is ore enough in the county to supply many furnaces for a long 
time to come. 

The best coal found, as yet, is the " Wolfe coal," in Elk township. I have 
no doubt that this coal, in the raw state, will make iron. It is very desi- 
rable that the railroad, already graded north from McArthur Station, 
should be built so as to reach this coal. The seam lies quite low in the 
valley, and, for the most part, is below the bed of the stream, but it may, 
perhaps, be found over a considerable area by sinking shafts. Other 
seams of coal deserve investigation. The county is generally well sup- 
plied with coal suited for all household and ordinary uses. Nowhere 
have the seams been found very thick, but they are generally thick 
enough for working. 

The blue or Putnam Hill limestone is generally well developed, but it is 
generally too earthy to make it a valuable material for quick-lime. In the 
neighborhood of McArthur it is hard, and susceptible of a good polish, but 
it will not, probably, compete successfully with marble for ornamental pur- 
poses. I should fear that for uses exposing it to the weather it would not 
do. It is everywhere highly fossiliferous, and of great interest to the 
palaeontologist. 

The soil of the county is well adapted to grass, and there are many 
very beautiful grazing farms. The valleys are often very wide, and, gen- 
erally, there is a very gradual slope to the hills. In some parts of the 
county the hill-tops and higher hill-sides have been devoted, very success- 
fully, to grape culture. I should think that fruit-raising would be profit- 
able upon the higher grounds. The Marietta & Oincinati Eailroad runs 
somewhat diagonally through the county, and the shipment of fruit 
would be comparatively easy. The lower lands, where there is often an 
excess of clay, would be greatly benefitted by under-drainage. The val- 
leys sometimes remind one of old " drift valleys." It is reported that 
buried wood is often found in sinking wells. It is possible that this wood 
may have grown here, and that there may have been an ancient forest, 
similar to that described by Prof. Orton in the Geological Beport for 1869, 
found in Montgomery county. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 127 



CHAPTER IV. 



JACKSON COUNTY. 



Washington Township. — This township lies directly south of Richland, in 
Vinton county, and contains, in its north-western part, the Coal-measures 
Conglomerate in large development. 

Sections were taken on Pigeon creek, on the lands of Frank Scott and 
Jacob Sells. Pigeon creek is a branch of Salt creek, and flows north 
through Washington township. It reaches the Marietta and Cincinnati 
Eailroad in the vicinity of Byers' Station. 

In Sec. 29 the Conglomerate forms a bold cliff, washed at its base by 
Pigeon creek. Under the Conglomerate is unmistakable Logan sandstone, 
or Upper Waverly, of which 20 feet were seen. Here the Conglomerate 
measured 80 feet. This cliff is seen in Map III, "So. 8. Across the 
valley of Pigeon creek, which is very narrow at this place, we found the 
larger part of the Conglomerate gone, and its place taken by Coal-meas- 
ures strata, of which the following is the group : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Notseen 10 

2. Sandy and clay shales 10 

3. Whiteclay 5 

4. Notseen 5 

5. Bluish sandstone with stems of facoids 4 

6. Shales 5 

7. Notseen 10 

8. "Blossom" of coal ■ 

See Map III, No. 9. 

By leveling across the narrow valley, it appeared that the strata of the 
above section replaced all the Conglomerate of the opposite ledge except 
31 feet of the lower part. The distance between the two can scarcely be 
more than one-fourth of a mile. This is one of the most sudden and 
remarkable changes of the Conglomerate found, and shows how the Con- 
glomerate lay in heaps and the Coal-measures strata were formed in the 
eastern and southern depressions or slopes of the Conglomerate. By 
leveling across and up the valley a half mile or more, to an exposure of 
the seam of Jacob Sells, it was found to be nearly on a level with the 
top of the Conglomerate ledge. 



128 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

The following section was taken on the land of Mr. Jacob Sells, Sec. 32, 
Washington township : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore 4 

2. Notseen 50 

3. Ore 6-8 

4. Blue Putnam Hill Limestone 2 6 

5. Not seen 120 

6. Coal (cannel) .' 6 

7. Coal (bituminous) 2 8 

8. Notseen .< 23 

9. Sand-rook crusted 'with iron ore 

10. Nodules of limestone V 20 

11. Sandy shales with fucoid stems 

Bed of Pigeon Creek , 

For this section see Map III, ~No. 6. 



I 



An ore is reported between the Blue limestone and the coal, but its 
exact place could not be ascertained. 

Mr. Sells reports the probable northern limit of the seam of coal given 
in the above section to be through about the middle of sections 19, 20 
and 21, in Washington township. 

On the land of Frank Scott, Sec. 33, Washington township, a section 
was taken which gave the space between the Blue limestone and the coal 
from 5 to 10 feet greater than at Mr. Sells'. This difference may have 
arisen from the imperfect working of the barometer from atmospheric 
influence. 

Upon the Blue limestone rests a seam of iron ore, which has been dug 
on the lands of Mr. Scott, but no opportunity was afforded for measure- 
ment. It is probably 6 inches thick. The limestone is reported 2J feet 
thick. The coal seam of Mr. Scott measures 3 feet 2 inches, with no slate 
parting seen. Over the coal seam was a sandy blue slate, and under- 
neath the coal 8 or 10 feet of brown clay shale. For this section see 
Map III, No. 3. 

Samples of coal representing the bottom, middle and top were taken 
from the Scott bank for analysis, and Prof. Wormley reports the follow- 
ing results of analyses: 



GEOLOGICAL STJEVEY OF OHIO. 



129 



No. 1, bottom ; No. 2, middle ; No. 3, top. 



No. 1. 



No. 2. 



No. 3. 



Specific gravity 

Combined water 

Ash 

Volatile matter 

Fixed carbon 

Total 

Sulphur 

Permanent gas per lb., in eubic feet 
Color of ash 



1.284 



1.300 



1.292 



9.10 

1.20 

31.60 

58.10 


8.35 

1.30 

23.65 

66.70 


8.85 

0.85 

29.75 

60.55 


100.00 

0.82 

3.05 

Fawn. 


100.00 

0.77 

2.90 

Fawn. 


100.00 

0.67 

2.98 

Brown. 



The above table shows a remarkable coal in several respects. First, 
the ash is very small, No. 3 giving only 0.85 per cent., which is smaller 
than Prof. Wormley has found in any coal yet analyzed, excepting a 
sample of Jacob Sells' coal in the neighborhood, which gave 0.77 per 
cent. The average ash for the whole seam is only 1.12. Second, the per- 
centage of fixed carbon is also large, JSTo. 2 giving 66.70 per cent., which 
is larger than in any coal yet analyzed. The average of fixed carbon for 
the whole seam is 61.78, which is large. This coal, as a whole, is per- 
haps finer than almost any other in the 2d Geological District. The seam 
is the equivalent of the Anthony coal, having the same stratigraphical rela- 
tion to the Blue or Putnam Hill limestone above. It can hardly fail to 
be a very superior coal for iron-making, on account of its dry-burning 
quality, its large percentage of fixed carbon, its remarkably light ash, 
and its relative freedom from sulphur. Although Prof. Wormley made 
no examination of this coal with regard to the amount of sulphur remain- 
ing in the coke, yet I have no doubt that it will be found to lose nearly 
all of the sulphur in the process of coking. This is the case with the 
coal from the same seam taken from the adjoining farm of Jacob Sells. 
This remarkable property in coal fits it for making, with suitable ores, the 
very purest and best iron. 

The Blue limestone is seen at its proper place in nearly all the hills 
along Pigeon Creek, and the coal is also found on almost every farm. 
Its height above the creek secures every facility for convenient mining 
and shipment, should a railway be built through the valley. The Blue 
limestone is seen on the estate of Hon. H. S. Bundy, in the eastern part 
of this township. In that neighborhood the valleys are not deep enough 
to reach the Sells' coal of Pigeon creek. The following analyses were 
made of the coal from the land of Jacob Sells : 
9 



130 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



No. 1, lower part of seam. 

No. 2, ripper part of seam, below cannel. 

No. 3, cannel on top of seam. 





No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 




1.298 


1.272 


1.292 








8.50 

2.35 

32.20 

56.95 


8.65 

0.77 

28.45 

62.13 


6.40 


Ash -- 


5.20 
38.40 




50.00 






Total 


100.00 

0.91 
0.00 


100.00 

0.68 
0.30 


100.00 




1.27 










* Not determined. 









Prof. Wormley has also made ultimate analyses of Nos. 1 and 2, of Mr. 
Sells' coal, with the following results : 



No. l. 

Carlson 70.46 

Hydrogen 5.69 

Nitrogen 1.82 

Sulphur 0.91 

Oxygen 18.77 

Ash 2.35 



Total 100.00 

Moisture 8.50 



Composed of } Hydrogen 0.94 

I Oxygen 7,56 



No. 2. 

73.48 
5.48 
1.40 
0.68 

18.19 
0.77 

100.00 

8.65 

0.96 
7.69 



GKEOLOG-ICAI, SURVEY OF OHIO. 

Analysis of the ash of 'Eos. 1 and 2 : 



131 



Silicic acid 

Iron sesquioxide . . 

Alumina 

Lime . 

Magnesia 

Potash and soda . . 
Phosphoric acid. . . 

Sulphuric acid 

Sulphur combined 
Chlorine 

Total 



No. 1. 



Per cent. 
in terms 
of ash. 



44.60 
7.40 

41.10 
3.61 

1.28 
1.82 
0.29 
0.58 
0.03 
None. 



100.71 



Per cent, 
in terms 
of coal. 



1.048 
0.174 
0.965 
0.085 
0.030 
0.043 
0.007 
0.014 
0.0007 
None. 



2.3667 



No. 2. 



Per cent. 
in terms 
of ash. 



37.40 
9.73 

40.77 
6.27 
1.60 
1.29 
0.51 
1.99 
0.08 
None. 



99.64 



Per cent, 
in terms 
of coal. 



0.2888 
0.0749 
0.3139 
0.0483 
0.0123 
0.0099 
0.0039 
0.0153 
0.0006 
None. 



0.7670 



These ashes are very free from impurities which would injure the coal 
for iron-making. The Toughiogheny coal ash contains much more phos- 
phoric acid bui less sulphur. The following analysis of the Youghiogheny 
coal ash was made by Prof. Wormley : 

Per cent. Per cent. 

of ash. of coal. 

Phosphoric acid 2.23 0.075 

Sulphuric acid - 0.07 0.002 

Sulphur combined 0.14 0.005 

By reference to the tables of Heating Powers of coals, prepared by 
Mr. T. O. Mendenhall, appended to this Eeport, it will appear that this 
coal is of great value. The following are his figures : 



No. 1. No. 2. 
Calorific power, or number of pounds water raised one degree 

(Centegrade), by one pound of coal 65.89 67.94 

Calorific intensity in degrees of Fahrenheit 46.27 46.64 

Number pounds water evaporated from 212° by 1 pound coal . . 12.27 12.65 

Cubic feet of air required for combustion 1 pound coal 121.00 125.00 

Calorific power compared with pure charcoal 81.5 84.1 

Calorific intensity compared with pure charcoal 94.1 94.6 

These analyses show that the Sells coal is of remarkable purity and 
excellence. The ash of No. 2 is only 0.77 per cent., while the average of 
No. 1 and 2 is only 1.56 per cent. The sulphur almost entirely passes off 



132 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

ia coking, the portion remaining in the coke averaging only 0.15 per cent. 
The average of fixed carbon is 59.54 per cent., which is larger than that 
of many of the most famous coals nsed in blast furnaces. 

The cannel coal on the top of the seam is only a local . modification of 
that part of the seam, and is not found to extend to the adjacent farms. 
None of it was seen in the Scott coal, which is the same seam in the im- 
mediate neighborhood, and which is also a coal of the very highest value. 

On the land of Jacob Winfough, adjacent to the farm of Jacob Sells, 
the same seam was opened and measured 3 feet 2 inches, with no parting 
of slate or clay. The quality is very superior. 

On the farm of David Higgins, section 29, the same seam measures 3 
feet 8 inches. The quality is apparantly equal to that of the very best 
in the neighborhood. 

South-east of Washington township lies Milton township. On the land 
of H. F. Austin, section 7, of this township, the highest hills take the 
Ferriferous limestone with its ore. Here a section was made, embracing 
a perpendicular range of 255 feet. It is as follows : 



Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore — not measured 

2. Limestone — lower part flinty 2 

3. Black slate and clay 4 

4. Coal, 'with two clay partings 3 10 

5. Under clay 



, 70 

6. Not exposed 

7. Ore — notmeasured - 

8. Not exposed , 57 

9. Blue limestone 4 

10. Notseen . 53 

Top of shaft : 

11. Notseen •- 45 

12. Blue shaly sandstone (coal plants) 12 

13. Slate and shale 3 

14. Coal— reported 3 2 

For this section, see Map III, ~8o. 2. 

This lower coal where found lies 60 feet below the surface. A shaft 
has been sunk to obtain it, but very little cdal has been taken out. The 
geological position of this coal is, doubtless, the same as that of the An- 
thony or Sells coal. The coal has been analyzed by Prof. Wormley, with 
a result as follows : 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 133 

Specific gravity 1.281 

Water — combined 5.50 

Ash 2.46 

Volatile matter 35.44 

Fixed carbon 56.60 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 0.91 

Permanent gas, per lb., in cubic feet 3.24 

This analysis indicates an excellent coal. 

Mr. Austin's shaft being filled with water, no opportunity was afforded 
to examine the coal in place. Two samples from the heap at the mouth 
of the shaft were analyzed. The better result is given in the above 
table. 

At Lincoln Furnace, section 35, Milton township, the " limestone ore " is 
dug, and the subjacent limestone is extensively quarried. On the furnace 
lands a perpendicular section of 232 feet was obtained. It gives the fol- 
lowing strata : (See Map III, No. 1.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore — not measured „ 

2. Limestone in nodules 

3. Not exposed 109 

4. Coarse sandstone 12 

5. Blossom of coal 

6. Clayshales „ 25 

7. Ore 9 

8. Ferriferous limestone 10 

9. Shale 1 

10. Black slate 2 

11. Coal 1 10 

12. Slate 6 

13. Coal 1 3 

14. Slate 6 

15. Coal 1 3 

16. Under clay 

17. Shaly sandstone 3 

18. Ore (reported sulphurous) 1 

19. Shaly sandstone 4 

20. Bluish white sandstone — used for hearthstones 10 

21. Sand-rock, and not seen 51 

22. " Black ore," reported 6 

23. Blue limestone 3 

24. Notseen 10 

25. Coarse sandstone 4 

26. Coal 1 

-27. Clay and sandy shales 5 



134 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

The " limestone ore " in this vicinity, instead of always being a limonite, 
is frequently found in the form of blue carbonate. The blue limestone 
possesses the fossils and the lithological character of the Putnam Hill 
limestone, but its position in the series is some sixty feet higher. Lin- 
coln Furnace, owned by Win. McGhee, is a cold blast furnace. It was 
built in 1854. 

Feet. Inches. 

Hight of stack 40 

Diameter top of boshes 10 6 

Batter of boshes 8 

Hight of hearth 6 

One twyer — diameter of do 3-J 

Twyer enters hearth from bottom 2 2 

Proportions of charge: Charcoal, 21 bushels; limestone, 30 pounds; 
ore, 800 pounds. Uses 35 half charges each 24 hours. Average pro- 
duction, 12 tons of iron per diem. Of the iron produced, three-fourths is 
reported to be " car-wheel iron," and the remainder foundry iron. Three 
tons of raw ore or two tons of burnt produce one ton of iron. 

Limestone ore only is used — all obtained from the furnace lands. 

The furnace is in blast nine months per annum. 

On the land of Joseph Pheteplace, Section 13, Milton township, the 
lowest streams have exposed the Ferriferous limestone, together with its 
associated ore and coal. Commencing with the highest, we have the fol- 
lowing strata : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sandy limestone — not measured 

2. Notseen 11 

3. Coal — reported 3 

4. Not exposed 58 

5. Clay shales 2 

6. Coal — not measured 

7. Notseen 35 

8. Sand-rock 6 

9. Clayshales 2 

10. Coal.... 3 6 

11. Slate division 

12. Coal 6 

13. Mostlyshales 21 

14. Ore — not measured 

15. Ferriferous limestone 2 

16. Blackslate 1 

17. Coal with Wo small partings 3 G 

For this section, see Map III, No. 10. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 135 

On Section 19, Milton township, we find on the land of Capt. B. F. 
Stearns that the limestone ore is unusually thick. This is near the west- 
ern limit of the Ferriferous limestone in Jackson county. A section was 
made which presents the following formations (see Map III, No. 5) : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore 1 3 

2. Limestone 4 

3. Blackslate 3 

4. Coal :. 1 6 

5. Slate 4 

6. Coal 1 6 

7. Slate 1 

8. Coal 1 

9. Under-clay 

10. Notseen 35 

11. "Kidney ore" 4 

12. Notseen 54 

13. "Blookore" 3 

The Kidney ore has been extensively dug and used at Latrobe Furnace. 

On the lands of the Latrobe Furnace Company, Section 21, Milton 
township, the Ferriferous limestone is found. A part of the coal below it 
has been selected on account of its freedom from sulphur, and used in 
the blast-furnace for the purpose of smelting ore. 

A section taken near the furnace is as follows (see Map III, No. 4) : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Coarse sandstone 10 

2. Clayshales , 2 

3. Coal — reported 3 

4. Notseen 18 

5. Ore 9 

6. Ferriferous limestone 5 

7. Clay shale and slate 2 

8. Coal 1 6 

9. Slate , 4 

10. Coal 1 

11. Slate 1 

12. Coal 1 

13. Notseen 12 

14. Sandstone, used for hearth-stones 10? 

15. Heavy sandstone, and not seen 50 

16. Clayshales 2 

17. Cannel coal 2 2 

18. Under-olay -. 

Besides the limestone ore, the kidney and block ores of the preceding 
section are found on the furnace lands. 



136 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

The Latrobe Furnace is owned by Hon. H. S. Bundy. No detailed sta- 
tistics of its structure have been obtained. It differs little from the usual 
charcoal furnaces of Southern Ohio. It sometimes produces cold-blast 
iron, but more generally hot blast. As the wood of the furnace-lands 
has, from year to year, been removed for charcoal, Mr. Bundy has con- 
verted the surface into farming lands, believing this to be more profitable 
than to wait for the renewal of the forests. The time is not far distant 
when the rich ores of this furnace estate will be smelted with the very 
superior bituminous coal found a few miles west, in Jackson county. 

On the lands of the Buckeye Furnace Company, section 26, Milton 
township, the limestone ore is frequently found in the shape of a blue 
carbonate. There seems to be ground for the belief that wherever the ore 
is covered by compact clay shales, it remains in the shape of a siderite ; 
and on the other hand, whenever its covering is of a looser character, it 
has oxydized into a limonite. A section taken here shows the following : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Coarse sandstone 6 

2. Shales and clay 3 

3. Coal 3 7 

4. Slate 3 

5. Coal 8 

6. Underclay. 

7. Notseen 10 

8. Clay shales 13 

9. Ore — not measured ■- 

10. Ferriferous limestone „ 3 

11. Slate and shales 2 

12. Coal 1 6 

13. Slate ' 4 

14. Coal 1 

15. Slate '. 1 

16. Coal 1 

17. Underclay 

18. Notseen 10 

19. Sand-rock used for furnace hearths 15 

20. Partly sand-rock 47 

21. Clay shales 

22. Cannelcoal 2 

For this section see Map III, No. 7. 

The cannel coal of Latrobe and Buckeye Furnaces is by no means per- 
sistent through Milton township. In many places the seam is partly 
bituminous, in others entirely so. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 0¥ OHIO. 



137 



Several specimens of ore and cinder from Buckeye Furnace were fur- 
nished by Dr. Williams, the financial manager, and analyzed by Prof. 
Wormley. The results are as follows : 

No. 1, labeled, " Best limestone ore." 

No. 2, " "Good" » <•' 

No. 3, " "Dark red '•<■ " 



No.l. 


No. 2. 


2.980 


2.868 


10.40 


11.90 


5.84 


1.62 


79.40 


72.61 


0.40 


0.40 


1.90 


1.05 


0.40 


9.75 


0.68 


1.59 


0.642 


.0.466 


0.12 


0.14 


99.882 


99.526 


55.58 


50.83 



No. 3. 



Specific gravity — dried at 212° 

"Water combined 

Silicious matter 

Iron, sesquioxide 

Alumina 

Manganese 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Phosphoric acid 

Sulphur 

Total 

Metallic iron — percentage 



2.983 

7.40 
3.44 

87.89 

"o'.io" 

trace. 
0.62 
0.414 

trace. 

99.869 
61.52 



No. 4, labeled " Limestone ore, reddish gray, shaly." 

No. 5, " " Limestone ore, blue carbonate, best quality." 

No. 6, u " Limestone ore, blue corbonate, earthy, sulphurous." 

No. 7, " u Gray limestone ore." 





No. 4. 


No. 5. 


No. 6. 


No. 7. 


Specific gravity — dried at 212° 


2.704 


4.872 


3 375 


3.245 






Water, combined 


11.10 
23.64 
62.69 


3.25 

31.56 

13.55 

34.01 

2.60 

0.45 

9.25 

1.40 

0.894 

0.12 


3.33 

8.84 
13.91 
55.99 
0.30 
0.55 
4.70 
2.38 
0.53 

8.33 


3.20 


Silicious matter 


23.36 


Iron, sesquioxide 


13.16 


Iron, carbonate 


48.44 


Alumina 




0.80 


Maaganese 


0.07 

trace. 

0.75 

0.754 

trace. 


0.25 




4.90 




0.81 




0.065 




0.16 


Sulphuric acid 












Total 


99.004 
43.88 


97.084 
25.91 


98.86 
36.77 


95.145 




32.59 







Cinders were analyzed to ascertain the amount of iron and sulphur 
contained. 



138 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 



No. 1, labeled " Glassy purplish blue, produced in making the best iron." 
No. 2, u " Black glassy, " " poorest iron." 

No. 3, " " Tellow, sulphurous." 



Silica 

Iron, protoxide . . 

Alumina 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Manganese 

Sulphur 

Phosphoric acid . 



Total 

Metallic iron in protoxide. 



No. 1. 



51.50 

trace. 

15.60 

28.00 

1.94 

3.10 

0.53 

trace. 



100.67 



No. 2. 



52.00 
8.88 

18.40 

16.24 
1.25 
2.20 
0.48 

trace. 



99.45 
6.906 



No. 3. 



52.50 

trace. 

18.40 

21.78 

1.65 

3.40 

1.12 

trace. 



98.85 



Some of the ores in the above tables are very superior. No. 3 gives 
61.52 per cent, of metallic iron, and Nos. 1 and 2 give respectively 55.58 
and 50.83 per cent. The cinder No. 2 contains nearly 7 per cent, of metallic 
iron. No furnace can afford to make much of such cinder. From the 
appearance of the cinder heaps some furnaces in Southern Ohio have 
made far too much of it. 

lAck Toivnship. — This township contains the town of Jackson, the county 
seat of the county. Much time was devoted by Mr. Gilbert and myself 
to the study of the geological structure of this township. A map of the 
township, prepared by Mr. Gilbert from the official map in the County 
Treasurer's office, is given. The two eastern tiers of sections are omitted, 
and part of Washington township added on the north. 




'p^ckeslJlal.O 



140 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

In order to exhibit most clearly the various strata of this region, I shall 
select the vicinity of Buffalo Skull creek, and give, first, some sections 
which will be a general guide for other determinations. See Map III, 
No. 20. 

On the land of Samuel Anthony, Sec. 7, Lick township, the blue or 
Putnam Hill limestone is found presenting all the usual lithological and 
paleontological characteristics. Upon it rests the usual stratum of iron 
ore. About 135 feet below this limestone is the seam of coal near Mr. 
Anthony's house. This coal is 3 feet 6 inches thick, and of very superior 
quality, as appears from the following analysis by Prof. Wormley : 

Anthony's Coal. 
Specific gravity 1.239 

Combined water 5.25 

Ash r 1.50 

Volatile matter 29.75 

Fixed carbon 63.50 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 0.93 

Sulphur remaining in coke 0.37 

Per centage of sulphur in coke 0.57 

Permanent gas per lb. in cubic feet 3.00 

The sample of coal was selected to represent as fairly as possible the 
general average of the seam. The analysis shows the coal to be very 
superior in all respects, except it may be for gas-making. Its quality will 
hereafter be more fully discussed. Prof. Wormley also made an analysis 
of the ore resting upon the blue limestone, with the following result : 

Anthony's Ore. 

Water 12.20 

Silica 7.64 

Sesquioxide of iron 72.20 

Alumina 3.20 

Oxide of manganese 2.15 

Carbonate of lime 1.30 

" magnesia - 0.72 

Sulphur 0.21 

Phosphoric acid 0.831 

Total 100.451 

Per centage of metallic iron 50.54 

This ore is rich in iron, and is evidently a valuable ore in all respects. 
A section showing the relative positions of the blue limestone and coal 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 141 

on Mr. Anthony's land is given on Map III, No. 17. The section here 
includes a nodular limestone, 70 feet below the blue limestone, and under 
it 18 inches shale and 18 inches slate, and below the slate 10 inches cannel 
coal. On a branch of Buffalo Skull creek, near the crossing of the Jack- 
son and Chillicothe road, a section was taken on the land of Charles 
Walden, Sec. 15, Lick township. It is as follows. (See Map III, No. 28) : 

Higher part of hill covered with. soil. 

Feet. Inches. 

1. " Hill coal," once mined, not measured 

2. Notseen 59 

3. Coal, " Anthony's Seam," not exposed for measurement 

4. Under-clay ~) 

5. Conglomerate sandstone with iron ore I .,„ . 

6. Coarse sandstone » f 

7. Dark shales J 

8. Coal highly laminated and resembling Jackson " Shaft Coal," not 

fully exposed 

9. Sand-rock 

Here are three seams of -coal — two below the "Hill Coal." I have no 
doubt that this section presents the "Hill," " Anthony," and the "Jack- 
son Shaft" seams. 

A sample was taken from the lowest seam. It was impossible to obtain 
more than a fragment, but the analysis revealed a good coal, greatly 
resembling the " Shaft coal," except in a larger amount of sulphur. The 
following table gives the analysis of Prof. Wormley : 

Specific gravity 1.296 

Combined water 3.70 

Ash 5.05 

Volatile matter 28.10 

Fixed carbon 63.15 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 1.40 

Cub. ft. permanent gas per lb 2.67 

Over the hill, now crowned with pines, this seam of coal is found by 
the side of the Chillicothe road, as it decends the hill to the valley of 
Buffalo Skull creek. Here the seam is seen resting upon the very irregu- 
lar surface of a heavy white sand-rock containing conglomerate pebbles, 
and in many places filled with Stigmariw. This undulation of the coal 
corresponds entirely with that of the " Shaft coal" found in all the mines 
at Jackson. The vertical distance from this coal to the " hill coal," on a 



142 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

hill to the southwest, was found by Mr. Gilbert to be 97 ft. At that point 
the " hill coal " measured 2 ft. 6 in. in thickness. See Map III, No. 27. 

From the sections already given we establish the stratigraphical posi- 
tions of the three seams of coal, and also their relations to the Blue or 
Putnam Hill limestone. 

By the road side, just below the exposure of the laminated coal seam 
resting upon the unevenly bedded white sand-rock, under the "Pine tree 
hill" of Mr. Walden, were two local deposits of very thin coal in the 
white sand-rock, one about 3 ft. and the other 20 ft. below the main seam 
above. Associated with these were traces of coal and shales very rich in 
coal plants. 

Perhaps a quarter of a mile up Buffalo Skull creek from the last named 
location, was seen, in the hills, the "Downey coal bank," where the "hill 
coal" has been mined. The place of this is given in Sec. No. 22, Map III. 

Higher up the stream, on section 7, Lick township, the " Anthony coal" 
is found at " Bartlett's bank," and across the valley, to the north, the 
" hill coal " was found on the land of W. H. Pearce. The seam in the 
Bartlett bank measured 3 ft. 6 in. in thickness, and the hill coal of Mr. 
Pearce was reported to be 2 ft. 4 in. The latter coal was once opened and 
mined by the late Prof. W. W. Mather, who at the time owned the Pearce 
farm. Ten feet above the " hill coal," on Mr. Pearce's land, is a stratum 
of ore. No measurement could be made, the old "diggings" having 
fallen in. 

For this Sec. see Map III, No. 21. 

On the land of Charles McKinniss, near the southeast corner of section 
6, Lick township, is a seam of coal which, I am led to believe, is the equiv- 
alent of the "Anthony" seam. The seam is 3 ft. thick, with a reported 
stratum of coal 14 in. thick underneath, separated by 4 in. clay slate. The 
coal seen is of very superior quality. The lower part is not mined being 
considered very slaty. 

The following is a section of strata seen near Mr. McKinniss, (see Map 
III, No. 18) : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Blossom of coal 

2. Kotseen 8 

3. Clay shales (seen) 10 

4. Coal - 3 

5. Clay slate, reported 4 

6. Coal slaty, reported 1 2 

7. Notseen 9 

8. Fire-clay, very hard and good 3 

9. Not seen - 8 

10. Sandstone 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 143 

Analysis of McKinniss' Fire-clay. 

Silica 53.55 

Alumina 31.25 

Sesquioxide of iron trace. 

Lirue : 0.65 

Magnesia - 0.07 

Potash and soda 0.83 

Water 13.35 

Total 99.70 

This clay is of remarkable purity and excellence. 

Passing over a ridge to the west, we find on the land of Hon. Geo. M. 
Parsons, E. J of S. W. ^, Sec. 6, Lick township, a seam of coal, with a 
stratum of iron ore a few feet above it. The ore is evidently a rich lim- 
onite, but contains grains of quartz, making it a sort of conglomerate 
ore. Large blocks, 10 inches thick, were seen scattered about, but they 
were not found exactly in place. It is reported that this ore was once 
opened and exposed in this neighborhood, and found to be 30 inches thick. 
If generally as pure as that seen by me, I have no doubt that it will 
answer a good purpose in a stone-coal furnace. 

Analysis of ' conglomerate ore" on land of Son. G. M. Parsons. 

Specific gravity 2.685 

Water combined 8 40 

Silicious matter 38.06 

Iron sesquioxide 49.34 

Alumina 0.90 

Manganese 1.40 

Phosphate lime 0.75 

" magnesia 0.75 

Carbonate " 0.11 

Sulphur trace. 

Total 99.71 

Metallic iron - 34.54 

Phosphoric acid 0.76 

The coal a few feet below the place of the ore was not exposed so as to 
make a measurement possible. This is the place where it was once dug, 
to a limited extent, and called the "Henry coal." It is a highly laminj 
ated coal, and I have no doubt that it is the equivalent of the lowest 
Walden and Jackson " Shaft " coal. By estimate it is about 40 feet below 
the McKinniss seam. An approximate section of the above is given on 
Map III, No. 19. 



144 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

On the land of W. H. Pearce, S. W. corner of Sec. 7, Lick township, a 
section was made which gave the following strata : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Coal— "hill coal" .• 2 6 

2. Not seen 35 

3. Coarse sand-rock 10 

4. Not seen 15 

5. Sandstone and sandy shale 6 

6. Blackslate 8 

7. " Blossom" of eoal 

8. Clay shale 4 

9. Iron ore 6 

10. Clay shale 5 

11. Iron ore 5-7 

12. Clay shale 20 

13. Blackslate 1 6 

14. " Blossom " of coal 

15. Under-clay 1 

[ 16. Coarse sand-rock with Lepidodendra 13 

17. Conglomerate 8 

18. Logan or Upper WaTerly sandstone 15 

For this section, see Map III, No. 13. 

At this point the characteristic Conglomerate resting upon the Upper 
Waverly is only 8 feet thick. As we go down the valley of Salt creek to 
the northwest, the Conglomerate thickens very rapidly. On the land of 
Win. L. Faulkner, in Jackson township, about 2 or 2J miles distant, in a 
straight line, the Conglomerate measures 130 feet in thickness. On the 
land of Col. Wm. M. Bolles, a mile nearer Mr. Pearce's, the Conglomerate 
is 80 feet thick, as seen on Map III, No. 12. 

On the land of John Hope, S. W. J, Sec. 8, Lick township, the " hill 
coal " is mined somewhat extensively. The seam measures 2 ft. 6 in. A 
stratum of iron ore, 6 in. thick, is found 116 ft. above the coal. This ore 
has been dug for the Jackson furnaces. For this section, see Map ILT, 
No. 29. 

On the land of Mr. Price, Lot No. 13, Lick township, the "hill coal" is 
mined. The measurement gave 2 ft. 6 in. Above the coal, 32 ft., is a 
thin seam of cannel coal. The cannel coal was not anywhere sufficiently 
exposed for measurement. A sample of it was analyzed by Prof. Worm- 
ley, with the following result : 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 145 

Specific gravity 1.415 

Combined water 2.25 

Ash 23.00 

"Volatile matter 34.75 

Fixed carbon 40.00 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 0.84 

Cubic ft. permanent gas per lb 2.19 

From this analysis, the coal appears to have a large per centage of ash. 
In other respects, it is a good coal. 

On "Haystack Hill" the " hill coal" is 2 ft. 6 in. thick. Two openings 
into this seam, 100 yards apart, by estimate, showed a difference of level 
of 15 feet. At the lower point it was 3 ft. 5 in. thick. On this hill, at a 
distance of 30 feet above the "hill coal," a cannel coal has been dug, as 
reported by Mr. Levi Sly, to whom I am indebted for mnch valuable local 
knowledge of the region. On the land of Mr. Van Fossan, on south part 
of Lot 13, Lick township, the "hill coal" is extensively mined. Ninety- 
six feet below the " hill coal " is a " blossom " of coal, doubtless the equiva- 
lent of the lower Walden or " shaft coal." The following is a section : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Coal, "hill coal" 2 6 

2. Notseen 51 

3. Coarse sand-rock 30 

4. Clayandshale 15 

5. Coal "blossom" 

6. Fire clay, not seen 8 

7. Ore,kidney 4-6 

For this section, see Map III, No. 31. 

On the land of A. Brown, Sec. 10, Lick township, the blue or Putnam 
Hill limestone was found, and the " Anthony " coal 125 ft. below it. The 
coal varies in thickness irom 2 ft. 10 in. to 3 ft. 2 in. The coal shows a 
little sulphnret of iron, but has a good reputation in the neighborhood. 
For this section, see Map III, No. 24. 

On the land of Mr. Lively, on the same Sec. 10, on the eastern part of 

it, we obtained the following section : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Block ore 5 

2. Notseen 44 Q Q 

3. Ore 5 

4. Blue limestone 21 

5. Notseen II 8 6 #T 

6. Fire clay, used for pottery 3, 0,„. 

•Trot edl 
For this section, see Map HI, No. 23. . _ * 

i'iviopa iwaoa 
10 



146 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



At the mines of the Petrea Coal Company, owned chiefly by W. T. 
McClintock, Esq., near the north-west corner of Lot. 27, Lick township, 
the " Anthony seam " is very extensively mined. The mines are connected 
with the Portsmouth Branch of the M. & 0. Eailroad by a branch less 
than a mile in length. On the hill south of the mines the blue limestone 
was seen at a height of about 125 feet above the coal. Over the coal are 
10 feet of dark clay shale. The seam of coal measures from 2 ft. 10 in. 
to 3 ft. 2 in. in thickness. Below the coal is a dark blue sand-rock pon- 
taining coal plants. For this section, see Map III, No. 25. 

The following table gives the results of analyses of three samples, repre- 
senting the bottom, middle and top of the Petrea coal seam : 





No. 1. 
Bottom. 


No. 2. 
Middle. 


No. 3. 
Top. 




1.285 


1.295 


1.319 




6.60 

2.40 

29.60 

61.40 


6.80 

3.50 

30.80 

58.90 


8.40 


Ash 


8.00 




25.60 




58.00 






Total 


100.00 

0.70 
3.16 


100.00 

0.96 
3.32 


100.00 




0.82 




2.83 







The ash in No. 3 is larger than we usually find it in this seam, but the 
coal, as a whole, is of excellent quality. 

On Lot 3, Lick township, a short distance north from the former site of 
the " Toung America" furnace, a section was made which reveals some of 
the strata between the blue limestone and the " Anthony " seam of coal. 
The section is as follows : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore, reported 6 

2. Blue limestone, "Putnam Hill" 2 

3. Notsee^i 33 

4. Shaly sandstone 15 

5. Coal 1 4 

6. Shale 4 

7. Hard sandstone 3 

8. Shale, with scattered nodules of blue siderite ore— black slate (thin) 20 

9. Coal , 10 

Bed of stream. 

This section is seen on Map III, No. 28. 

The lower coal at this place is, in its stratigraphical position, the sup- 
posed equivalent of the " hill coal," but it has become very thin. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



147 



The upper seam is in the horizon of what, to the west, is the cannel 
seam. 

On the land of Mr. McKittrick, Lot 44, Lick township, we find a seam 
of coal which is evidently the same as the lowest seen at the " Pine-tree 
hill" on Charles Walden's laud, not far from Buffalo-skull creek. It rests 
upon a coarse white sand-rock, with well-marked conglomerate at the 
top. This rock constitutes the ledge seen a half mile north from Orange 
Furnace. This ledge is 40 feet in height. So far as we could learn, no 
seam of coal has ever been found below the white sand-rock. Mr. Mc- 
Kittrick once opened a bank and mined a little of his coal, which he 
reports to be 1 foot 4 inches in thickness of seam. About two hundred 
yards from the opening spoken of, and in a north-west direction, we 
found another old coal-entry, the elevation of which showed that the dip 
of the coal seam in that short distance is 10 feet. IsTo samples of the 
McKittrick coal could be obtained for examination, but I have no doubt 
that it is the geological equivalent of the " Shaft seam." The rapid dip 
seen between the two points on Mr. McKittrick's land would take the 
seam below the surface of the valley at the town of Jackson. (See Pig. 8.) 
For a section at McKittrick's, see Map III, No. 32. By examining an 
exposure of the strata along the bank of Salt creek, between the bridge 
on the (Jhillicothe road and the "old mill" in the town, it is found that 
the shales, including a very thin seam of coal, all dip uniformly in a 
southern direction. If the data given us respecting the depth of the 
shaft coal near the bridge, obtained by boring, and at the "old mill," in 
the shaft, are to be relied upon, the coal has dipped about 15 feet toward 
the latter point. The reports give the increase of thickness of the coal 
seam from 1 foot 8 inches at the bridge to 3 feet 4 inches at the mill. 




Fig. 8. 

In order to reach the "Shaft coal" at Jackson, one slope and three 
shafts have been sunk, besides the shaft at the old mill, which was sunk 
many years since. The existence of the " Shaft coal" was first revealed 
by boring for brine, at the time salt was made at Jackson. 



148 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 



The slope was excavated by Messrs. Kyle, Brown & Co. It reveals the 
following strata : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Soil and not seen 7 

2. Sand rook 15 

3. Blue sandy shale 8 

4. Coal 2 11 

The coal is probably thicker in other places in the mine. 
See Map III, No. 34. 

Orange Furnace shaft : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sand-rock 6 

2. Coal 3 

3. Conglomerate 1 

4. Coal 6 

5. Sand-rock 2 

6. Compact blue shale 25 

7. Coarse sand-rock 10 

8. Blue sandy shale, with eoal plants 10 

9. Coal 4 1 

See Map III, No. 33. 

The coal seam in this mine is very uneven. In one place the coal is 
said to dip 30 feet in a very short distance. 

Star Furnace shaft (See Map III, No. 36) : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Clay shale 15 

2. Blue sandy shale, compact and containing coal plants 20 

3. Black slate 4 

4. Coal, probable average 3 to 4 

In this mine the coal seam is reported to be very undulating. 

Fulton Furnace Shaft. (See Map III, No. 38) : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Clay shale - 1 6 

2. Coarse sand-rock 15 

3. Sandstone, hard and laminated 48 

4. Soft sandy shale, rich in coal plants 10 

5. Coal 2 5 

6. Fire-clay and black slate 6 

The coal was measured by Mr. Gilbert at the bottom of the shaft, but 
at no other place. It is probably thicker elsewhere. The seam is prob- 
ably from 25 feet to 30 feet lower in the Fulton shaft than in the Star shaft. 

Many borings have been made in the Salt creek valley, in the neigh- 
borhood of Jackson, to find the " shaft coal;" but we obtained no authen- 
tic statements of results. The rumored results are very conflicting. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 149 

Quality of the " Shaft Coal." 

Two samples of the coal have been analyzed by Prof. Wormley. No. 1 
was taken from the Fulton shaft, and No. 2 from the Star shaft. 

No. 1. No. 2. 
Specific gravity 1.282 1.267 

Combined water 7.75 7.50 

Ash 2.03 4.10 

Volatile matter .' 31.27 30.90 

Fixed carbon 58.95 57.50 

Total 100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 0.53 0.74 

Cubic feet permanent gas per pound 2.51 

Sulphur remaining in coke 0.22 

Percentage of sulphur in eoko 0.34 

Percentage of iron in coal 0.102 

No. 1 was not tested for the last mentioned items. 

On lot 17, Lick township, on the land of Mr. Haldeman, a coal seam 
has been opened and worked to a considerable extent. Mr. Gilbert visited 
the location and found the coal from 6 to 8 feet above a coarse white sand- 
rock containing conglomerate pebbles at the top. Fifteen feet of this 
sand-rock were seen. The coal seam is 3 feet 8 inches thick at the place 
measured, but 4 feet are claimed as the maximum. The coal is a little 
slaty at the top, but as a whole, has a very good reputation. From the 
appearance of the underlying white conglomerate sand-rock, it was in- 
ferred that the seam is the equivalent of the shaft coal, but this point 
was not definitely settled. It is thus provisionally given in Map III, 
No. 30. 

From all the facts and sections which have been presented, showing the 
stratigraphical position of the coal-seams in the region of Jackson, it 
will appear that there are three distinct and workable seams of very su- 
perior coal. Two of them have been known and worked, viz., the "hill 
coal " and the " shaft coal." The "Anthony seam " has also been worked, 
but it has generally been confounded with the " hill seam." By investi- 
gations all the seams in their relations to the Blue limestone, and their 
relations to each other, have been ascertained. These will readily be 
seen in Map III of grouped sections. 

The " hill coal " has been extensively mined for the supply of the local 
demands of Jackson and vicinity. It is a dry burning coal of great 
purity and excellence. Two samples of this coal were analyzed by Prof. 
Wormley. No. 1 was labeled " Hill coal, from the Stephenson bank." 
No. 2 was furnished by Mr. John M. Jones, of the Star Furnace, and 



150 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



labeled " Hill coal, from the Stephenson bank." No special examination 
was made of this particular bank, for the coal banks about Jackson are 
very numerous, but we suppose that Mr. Jones, who is intelligent in such 
matters, has not confounded, in this case, the "hill seam" with the "An- 
thony seam." Mr. Jones believes the "hill coal" from several other 
banks equally good with that from the Stephenson bank. The " hill coal'; 
has been used in the Fulton Furnace for a mixture with the "shaft coal." 

Analysis of " hill coal," Jackson, by Prof. Wormley : 

No. 1. No. 2. 
Specific gravity 1.336 1.281 

Combined water •. 7.60 8.70 

Ash 3.79 1.50 

Volatile matter 30.96 28.30 

Fixed carbon 57.65 61.60 

Total 100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 0.49 0.57 

Cubic feet permanent gas per lb 2.67 

Sulphur remaining in coke 0.43 

Percentage of sulphur in coke 0.68 

Iron in coal 0.102 

In Ho. 1 the latter items were not determined. 

Analyses of ores from the vicinity of Jackson, furnished by John M. 
Jones, of the Star Furnace : 

No. 1, "Limestone ore." Ho. 2, "Kidney ore." Ho. 3, "Block ore." 
Ho. 4, " Blue ore." Ho. 5, " ore 2 miles southwest of Jackson." 





No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 


No. 5. 




3.268 


3.551 


2.774 


3.169 


2.529 








10.50 

5.90 

79.70 


1.24 
7.54 
9.66 
73.38 
0.24 
2.00 
2.50 
2.04 


11.30 

9.16 

74.63 

1.20 
1.15 
0.52 
0.76 


11.47 

13.98 

64.09 

trace. 

0.65 

3.31 

5.50 


10.10 




12.44 




64.59 








0.04 
1.15 
0.97 
0.52 


2.60 




5.90 


Carbonate of lime 




Carbonate of magnesia 






1.00 












2.95 




0.383 
trace. 

99.163 


0.207 
0.36 


0.83 
trace. 


0.10 
0.57 






0.0 






Total 


99.167 


99.55 


99.69 


99.58 








55.79 


42.29 


52.24 


40,68 


45.20 


Phosphoric acid in No. 5, 1.88. 





GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 151 

Mr. Jones, who is the founder and assistant manager of Star Furnace, 
and who takes unusual interest in the applications of science to iron- 
making, has made some interesting trials in the Star Furnace of some of 
the ores referred to in the above table. 

The " Block ore," No. 3, of the table r was tried alone in the furnace and 
found to yield, in metallic iron, 46 per cent, of the ore. The loss of weight 
of ore from the wagon to the tunnel head was 16 per cent. This loss con- 
sists of the moisture of the ore as dug from the ground, the dirt adhering 
to the ore, the small particles of pulverized ore rejected in screening and 
the diminution of weight in roasting. Many of these elements of loss are 
not present when the ore is analyzed by the chemist, as the samples are 
always clean and dry. 

In roasting the ore the combined water of the hydrated sesquioxide is 
driven off, and this water, according to Prof. Wormley's analysis of a 
single sample, gave 11.30 per cent. ' 

If we may suppose the dirt, loss by screening and uncombined water of 
the raw ore to amount to 5 per cent., we should expect to obtain, as a 
theoretical result, 49.63 per cent, of iron. Mr. Jones reports the actual 
percentage obtained in the furnace to be 46 per cent. This discrepancy 
may be explained in various ways. The ore sent to Prof. Wormley may 
have been better than the average used in the furnace, which was proba- 
bly true. Also a small part of the iron may have escaped in the cinder. 

A similar trial was made in the Star Furnace of the " Limestone ore," 
No. 1, and of the " Kidney ore," No. 2, in proportion of two-thirds of the 
former to one-third of the latter. The loss in weight of ores from the 
wagon to the tunnel head is estimated by Mr. Jones at 25 per cent. The 
loss from dirt and screening is greater than in the case of the block ore, 
previously given. In the reduction of the carbonate of iron, which in the 
" Kidney ore " is 73.38 per cent, of the ore, there is also a loss. The pro- 
portion of pig-iron obtained by the trial was 53 per cent, of the roasted 
ores. 

The limestone used for flux at a large part of the furnaces of southern 
Ohio, is obtained from the seam well known in Vinton, Jackson, Scioto 
and Lawrence counties, as the limestone carrying the "limestone ore," 
and sometimes Called the Gray limestone to distinguish it from the Blue 
or "Putnam Hill" limestone. I have called it in my report the "Fer- 
riferous limestone," not because it contains a note-worthy quantity of 
iron, but because an ore always rests upon it. Two samples of this Fer- 
riferous limestone were furnished for analysis by Mr. John M. Jones, of 
the Star Furnace, and also a sample of the Blue limestone. 



152 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



Prof. Wormley gives the following as the results of his analyses : 
No. 1, Gray or Ferriferous limestone, lower part. 
No. 2, Gray or Ferriferous limestone, upper part. 
No. 3, Blue limestone. 





No.l. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


















Silicic acid 


1.00 
6.80 
88.80 
1.20 
1.80 


1.00 
1.00 
94.20 
0.76 
2.90 


5.40 




2.00 




88.00 




1.51 




2.90 






Total 


99.60 


99.96 


99.81 







By these analyses, it appears the upper part of the Ferriferous lime- 
stone contains the larger percentage of carbonate of lime. The Blue 
limestone, when of equal purity with the sample analyzed, would, doubt- 
less, answer a good purpose in the furnace. 



Analyses of Cinders from the Star Furnace. 

No. 1 was produced when the furnace was making No. 1 gray iron from 
native ore ; No 2 when making No. 2 iron from native ore ; No. 3 when 
making mottled iron from § native ore and J foreign. 





No.l. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


Silica 


34.80 
0.06 

23.00 
1.15 

38.19 
1.37 
0.32 
1.01 


39.12 
0.55 

22.40 
1.10 

34.78 

1.66 

0.25 

Trace. 


44.68 




0.55 




22.40 




1.30 


,. "U.u b »ui.™ 


29.23 




1.08 




0.24 




0.05 






Total 


99.90 


99.86 


99.53 







GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 153 



Statistics of Star Furnace. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 40 

Diameter at tunnel head - 5 

Diameter at top of boshes 11 

Batter of boshes, per foot 3i 

Height of hearth _■ 6 

Diameter of hearth at top 5 

Diameter of hearth at bottom 4 

3 twyers, entering hearth above bottom 2 11 

Diameter of twyers 4 

Force of blast, 5 lbs. per square inch. 
Quantity of air per minute, 3600 cubic feet. 
Temperature of blast, 700°. 

Statistics of Orange Furnace, erected 1864. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 40 

Diameter at top of boshes 10 4 

Batter of boshes per foot 2i 

Height of hearth 5 

Diameter of hearth at top 5 

Diameter of hearth at bottom.* 4 

3 twyers, 4 inches diameter, entering hearth above the bottom 2 11 

Pressure of blast 4 to 5 lbs. 

Temperature of blast 750° to 800° 

Charges in 24 hours 44 

( Coal ("shaftcoal") 1500 lbs. 

Proportions of charge < Roasted native ore 1050 " 

(Limestone 400 " 

Amount of ore to ton of iron 2| tons. 

Average daily production 10^ " 

Mr. Van Dyke, manager, reports the following classification of the iron 
produced : 

No. 1 foundry Two-thirds. 

No. 2 foundry One-sixth. 

Mill One-sixth. 

No statistics from Bulton Furnace were obtained. 

Jackson township. — On the laDd of Wm, L. Faulkner, a coal mine is 
opened on the south-west quarter of section 36, Jackson township. The 
seam measures 3 feet 6 inches. There is a tendency to sulphuret of iron 
in the middle of the seam, but this is separated in mining. With this 
exception the coal is of very line quality, and is prized by blacksmiths. 



154 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

The upper two inches of the seam are a pure cannel coal. A sand rock, 
which is probably the top of the Conglomerate, i s seen about 40 feet 
below the coal. Fragments of a conglomerate ore were seen a few feet 
above the sand-rock. It is possible that Mr. Faulkner's coal is the geolog- 
ical equivalent of the Anthony seam. Near Mr. Faulkner's house very 
heavy ledges of Conglomerate are seen bordering the valley of Salt 
creek. One of these gave a measurement of 130 feet. The upper Wa- 
verly sandstone is seen below. At this point the Conglomerate is in 
evenly bedded strata and nearly horizontal, and little false bedding was 
seen. The pebbles are exclusively quartz, generally white. A few are 
rose colored, and a very few of dark color. 

Liberty township. — A very few knobs, and these the highest, on the west 
side of Salt creek, in Liberty township, take the coal. 

Scioto township. — Little coal was seen in this township. On the land 
of Henry Spahn, section 31 or 32, a seam of coal is found, reported to be 
1 foot 8 inches thick. Its place, by report, is just above the Conglomerate" 
The Conglomerate is well developed in all this region. It is often very 
coarse, and the pebbles are, so far as seen, exclusively white quartz. 

Franklin township. — No special investigations were made in Franklin 
township. The usual ores are abundant, and a thin seam of coal is re- 
ported, but no measurements were taken. 

Bloomfield township. — In the north-western portion of this township the 
surface is comparatively level, and but little ore has been dug. 

On the lands of Keystone Furnace Co., section 12, Bloom field township, 
a section was obtained, which embraces a perpendicular range of 232 feet. 
(See Map III, No. 35.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore — not measured , 

2. Notseen 78 

3. Clay and shales 4 

4. Coal — upper 8 inches slaty 3 6 

5. Under clay 

6. Notseen 36 

7. Sandstone 8 

8. Coal 3 4 

9. Underclay 

10. Notseen 20 

11. Ore 10 

12. Ferriferous limestone 5 

13. Shales and Mack slate 2 

14. Coal — reported 4 

15. Underclay 

16. Not seen 8 

17. White sandstone — used for hearthstones 29 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 155 

Feet. Inches. 

18. Coal 2tol4 

19. Notseen 29 

20. Shales and black slate, with, nodules of ore 6 

21. Cannel coal 1 8 

22. Under clay and shales 



4 WW? Clay Shall 




8' Vi^T $cvnct>roc'k, 

3 '+''flllS| c° M - 

l<)' \ JfotSee-n. 




4' jsjgjgj^ C.vi'. 

tM/0M"'VsruiLeT' Clay. 

8' \ Hot Seen. 
^JIwrijL white 

r-.fay'h eaT'fh-ctbTieB. 



as 



):-, %-i Co curse Scundefop* . 



A^pF &&:«&,. 




Fig. 9. 

Fig. 9 shows a section on Keystone Furnace lands. 
The cannel coal seam at Keystone is often found changed into the ordi- 
nary bituminous coal. 

Statistics of Keystone Furnace. 
The Furnace is owned by E. B. Green & Oo. It was built in 1849. 



156 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

Feet. Inches. 
Height of stack 34 

Diameter at top of boshes 11 

Batter of boshes, per feet 10 

Diameter of hearth — top 3 10 

" " bottom 3 4 

Height of hearth 5 8 

One twyer — diameter of do 4 

Uses Davis' hot blast. 

Production — 14 tons iron per diem. 

Classification of production — J No. 1 foundry and i No. 1 mill iron. 

Proportions of half-charge — Ore, 820 lbs. ; limestone, 30 lbs ; charcoal, 23 bushels. 

80 half-charges in 24 hours. 

Limestone ore used exclusively; all obtained from Furnace lands. 

2i tons of raw, or 2 tons of burnt ore, make 1 ton of iron. 

Temperature of blast, 900°. 

Pressure of blast, 3£ lbs. 

Average duration of blast, 8 months per annum. 

Furnace stops on Sundays. 

Hamilton Township. — In the northwestern part of this township are 
heavy ledges of Conglomerate made up of very coarse pebbles. 

In the southwestern part, the Upper Waverly is seen in the beds of 
the streams. 

On the land of Jackson Gilliland, Sec. 26, the Upper Waverly is seen 
along the banks of the stream, and 45 feet above it is found a seam of 
coal. A section of the coal and associated strata is as follows : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Bluish shale, compact and impervious 4 

2. Slaty cannel coal 2J 

3. Block coal, semi-cannel 3^ 

4. Fine block coal 2 3 

5. Under clay, not measured 

6. Notseen 45 

7. Upper Waverly or Logan sandstone 15 

Bed of stream. 

This section is seen on Map IV, No. 4. 

The coal is very properly called a block coal, as it is mined in very 
large blocks, and has all the physical properties of the typical block 
coals. 

No analysis was made of it from this location, as other analyses were 
made of the same coal in the neighborhood. I think I cannot be mis- 
taken in pronouncing the block coal to be very superior in quality, and 
peculiarly adapted to the making of iron. A sample of the cannel from the 
top of the seam was analyzed by Prof. Wormley with the following re- 
sult: 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 157 

Specific gravity 1.276 

Combined water 4.30 

Ash 6.25 

Volatile matter 37.70 

Fixed carbon 51.75 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 1.25 

Cub. ft. permanent gas per lb 3.05 

Ash, yellow. 

On the land of Enoch Canter, Sec. 24, Hamilton township, was obtain- 
ed the following section (see Map IV, No. 3) : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Blue shale 6 

2. Coal, block 2 4 

3. Notexposed 12 

4. Sandy shale 5 

5. Sand-rock 5 

6. Fire-clay and clay shale 4 

7. Ore, and black flint under it 1 6 

8. Limestone, Maxville 8 

9. Fire-clay and shale, reported 12 

10. Logan or Upper Waverly sandstone 

This section is given in Fig. 3 on page 65. 

This section is of great interest as showing the Maxville limestone, of 
the Lower Carboniferous, resting almost directly upon the Upper Wa- 
verly. It also shows that there is no Conglomerate at that point, although 
it exists in heavy development a few miles to the west, in the same town- 
ship. 

This is another proof that the Conglomerate lies in a ridge parallel 
with the western line of the Coal fields, just as along existing coasts 
long lines of sand-bars or ridges are accumulated, parallel with the shore. 

A sample of the block coal of Mr. Canter was analyzed by Prof. Worm- 
ley with the following result : 

Specific gravity 1.298 

Combined water 8.55 

Ash— white 5.20 

Volatile matter 25.25 

Fixed carbon 61.00 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 0.58 



158 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 

This cannot fail to prove itself a very superior furnace coal. 

The ore on the Maxville limestone near Enoch Canter's has been quite 

extensively dug, and used with satisfaction at the Jackson Furnace. 

At Jackson Furnace, Sec. 34, Hamilton township, the following section 

was made. (See Map IV., No. 7) : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Blossom of coal . 

2. "Big red block" ore 6tol0 

3. Notexposed 20 

4. "Sand block "ore 5 to 9 

5. Coarse sand-rock 15 

6. Coal stain 

7. Shale 18 

8. " Little red block " ore 5 to' 7 

9. Clay shale 1 

10. Coarse sand-rock 20 

11. Sandy shales and laminated sandstone 105 

12. Coal— block 2 6 

13. Under-clay 2 6 

14. Clay shale 2 6 

15. Compact bluish-white sand-rock, used for hearth-stones 10 

16. Sandyshale 10 

17. Coal... 2to 6 

18. Gray shale, blue sandy shale, sandstone wave-marked and 

sun-cracked 20 

19. Logan or Upper Waverly, with the usual Spirophyton eauda- 

galli and vermicular marking 12 

The block coal is sometimes thinner than above, but this was the 
thickness where mined. Prof. Wormley gives the following analyses 
of it: 

Specific gravity 1.296 

Combined water 5.30 

Ash 3.10 

Volatile matter 32.60 

Fixed carbon , 59.00 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 0.78 

Ash, yellow. 

This coal is also very superior in quality. 

The Jackson Furnace is owned by the Jackson Furnace Co. The 
furnace lands are too far west to take much of the regular " limestone 
ore." This ore, used as a mixture with the ores on the estate, is brought 
by railroad from farther east. No statistics of the structure of the 
furnace were obtained, but it closely resembles the other charcoal furnaces 

Note. — A suite of the ores at Jackson Furnace was obtained. They have not yet been 
analyzed. Some of these ores are excellent. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 159 

of southern OMo. The block coal, found upon the furnace land, will 
greatly enhance the future value of this property. The coal was success- 
fully tried in the furnace. The quality of iron obtained was entirely sat- 
isfactory. On account of the slope of the boshes, a part of the coal was 
coked to prevent the coal from hanging. With a furnace constructed* on 
purpose for bituminous coal, it is believed there will be no difficulty in 
using the coal in the raw state. 

The block coal, in the township of Hamilton, is one of the most inter- 
esting and valuable coal deposits in the State. The seam is thin, but the 
quality of the coal makes it extremely valuable for iron-making. 

Mr. Jackson Gilliland reports the coal as found in usual thickness for 
three miles north of his house, on Sec. 26. He also reports that G-eorge 
Gilliland and Harvey Canter have banks opened a mile and a half west of 
the Jackson Furnace, which is on Sec. 34. I had not time to investigate 
the whole extent of this very promising coal field. It was estimated, by 
Mr. Gilliland, to cover an area of from 6,000 to 8,000 acres. 

On the land of Mr. McCoy, Sec. 11, Hamilton township, a seam of 
block coal of excellent quality, 14 in. thick, was seen. 

The whole section at this place was as follows : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Coal, sulphurous — not measured 

2. Shaly sandstone 4 

3. Not seen 55 

4. Sandstone 4 

5. Laminated semi-cannel coal 4 

6. Blockcoal 1 2 

This coal is only mined by stripping, for neighborhood use and black- 
smithing, and is highly prized. The underlying strata were not exposed, 
but Mr. Gilbert has no doubt that it is the equivalent of the Canter coal. 

Jefferson Township. — A section was made at Monroe Furnace, giving 

the following strata : (See Map IV, No. 1.) i 

Feet. Inches. 
Soil : .' 

1. Brown clay, with a layer of kidney ore 8 

2. Limonite ore 8 

3. Ferriferous limestone 5 

4. Dark clay shale 1 

5. Coal (reported) 3 

6. Not exposed 53 

7. Sand-stone containing iron ore, and Spiriferae and Producti 6 

8. Clay shale 4 

9. Coal, with two thin slate partings 3 6 

10. Not seen 60 

11. Blockore 7 

12. Clay shale 4 

13. Coal (reported) I 6 



160 GEOLOGICAL SURNEY OP OHIO. 

Statistics of Monroe Furnace. 
This Furnace was built in 1854, and is owned by the Union Iron 

Company. 

Feet. Inches. 
Height of stack 40 

Piameterat top of boshes .-... 11 6 

Batter " " 8to9 

Diameter of tunnel head 2 8 

Height of hearth 6 9 

Diameter of top of hearth 5 

" "bottom " 4 2 

Three twyers of 3 inches diameter. 

Twyers enter hearth 27 inches above bottom. 

Uses 2 sets Davis' hot blast. 

Pressure of blast, 3£ lbs. 

Proportions of " half charge : " 

Ore, roasted, 1,250 lbs. 

Limestone, 75 " 

Charcoal, 35 bushels. 
Uses 75 to 80 half charges in 24 hours. 
Uses 2 3-5 tons raw ore for 1 ton of iron. 

Or 2i " roasted " " « " 

Average production per day, 18 tons. 
Uses two-thirds limestone ore and one-third block ore, all from the Company's lands. 

Jefferson Furnace, Section 14, Jefferson Township. 

The following section was taken at this Furnace : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore 4 

2. Not exposed 25 6 

3. Sand-rock 3 

4. Clay shale 6 

5. Coal (reported) 3 

6. Not exposed 19 

7. Limonite ore 10 

8. Ferriferous limestone 3 

9. Clay shale and black slate 1 

10. Coal (reported) 3 

11. Underclay 2 (?) - 

12. Notexposed 104 

13. Coarse sand-rock 20 

14. Clayshale 2 

15. Coal 8 

This section is seen on Map IV, No. 2. 

Here the usual limestone and limestone ore are found serving as the 
foundation of iron manufacture. The Jefferson Furnace uses charcoal, 
and makes a cold-blast iron which has generally been held in high repute. 
The details of the structure and working of the Furnace were not ob. 
tained. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 161 

Madison Township. — A section was made at Madison Furnace, Sec. 5, 
which presents the following strata : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. "Tophill"ore 5 

2. Notexposed 17 

3. Coarse sandstone 10 

4. Coal 2 9 

5. Under-clay 1 

6. Notexposed 4 

7. Buff shaly sandstone „ 15 

8. Ore, limonite 10 

9. Ferriferous limestone 3 

10. Shale and slate 2 

11. Coal, reported 3 

12. TJnder-clay and clay shale 8 

13. Compact bluish-white sand-rock used for hearth-stones 8 

For this section see Map III, No. 39. 

From the above section it will be seen that the regular •" limestone 
ore," with the underlying limestone, is found in good development. The 
coal seam under the limestone is reported to be 3 feet thick, and the seam, 
20 feet above, measured nearly as much. No statistics of the furnace 
have been received. It is a charcoal furnace. 

General Discussion of Jackson County. 

Jackson county is rich in coal of the finest quality, and in superior iron 
ores. There are two well-defined areas in which the better class of coals 
is now known to exist, viz. : one in the vicinity of Jackson, extending 
north for several miles, and the other in Hamilton township, in the 
vicinity of Jackson Furnace. The former area is quite large, extending 
north through Lick and through a considerable part of Washington, 
and west into Jackson township. There are three distinct seams of ex- 
cellent coal. If a railroad should be built from Jackson up Horse creek 
valley and down Pigeon creek, a remarkably fine body of coal would be 
rendered accessible. These two streams head in a low field, and there is 
no apparent difficulty in the construction of a railway. It is a natural 
route for a road. There is in the adjacent hills considerable block or 
kidney ore, which would serve a valuable purpose as a mixture with the 
richer ores of Lake Superior or Missouri. If a branch railroad could be 
built up the Buffalo* Skull branch of Salt creek, there would be rendered 
accessible a fine body of the Anthony and the other coals. Should there 
be secured these and other necessary railroad facilities, it is safe to pre- 
dict that ere long Jackson and vicinity will be the center of a very large 
stone-coal iron production. 
11 



162 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

The details of the coal-field in Hamilton township have already been 
given. Here there is much excellent native ore to be obtained. How 
this coal-field can best be reached by railroad, I am unable to state, as no 
investigations of this point were made. 

Jackson county everywhere possesses the Ferriferous limestone, and the 
limestone ore in the more central and eastern townships. 

All that is needed in Jackson county to develop an immense iron pro- 
duction is the means of the proper distribution of the coals and ores. 
There is ore enough, of a very superior quality, to last for a long period 
of time, and there is an almost indefinite quantity of very superior coal. 
The original forests are rapidly fading away before the axe of the furnace- 
men, and it will very soon become absolutely necessary to abandon iron- 
making entirely, or resort to the buried treasures of stone-coal for fuel. 
Fortunately, the bituminous coals are remarkably adapted to furnace use. 

The soil of Jackson county is generally better adapted to grass and stock- 
raising than to the growth of cereals. On many of the streams there are 
broad and beautiful valleys, and in many parts of the county the hills 
exhibit very gentle slopes. In some of the lowlands the soil is composed 
too largely of a tenacious clay and greatly needs thorough draining. The 
Conglomerate hills in the western part of the county are often very steep 
and rough, and the soil is poor, there being no decomposing limestone to 
aid in its fertilization. The area covered by the Blue and Ferriferous 
limestones is, doubtless, benefitted in fertility by them, but these lime- 
stones are not as soluble under atmospheric agencies as many others, and 
hence do not exert as beneficial an influence as one might at first infer. 
Generally, the term "limestone land" implies fertility, but this, I find, 
is to be taken with limitations. I have found in some districts very thin 
seams of limestone, often not more than a foot thick, which have more 
value to the farmer from their solubility, and consequent fertilizing power, 
than other seams more than ten times that thickness. 

A very careful scientific investigation of this and similar questions 
would be very interesting and profitable, but as this duty is assigned to 
another member of the Geological Corps, I have not deemed it proper to 
enter upon it. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 163 



OHAPTEE Y. 

SOIOTO COUNTY. 

Investigations were made only in the eastern part of this comity, my 
design being to confine my labors in 1870 to the lower Coal measures? 
and whatever might be found resting upon the Upper Waverly. 

Madison township. — Few investigations were made in this township. 
The township is too far west to allow of finding true Coal-measures 
strata, except on the very highest hills. This is peculiarly true of the 
western part. 

On section 31, in the south-east part of the township, a very thin seam 
of coal, 6 inches thick was seen, and 42 feet below was found the Upper 
Waverly sandstone. This is, doubtless, the equivalent of the Canter 
coal found in Hamilton township, Jackson county. 

Iron ore is found at several points. Large quantities have been dug 
and taken to Harrison Furnace from the " Eamsey farm," perhaps a mile 
and a half north-west of Harrisonville. From an examination of the 
locality made many years since, I am led to suppose that this is the equiva- 
lent of the ore found on the Canter limestone (Maxville or lower Car- 
boniferous), in Hamilton township, Jackson county. The lower part of 
the ore sometimes passes into limestone. 

Harrison township. — On the lands of the Harrison Furnace Company, 
section 7, the following geological section was made: (See Map IV, 
No. 19.) 



Feet. Inches. 

1. Sandstone, not measured - 

2. Fireclay 3 

3. Kotseen 22 

4. Iron ore ("guinea fowl") 1 6 

5. Notseen 36 

6. Iron ore 1 

7. Limestone (" Maxville,") not measured 

8. Notseen 25 

9. Iron ore, not measured 

10. Logan or Upper Waverly 



164 GEOLOGICAL SUKVEY OF OHIO. 

Harrison Furnace has not been in blast for two or three years. It was 
built in 1853. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack ".. 34 

Diameter at top of boshes 10 6 

Batter of boshes per foot 9£ 

2 twyers, diameter of each 3| 

Diameter of hearth, top 4 

Diameter of hearth, bottom 3 8 

Height of hearth 6 

Uses Davis' hot blast. 

Pressure of blast per square inch, 3-J pounds. 

Former average production, 8 tons per diem, of which 80 per cent, was foundry- 
iron, and 20 per cent, mill iron. 
Two-thirds of the iron ore from the furnace lands, and one- third "limestone 

ore" brought from the neighborhood of Oak Hill, Jackson county. 
Limestone used came in part from the furnace lands, and part from the Ferrifer- 
ous limestone seam near Oak Hill, 
The average length of blast was seven months in the year. 

It was on the lands of the Harrison Furnace Company that the valua- 
ble fire clay, now so largely used at Sciotoville, was first discovered. This 
clay will be noticed hereafter. 

At Stevens' Cut, on the Marietta & Cincinnati E. E., Portsmouth Branch, 
in section 36, Harrison township, the following section was made. (See 
Map IV, No. 15.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Blue sandy shale, with nodules of ore 10 

2. Blackslate 5 

3. Coal 1 4 

4. Under-clay, not measured 

5. Sandy shale with quartz pebbles and nodules of ore 6 

6. Conglomerate and sandy shale 12 

7. Logan or Upper Waverly sandstone - 

Bed of stream 

The following is an analysis of the coal taken from Stevens' cut, by 
Prof. Wormley : 

Specific gravity 1.319 

Combined water -. 4.40 

Ash , 5.75 

Volatile matter 34.20 

Fixed carbon 55.65 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 0.63 

Ash, white. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 165 

Although the seam is thin, the coal appeared to be of so good a quality 
that a sample of it was analyzed in the hope that the authentication of 
the excellent quality of coal might serve to stimulate the people' of the 
region to search for a thicker development of the seam. 

Between Stevens' cut and Gephart's Station, on the railroad, the fine- 
grained Logan or Upper Waverly is seen in the bed of Plumb fork of 
Little Scioto river, on the lands of Wesley Hawkins. 

A sample of iron ore was obtained from a layer seen in the bed of the 
stream near the Station. The ore often shows fine quartz pebbles, prov- 
ing its conglomeratic origin. 

The following are the results of Prof. Wormley's analysis of the ore : 

Specific gravity *.. 3.321 

Silicious matter 14.60 

Sesquioxide of iron , 10.50 

Carbonate of protoxide of iron 43.58 

Alumina 1.50 

Manganese trace. 

Phosphate of lime 13.40 

Carbonate of lime 10.04 

Carbonate of magnesia 2.73 

Water and loss 4.65 ' 

Total 100.00 

Phosphoric acid.l 6.14 

Metallic iron 26.69 

It will be seen that the per centum of metallic iron is small, and that 
of phosphorus large. 

Bloom Township. — On the land of Henry Schump, Sec. 6, Bloom town- 
ship, the Little Scioto river exposes the fine-grained Waverly, or Logan 
sandstone, along its banks. A section made here shows the following 
strata. (See Map IV., No. 8) : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sandstone, containing iron ore , 3 

2. Coal 1 6 

3. Fire-clay — not'measured , 

4. Not seen 45 

5. Coarse sandstone , 22 

6. Conglomerate with large pebbles ..,.., 4 

7. Shaly sandstone 24 

8. Logan or Upper Waverly sandstone ,„,,.., 



166 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

On Conrad BTennings' land Sec. 18, Bloom township, the following 
section was measured : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Coal " blossom " 

2. Not seen 76 

3. Sandstone with ore 5 o 

4. Coal 4 

5. Compact fire-clay 3 

This fire-clay is of good quality. It has been extensively dug, and 
used at Webster in the manufacture of fire-bricks. From its character 
and position, this clay is probably the same with the Sciotoville fireclay, 
which lies immediately above the Logan or Upper Waverly sandstone. 

On Sec. 9, Bloom township, on the land of Joseph Spitzmagal, the same 
stratum of fire-clay has been found, and the section there shows the same 
grouping of strata, viz : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Shales and clay 3 

2. Fire-clay , 2 

3. Sandstone with iron ore 6 

4. Coal 4 

5. Compact fire clay 3 

The same compact fire-clay is reported at several points, and there is 
no doubt that vast quantities can be obtained in Bloom township. The 
Webster Fire-Brick Co., in charge of B. T. Gollis, for the manufacture 
of fire-brick, etc., obtains all its clay from this township. The seam of 
clay is just above the conglomerate, when there is any conglomerate, and 
as, in Porter township, when there is no intervening conglomerate the 
clay is just above the top of the Upper Waverly. 

At Scioto Furnace, Sec. 28, Bloom township, a section was obtained, 
ranging from the Blue limestone down to the Logan or Upper Waverly 
sandstone. It is as follows. (See Map IV., 2Sb. 14) : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore, " little red block " — not measured 

2. Blue limestone, "Putnam Hill'' 

3. Notseen 83 

4. Ore — not measured 

5. Bluish limestone, with calc. spar 2 

6. Notseen 78 

7. Ore, (" Guinea fowl") 1 2 

8. Notseen --- 30 

10. Logan or upper Waverly sandstone 

9. Conglomerate with coarse pebbles 6 



GEOLOGICAL SUEVEY OF OHIO. 167 

The lower limestone in the above section contains a large quantity of 
calc spar in crevices. It is reported to be a good flux, and has been used 
for that purpose at Scioto Furnace. 

At another point on the furnace lands the following strata were seen : 
(See Map IV, No. 11) : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Clay shales 4 

2. Cannel coal, slaty 1 11 

3. Slate and clay 8 

4. Cannel coal, good 10 

5. Heavy sand-rock and not seen 92 

6. Ore, ("guinea fowl") 1 2 

7. Sandy shales 1 

8. Fire-clay, compact and hard 4 

9. Clayshales 7 

10. Coal, not measured 

11. Under-clay 

12. Coarse sandstone 19 

13. Conglomerate 

Scioto Furnace is owned by L. 0. Eobinson & Co. It was built in 
1829 and rebuilt in 1844. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 32 

Diameter of tunnel-head 2 10 

Diameter at top of boshes 10 8 

Batter of boshes, per foot 10J 

Diameter of hearth, top 3 6 

" " bottom 2 10 

Height of hearth 6 

One twyer, diameter 4 

Uses Davis' hot blast. 

Temperature and pressure of blast not known. 

The average production of the furnace is 12 tons per diem. Of this, 95 per cent. 

is reported foundry iron, and the remainder mill iron. 
Proportions of " half charge " are : 

charcoal, 30 bushels. 

ore, 1,100 pounds. 

limestone, 100 pounds. 
Two and three-fourths tons of raw ore, or 2J tons burnt, are allowed for one 

ton of iron. 
Uses | limestone ore and i block ore. 

The limestone ore is brought from Oak Hill, Jackson county. 
The furnace is in blast ten months per annum. 

At Bloom Furnace, Section 10, Bloom township, the hills are high 
enough to take the Ferriferous limestone. A section at this place gives 
the following : 



168 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore, not measured 

2. Limestone, not measured : 

3. Notseen 105 

4. Ore, " big red block," not measured 

5. Sand-rock 24 

6. Ore, " little red block," not measured 

7. Sandstone 48 

8. Ore, " sand block," not measured 

9. Hard sandstone . . 

See Map IV, No. 10. 

The Pioneer Furnace, in this township, has not been in blast for several 
years. It is owned by Judge Chas. Fox, of Cincinnati. The usual 
Ferriferous limestone and limestone ore, with their associated coals, are 
found on the furnace property. No furnace statistics were obtained. 

Porter Township. — The leading item in the geological formation in this 
township, is the fire-clay, now largely used in the fire-brick manufacturing 
establishments at Sciotoville. The clay seam is found more or less devel- 
oped in all the high hills in this township. The same seam is found in 
Bloom township, and it is also found on the highest knobs in Clay town- 
ship to the west. The great mass of the hills of Porter township is made 
up of Upper Waverly strata, and the fire-clay, which belongs to the Coal 
measures, must necessarily therefore, be very high. 

A section was made by Mr. Gilbert in section 6, Porter township, 
giving the following strata : 

Feet. Inches. 

1 Laminated sandstone 5 

2. Coal 1 

3. Laminated sandstone - 8 

4. Fire-clay, upper part best 6 

5. Not exposed 6 

6. Upper Waverly sandstone 280 

Bed of Ohio river. 

See Map IV, No 22. 

The clay is not everywhere as thick as at the point measured. The 
clay is generally hard and of a light ash color. The bricks made 
from it are in high repute, and command a ready sale throughout the 
whole West. 

The following are four analyses of fire-clays from the lands of Messrs. 
McOonnell and Towne, near Sciotoville : 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

No. 1. Upper part of seam 3J feet thick. 

No. 2. Six inches from top of seam If feet thick. 

No. 3. From seam where 3 to 6 feet thick. 

No. 4. Upper part seam 2£ feet thick. 



169 





No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 




61.90 

22.80 

0.05 

0.70 

12.90 

0.90 


57.90 

26.60 

0.25 

0.60 

13.00 

1.15 


54.15 
23.30 

1.25 
trace. 
10.30 

0.90 


59.30 




24.10 




0.80 




1.15 




13.25 


Potash and soda 


0.95 






Total 


99.25 


99.50 


99.90 


99.55 







Although I have not visited all the localities whence these samples were 
obtained, I have little doubt that they all "came from the same geological 
horizon. 

For the purpose of comparison, and also to bring the facts within the 
reach of all interested in the manufacture of our clays, I append tables 
on pages 170 and 171, showing the composition of many of the leading 
fire-clays of Great Britain and of the Continent of Europe. 

The three fire-brick establishments at Sciotoville, belong, respectively, 
to the following firms : 

McOonnell, Porter & Co. 

Taylor, Connell & Co. 

Farney, Murray & Co. The manufactures of these firms meet with large 
sale, and the business has become a large and prosperous one. 

The concretions of impure iron ore found in the Waverly, at the mouth 
of the Little Scioto river, just above the water level are very rich in 
fossils. Prof. Winchell has indentified and described many of them as 
given in the last Eeport, and others are now in the hands of Prof. Meek 
tor study. 



Composition of Fire- Clays from the Continent of Europe. 



o 





Berthier. 


Salvetat. 


Berthier. 


Salvetat. 


Berthier. 


Berthier. 


Berthier. 


Salvetat. 


Salvetat. 


Berthier. 


Salvetat. 






1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


12. 




46.50 

34.90 

3.00 


47.50 

34.37 

1.24 


52.00 

27.00 

2.00 


45.79 

28.10 

6.55 


73.00 
27.00 


73.30 
24.00 


70.90 
24.80 


63.57 
27.45 


60.60 
26.39 


55.40 
26.40 


58.76 
25.10 


50.20 




34.13 






Sesquioxide iron. 




2.70 


3.80 


0.15 

0.55 

trace. 


2.50 
0.84 


4.20 


2.50 

trace. 

2.51 


0.87 




0.50 
1.00 




2.00 




0.30 












trace. 




0.18 


















0.39 


Soda 


























Water, hygromet'c 




0.43 
14.00 




0.50 
16.50 








1.27 

8.64 






1.45 
11.05 




15.2 


19.00 








9.20 


12.00 















1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 



Clay Gros Almerode. 

u u u 

" Beaufois, Ardennes. 

" Shiendorf. 

" Forges des Eaux. 

" St. Amand. 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 



Hessian Crucibles. 
Clay Belen, Ardennes. 

" Dourdan, Seine et Oise. 

" Labouchade, near Montlucon. 

" Savanas, Ardeehe. 

" Coblentz — used for glass-house pots, 



O 
It 1 
O 

S 
a. 



t 



o 
o 

a 

o 



Composition of British Fire- Clays. 





Richardson. 






A. W. 


1 . - v.u..^. . 

Wills. 




M 
o 
o 
H 


O 
H 

w 


>> 

Si 

M 

W 


a 
is 


H 
« 

1-5 


■e 

« 


4i 

cS 

> 

02 




1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


12. 


13. 


14. 


16. 


16. 








2.51 


2.54 


2.49 


2.48 










2.519 


































Alumina 


64.10 

23.15 

1.85 


70.50 

25.46 

2.04 


73.82 

15.88 
2.95 


68.82 

17.88 

3.63 


67.34 

21.01 

2.03 


61.33 

26.22 

1.06 


60.27 

23.89 

1.74 


71.41 

21.17 

0.91 


68.44 
27.01 

'2.47 

0.73 
0.19 

1.33 


69.91 
17.44 

""2.89 
3.08 
4.47 

2.21 


65.10 

22.22 

1.92 

0.14 
0.18 

0.18 


55.50 
27.75 

""2.01 

0.67 

0.75 

(2.19 

\ 0.44 


67.12 
21.18 

""l'.85 
0.32 

0.84 

2.02 


66.16 

22.54 

5.31 


63.07 

20.70 

4.00 


45.25 

28.77 
7.77 






Lime 






trace, 
trace. 

0.90 

trace. 


trace. 

1.19 

trace. 




0.41 
0.19 

0.68 

trace. 


0.72 
0.66 

0.95 


0.04 
trace. 

0.82 

trace. 


1.42 





0.47 


Magnesia 


0.95 


1.05 


1.38 




Alkalies 




















Sulphuric acid 




















0.06 


















trace. 


trace. 




trace, 
trace. 

10.11 


11.21 


trace, 
trace. 
\3.49 
}2.57 














Organic matter 


* 










0.58 
<7.10 
i 2.18 


trace. 
10.53 


0.90 
4.82 
1.39 










10.00 





6.45 


8.48 


8.24 


I 




3.14 


10.30 


17.34 


5 













i 

o 
t- 1 
o 

a 



o 

o 

W 



1. Stourbridge tire-clay. 

2. Stourbridge fire-clay. 

3. Best glass-house pot-clay, Tintam Abbey, Stourbridge. 

4. Best seconds clay, Tintam Abbey, Stourbridge. 

5. Homers' best glass-house pot-clay , Stourbridge. 

6. Best clay from Amblecote. 

7. Best clay from Delph Works , Stourbridge. 

8. Best clay from Tamworth. 

9. Potsherd made from Stourbridge clay. 



10. Fragments of faulty pot, useless. 

11. Best clay used by Messrs. Chance (Percy's Metallurgy.) 

13. Clay from Dowlais (Percy's Metallurgy.) 

12. Clay from New Castle on Tyne, used for brick (Percy's Metal- 

lurgy. 

14. Glasgow, well adapted for saggers, glass-house pots, cruci- 

bles and bricks, (Percy's Metallurgy.) 
15 and 16. Brierly Hill, near Stourbridge. 



172 GEOLOGICAL SUEVEY OF OHIO. 

I think one will rise from the study and careful comparison of these 
analyses with a conviction that the Scioto county fire-clays will compare 
favorably with the very best foreign clays. 

The ideal standard or type of a fire-clay is a pure silicate of alumina. 
Such a silicate is almost infusible. The impurities injurious to fire-clays 
are oxides of iron, magnesia, lime and the alkalies. The presence of a 
small amount of organic matter is no serious detriment, as this is burnt 
off in the burning of the clay. Such organic matter is chiefly carbona- 
ceous. All the Ohio fire-clays show traces of Stigmaria rootlets. 

In many clays there is an excess of silica beyond what is needed in 
combination as a silicate of alumina. This excess varies greatly, as has 
been shown by Dr. Percy. The per cent, of silica in the Sciotoville fire- 
clay compares favorably with the silica in the foreign clays. It is less 
than in some, but much greater than in others. The per cent, of the im- 
purities, oxides of iron, magnesia, lime and the alkalies is relatively 
small. Watts, in his Dictionary of Chemistry, remarks that " it is found 
in practice that 4, or at the most 5 per cent, is the maximum of oxides of 
iron, lime, magnesia and alkalies which can be present without rendering 
the mineral useless for its finer applications, while the samples most 
sought after contain not more than from 2 to 3 or 3J per cent, of these 
bases." In the Sciotoville clays we find the aggregate of impurities above 
named only 0.95, 2.00, 2.15 and 2.90 per cent, respectively, while in the 
foreign clays the aggregates are generally much larger. It is more than 
probable that the fine results obtained abroad in the manufacture of clays 
into bricks, crucibles, etc., is largely due to greater experience and more 
careful methods of treatment. If I may venture an opinion, I should 
say that, theoretically, the Sciotoville clay No. 1 is the best of the samples 
from that locality yet analyzed. 

Clay Township. — A section was taken on the lands of the Harrison 
Furnace Company, Section* 24 of this township, which gave the following 
strata : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Heavy sandstone 10 

2. Clay and shale 3 

3. Limestone with flint and ore 2 

4. "White limestone (Maxville) 5 

5. Sandy iron ore and limestone 2 

6. Not exposed 35 

7. Upper Waverly 

See Map IV, No. 18. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 173 

In many cases the ore above the limestone is flinty and mixed with 
limestone, but in other places the ore is good, and the limestone is thin 
or wanting altogether. The ore has been largely used in the Harrison 
Furnace. The deposit of the white or Maxville limestone is quite local. 
The Maxville limestone is generally found in very limited development. 

No Conglomerate was seen above the limestone. It is believed that 
the Conglomerate does not extend so far west as this point. 

On the farm of the late Mr. Taylor, about 3 miles east of Portsmouth, 
the Sciotoville fire-clay is found in the high hill 366 feet above the bridge 
on the main road, in the Ohio valley. Ten feet below the fire-clay the 
Upper Waverly is seen exposed. The clay is 1 foot 7 inches thick. 

Vernon township. — On the lands of Howard Furnace Company, Section 
12, Vernon township, several ores are dug, among which is the limestone 
ore. This ore, in the immediate vicinity of the furnace, is either thinly 
deposited or is so mingled with flint as to render it unfit for use. Some 
of the other ores are of good quality. A combined section obtained near 
the furnace reveals the following strata (See Map IV, No. 16) : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sandstone 12 

2. Coal, reported 3 

3. Not seen 10 

4. Clay shales 7 

5. Ore 6 

6. Ferriferous limestone 5 

7. Slate 6 

8. Coal 3 

9. Under-clay -. 

10. Not exposed '. 58 

11. Shaly sandstone 8 

12. Coal 1 8 

13. Under-olay 

14. Notseen 38 

15. Ore, "red block" 1 

16. Notseen 10 

17. Ore, " sand block," not measured 

18. Shaly sandstone 50 

19. Ore, "little block" 4 

20. Notseen 55 

21. Ore,"flag" 6 

This lowest, or flag ore, is apparently somewhat bituminous. At one 
place on the furnace lands a heavy ledge of sandstone takes the place of 
the coal above the Ferriferous limestone, as seen in Sec. 17, Map IV. 



174 GEOLOGICAL StTEYEY OF OHIO. 

Statistics of Howard Furnace. 
Howard Furnace is owned by the Charcoal Iron Company. If, was 
built in 1853. 

Feet. Inches. 
Height of stack 32 o 

Diameter at top of boshes 10 6 

Diameter of hearth — top •. 4 o 

Diameter of hearth — bottom 3 4 

Batter of boshes per foot 9 

Height of hearth 6 6 

One twyer, diameter of do 4 

Diameter of tunnel-head plate 3 

Uses " Allen's improved perpendicular pipes." 

Pressure of blast, usually, 2 lbs. 

Eeported average production, 16 tons of iron per diem — chiefly foundry iron. 

Proportions of half-charge : 

Charcoal 25 bushels ; 

Ore, 1000 to 1050 pounds; 

Limestone, 60 pounds. 
3 tons of raw ore, or 2J tons of burnt, produce 1 ton of iron. 
Average temperature, 800°. 
Uses f limestone ore. 
All the ores are from the furnace lands. 
The furnace is in blast ten months in the year. 

On the Clinton Furnace lands, Sec. 25, Vernon township, the following 
strata were seen. (See Map IV., ISo. 24) : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sandstone 3 

2. Coal, with two one-inch slate partings 2 2 

3. Under-clay 

4. Notseen 8 

5. Clayshale 10 

6. Ore — not measured 

7. Ferriferous limestone 3 

8. Notseen 25 

9. Ore "Top hill" — not measured 

10. Notseen 70 

11. Shaly sandstone 20 

12. "Block ore" — not measured 

Here the Ferriferous limestone is often flinty, and the limestone ore 

somewhat thin. 
The proprietors of Clinton Furnace are Crawford & Bell. It was built 

in 1832 : 

Feet Inches. 

Height of stack 31 

Diameter at top of boshes 10 6 

Diameter of hearth — top 3 4 

Diameter of hearth — bottom - 3 1 

Height of hearth 6 

Batter of boshes, per foot 10 

One twyer, diameter of do 4 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 175 

Uses the old-fashioned " ringed hot blast." 

Average production of iron, 9 tons. Of this f is foundry iron and i mill iron. 

Proportions of half charge : 

Charcoal, 24 hushels ; 

Ore, 850 pounds ; 

Limestone, 80 pounds. 
The ores used are from the furnace lands — one-half of which is " limestone ore." 
3 tons of raw ore, or 24 of burnt, are used in the production of 1 ton of iron. 
Average temperature and pressure of blast not known. 
The furnace is only five months in blast, owing to scarcity of charcoal. 

On the lands of Umpire Furnace the Ferriferous limestone is found on 

the summits of the highest hills. A combined section taken there, gives 

the following : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore — not measured 

2. Limestone — not measured 

3. White sandstone 15 

4. Ore, "Top hill" 8 

5. Sandstone and not seen 54 

6. Sand-rock 6 

7. Clay shales 3 

8. Coal 1 10 

9. Slate 4 

10. Coal 5 

11. Under-clay 

12. Notseen 17 

13. Ore — not measured 

14. Notseen 27 

15. Ore — not measured 

16. Notseen 31 

17. Ore 5 

18. Notseen 26 

19. Ore*. 5 

The above section combines two, viz., Nos. 20 and 23, Map IV. 
At a different place on the same lands, a section was made, as follows : 
(See Map IV, No. 21.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. " Kidney ore " (not measured) 

2. Blue limestone (not measured) 

3. Notseen 46 

4. Clayshale 1 

5. Black slate 4 

6. Coal (not measured) • 

This lower coal is said to be of good quality. The Blue or Putnam 
Hill limestone was seen at only one other place in Scioto county. South 
and east of this point it disappears altogether. 

The Empire Furnace is owned by James Forsyth & Co. It was built 
in 1847. 



176 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 35 o 

Diameter at top of boshes 10 6 

Diameter of hearth, top 3 8 

" " bottom 3 4 

Height of hearth 6 2 

Batter of boshes, per foot 10| 

One twyer — diameter of do 4 

Average temperature and pressure of blast — not known. 

Average production, 11 tons per diem. 

Of this, three-fourths reported as No. 2 foundry iron, and the remainder mill iron 

Proportions of " half charge " are : 

Charcoal, 20 bushels. 

Ore, 900 pounds. 

Limestone, 80 pounds. 
Uses ores from the Furnace lands. 
Kequires 3J tons raw ore per ton of iron. 
Furnace is 8 months In blast. 

Green Township. — South of Porter and Vernon townships lies Green 
township, along the Ohio river. In this township, on lot 21, of the French 
Grant, the following strata were found : (See Map V, No. 3.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore "Block" (not measured) 

2. Notexposed 100 

3. Sand-stone 8 

4. Coal of good quality (not measured) 

5. Notseen 20 

6. Ore (not measured) 

7. Notseen 118 

8. Ore (not measured) 

9. Upper Waverly or Logan sandstone 60 

The old FranMin Furnace, now abandoned, was situated on the same lot. 
At Ohio Furnace, Green township, the following section was measured : 
(See Map V, No. 1.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Clay shales 

2. Coal 3 

3. Notseen 15 

4. Ore (not measured) 

5. Ferriferous limestone (hot measured) 

6. Coal blossom 

7. Sand-stone and not seen 64 

8. Coal (reported) 2 

9. Underclay 

10. Soft sand-stone 45 

11. Block ore (not measured) 

12. Soft sand-stone 27 

13. Hard sandstone 20 

14. Coal 1 3 

15. Underclay 



GEOLOGICAL, SURVEY OP OHIO. 177 

The Ferriferous limestone in this vicinity is sometimes quite flinty. 
The goal below it is reported as entirely wanting, though a stain of it is 
seen. 

Ohio Furnace was built in 1834, and is owned by Messrs. Means, Kyle 

&Co. 

Feet. laches. 

Height of stack 32 

Diameter at top of boshes 11 

Diameter of hearth at top 2 8 

" " " "bottom 2 6 

Height of hearth 6 

Height of boshes 5 

Uses one twyer. Diameter of do 4 

Uses Davis' hot blast. 

Pressure and temperature of blast not known. 

The average production of iron is 16 tons per diem. 

Of this 90 per cent, is reported as No. 1 foundry iron, and the remainder No. 2 

foundry and mill iron. 
The proportions of a " half charge" are : 

Charcoal, 33 bushels. 

Ore, 1,100 pounds. 

Limestone, 100 ponnfrs. 
The ores used are one-half limestone ore and one- half block ore, all obtained from 

the Furnace lands. 

12 



178 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



CHAPTEE VI. 

GALLIA AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES. 

GALLIA COUNTY. 

The only part of Gallia county examined in 1870 was the western, lying 
either within the " limestone ore" belt, or near it. Sections were taken 
in Greenfield, Huntington and Walnut townships. 

Greenfield Township. — This township, in Gallia county, extends west- 
ward into the great iron-ore belt, and here is located Gallia Furnace. 
The following combined section was made in Sec. 16, on the lands of the 
Gallia Furnace Company : 

Feet. IncheE. 

1. Ironore 4 

2. Not exposed 34 o 

3. Coarse sandstone, soft and impregnated with copperas 25 

4. Blackslate 8 

5. Coal 1 f 8 

Slate parting } Sheridan coal ■{ 6 

Coal J L 2 4 

6. Under-clay ) 42 Q 

Not exposed ) 

7. Coarse sand-rock with two or three streaks of coal 25 

8. Ore 10 

9. Ferriferous limestone 7 

10. Coal 1 3 

11. Slate parting 7 

12. Coal 1 3 

13. Under-clay 

For the above section see Map IV, No. 5. 

The Gallia Furnace is owned by Norton, Campbell & Co., and was 

built in. 1847. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 36 

Diameter of hoshes 10 2 

Batter of hoshes per foot 8 

Diameter of hearth — top 3 6 

" " bottom 2 8 

Height of hearth 5 10 

One twyer, diameter of do 4 

Uses Davis' hot blast. 

Pressure and temperature of blast not known. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 179 

Daily average production of iron, 1L} tons. This is reported to be made up of 
60 per cent. No. 1 foundry iron, 25 per cent. No. 2 foundry, and 15 per cent. 
mill iron. 
Proportions of half charge : 

Charcoal, 30 bushels. 

Ore, 1,000 pounds. 

Limestone, 70 pounds. 
Two and seven-twelfths tons of raw ore make a ton of iron. 
Limestone ore, obtained on the furnace lands, is used exclusively. 
Eight months in blast each. year. 

On Dry Bidge, a few miles south-east of Gallia Furnace, a section was 
taken in order to get the proximate stratigraphical position of an iron 
ore. The section is as follows : (See Map IV, No. 6.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sandy limestone, fossilferous 1 3 

2. Not exposed 86 

3. Iron ore - 1 3 

4. Not exposed 90 

5. Sand-rock 24 

6. Sheridan coal, no opening 

The ore in the above section has been used with acceptance in the 
Gallia Furnace, but it is too far away to make its use profitable. The 
ore is a dark-red limonite, but has a decided tendency to crumble, and 
hence can best be used as a mixture with other and harder ores. 

Should a railroad be. built in the valley of Symmes' creek, this ore 
could doubtless be profitably used with the Missouri ores, to be smelted 
with the rich coal of Walnut township. 

In section 7, Huntington township, about 1J miles east of Keystone 
Furnace, the following strata were seen : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Blue clay shale, rich in coal plants 6 

2. Coal — upper 8" slaty — comparatively little pyrites 4 

3. Not exposed 50 

4. Ore 1 

5. Ferriferous limestone 4 .0 

For this section see No. 37, Map III. 

The coal in the above section is doubtless the Sheridan seam, but it is 
nearer the limestone than usual. This coal is worthy of careful investi- 
gation. At some points the coal of this seam is of great purity and 
excellence. , 

Walnut township, section 19. The coal mines of Jacob Webster were 
visited. The following is a section obtained there : 



180 GEOLOGICAL SUKVEY OF OHIO. 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Fossiliferous limestone 11 

2. Not seen 67 G 

3. Coal 3 6 

4. Notseen 20 

5. Sandstone and clay shales 29 

6. Coal 9 

7. Slate 3 

8. Coal 9 

9. Slate 3 

10. Coal 4 3 

11. Under clay — not measured 

12. Notseen 6 

13. Reported place of block ore — reported 7 

For this section see Map IV, No. 9. 



feng Clem Shale . 



■ m Pool . 

3"^BSB Piste. 

9" Ggimil coat. 



4'3' 




Coal . 
VJnilcvClct-V. 

Jie-po-rted iran Ore. 



Fig. 10. 

Fig. 10 shows the the structure of the Webster coal seam. 

The lower coal in the above section has been mined and used for smith- 
ing purposes. It has been analyzed by Prof. Wormley, and from its large 
percentage of fixed carbon and freedom from sulphur, it bids fair to figure 
largely in the future iron making enterprises of Lawrence and Gallia 
counties. The specimens analyzed were taken as follows: 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

No. 1. From the upper 9 inch seam. 

No. 2. From the middle 9 inch seam. 

No. 3. From the lower or 4 feet 3 inch seam. 



181 





No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 




1.3C7 


1.295 


1 309 






Water . . . 


4.05 

■ 7.60 

34.35 

54.00 


6.00 

4.65 

31.20 

58.15 


5 15 


Ash 


4 60 




29.65 


Fixed carbon 


60.60 






Total 


100.00 
1.15 


100.00 
0.86 


100.00 


Sulphur 


0.82 




0.07 


Percentage of sulphur in coke 






0.11 


Gas per pound, or cubic feet 


3.48 


3.07 


3.24 







The fact that nearly all the sulphur in this coal passes off in coking, 
renders the coke almost as pure as charcoal and fits it for the manufacture 
of the finest qualities of iron. 



LAWRENCE COUNTY. 

The geology of Lawrence county is not materially different from that 
of Jackson county. The belt of Ferriferous limestone with its ore, ex- 
tends through to the Ohio river, constituting its chief source of wealth. 
In the eastern part of Lawrence county, the Ferriferous limestone disap- 
pears beneath the surface, and instead of having two well defined lime- 
stone guides as in the counties to the north, we find a. number of lime- 
stone seams higher in the series. 

The great Nelsonville coal seam, the place of which is, we think, directly 
under the Ferriferous limestone, is found at only a few points in Lawrence 
county. 

The seam of coal most extensively mined in the vicinity of Ironton, is 
the ore about 20 feet above the limestone. The " Sheridan coal," mined 
near the Ohio river, six or eight miles above Ironton, is 66 feet above the 
same limestone. 

There are thirteen blast furnaces in the county, which, with the excep- 
tion of the Belfont (stone-coal) Furnace, use native ores exclusively. 

Note. — Comparatively little chemical work has yet been done in behalf of Lawrence 
county, on account of the very large accumulation of material previously placed in the 
hands of the State Chemist. It is hoped that hereafter much will be done for this im- 
portant region by this department; of the survey. 



182 GEOLOGICAL STJKVEY OF OHIO. 

Washington township. — In this township is located Washington Furnace 
in section 2. 

The furnace is nearly in the middle, from west to east, of the " limestone 
ore" belt, and consequently is very largely supplied with the limestone 
ore. " Top hill" ore is found on some of the higher points to the east, 
but no exact measurements were made. It was estimated by Dr. McGov- 
erny, the Superintendent of the Furnace, to be about 30 feet above the 
New Castle seam of coal. 

The following is a section of the strata on the furnace lands : 



Feet. Inches. 

1. Top Mil ore — not measured 

2. Not seen, with sand-rock at bottom (reported) 30 

3. New Castle coal — reported thickness 1 10 

4. Notseen 10 

5. Buff clay shale, with nodules of limonite ore 10 

6 Ore, limonite often siderite 9 

7. Ferriferous limestone 6 

8. Slate 3 

9. Coal, with slate parting, 2" thick J from bottom 2} to 3 

10. Notseen 8 

11. Laminated sandstone 5 

12. Heavy sand-rock 15 

13. Notseen - 15 

14. Sand-rock, white, used for hearthstone 20 

15. Bed of stream 



Samples of the siderite or blue portions of the limestone ore were 
taken for analysis. The ore is covered with a heavy bed of clay shale, 
and in the " heads of hollows " and all wet places the ore has not been 
modified by atmospheric action, but remains in its original condition of 
a blue carbonate of iron or siderite. This ore is not always suitably pre- 
pared for the furnace by the ordinary methods of roasting in open heaps, 
and more complete methods must be adopted at many of our furnaces in 
order to utilize the blue ores. 



Analyses of ores from Washington Furnace lands. 

No. 1. Blue limestone ore (siderite) from Neiner Hollow. 
No. 2. Brown " " " Sponsel's Bank. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 183 

No. 1. No. 2. 
Specific gravity 3.585 3.125 



Silicious matter 15.42 0.62 

Iron carbonate 63.27 58.39 

Iron sesquioxide 7.72 22.79 

Alumina 0.75 3.03 

Manganese 1.55 3.10 

Lime phosphate 0.87 1.24 

Lime carbonate 5.40 6.00 

Magnesia , 3.44 3.12 

Sulphur 0.12 0.95 

Water combined 1.10 

99.70 99.24 

Metallic iron 38.91 44.14 

Phosphoric acid . 0.38 0.57 

The following is an analysis of a cinder made in making mill iron (in a 
11 hot furnace " ), from Washington Furnace : 

Silicic acid 51.75 

Iron protoxide 1.87 

Alumina 19.97 

Manganese 1.70 

Lime phosphate 0.96 

Lime 19.28 

Magnesia 1.95 

Sulphur trace. 

Soda and potash 2.42 

Total 999.0 

There is in this cinder a loss of 1.45 per cent, metallic iron. 

Statistics of Washington Furnace. 

This furnace is owned by the Union Iron Company, and was built in 
1853. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 38 

Diameter at top of boshes 11 

Batter of boshes, per foot 8 to 9 

Height of hearth 6 

Diameter of top of hearth 2 8 

" bottom '• 2 4 

" tunnel-head plate 2 6 

Uses 2 twyers, each 4 inches in diameter. 
IVyers enter hearth, 2 feet 3 inches from bottom. 



184 GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY OF OHIO. 

Pressure of blast, per square inch, 3J lbs. 
Temperature of blast, estimated at 800°. 
Uses Davis' liot blast. 
Proportions of " half-charge " : 

Ore (roasted), 1,200 lbs. 

Limestone, 50 lbs. 

Charcoal, 40 bushels. 
Uses 70 half-charges in 24 hours. 

1 ton of iron requires 2i tons of raw and 2 tons of burnt ore. 
Production — 15J tons per day. Total production in 1870, 2,965 tons. 
Uses exclusively limestone ore (mostly limonite) from Furnace lands. 

No special investigation has been made of the bituminous coals in this 
region, except at one or two points where coal has been dug for house- 
hold use. 

Cambria Furnace. — The strata are here similar to those at Washington 
Furnace. The furnaces are not far apart, and are in the very heart 
of the " limestone ore " belt, and both furnaces use the limestone ore ex- 
clusively. In places on the Cambria lands the ore is a blue or siderite 
ore. A very superior sand-rock for hearthstones is found on the Cambria 
lands. It is, I think, stratigraphically and lithologically, the same as 
that found on the Washington Furnace lands. 

Statistics of Cambria Furnace. 

This furnace is owned by D. Lewis & Co., and was built in 1854." 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 38 

Diameter at top of boshes . / 10 . 6 

Batter of boshes 9 

Diameter of tunnel-head plate 2 6 

Height of hearth 6 

Diameter of top of hearth 3 8 

" bottom " 2 8 

One twyer, 41 inches diameter ; enters hearth 2 feet 4 inches from bottom. 
Uses " Hoop's improved hot blast." 
Pressure of blast, 4 lbs. per square inch. 
Proportions of half charge : 

Ore (roasted), 1,100 lbs. 

Limestone, 80 lbs. 

Charcoal, 33 bushels. 

56 half charges in 24 hours. 
1 ton iron requires 2.4 tons of raw ore. 
Makes f foundry and $ mill iron. 
Daily production, 12J tons. Total in 1870, 2,300 tons. 

The following is an analysis of a sample of " blue limestone ore," from 
the Cambria Furnace lands : 



GEOLOGICAL, SURVEY OF OHIO. 185 

Specific gravity 3.583 

Silicious matter 7.52 

Iron carbonate 68.44 

Iron sesquioxide 13.51 

Alumina ' 0.59 

Manganese 0.13 

Lime phosphate , . 0.76 

Lime carbonate (5.12 

Magnesia 2.11 

Sulphur 0.15 

Water combined ., 

Total 99.33 

Metallic iron 41.89 

Phosphoric acid 0.35 

On the Olive Furnace lands, sections 34 and 35, Washington township, 
the following section was obtained, (set 1 Map IV, No. 12) : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore, not measured 

2. Sandy limestone 

3. Not seen 90 

4. Shaly sandstone 2 

5. " Peterson ore " 2 6 

0. Slate and clay 1 

7. Coal 1 6 

8. Not seen 37 

9. Sandy limestone, not measured 

10. Notseen 19 

11. Ore, not measured 

12. Not seen 35 

13. Sandstone 10 

14. Coal , 1 11 

15. Slate 7 

16. Coal 2 3 

17. Underclay 

18. Clay shales 10 

19. Phaly sandstone : 13 

20. Ore 1 

21. Ferrifero us limestone 7 

22. Slate 

23. Coal 2 3 

24. Notseen 60 

25. Coal, not measured 

26. Not seen 32 

27. Block ore, not measured 

The Peterson ore, iu the above section, is a dark brown, finely stratified 

limouite ore, containing small " kidneys" intermingled. It is a good ore 



186 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

and easily dug, but owing to its pulverized condition after roasting, it 
chokes the furnace and prevents the escape of the gases. Several serious 
accidents have resulted from attempting to use this ore, and of late all 
effort to utilize it has been abandoned. An ore similar to the Peterson is 
found a few miles to the northeast, in the edge of Gallia county. The 
excellent quality of these ores may, at sometime, justify the construction 
of a furnace with a special view to their reduction. 

The stratum of "limestone ore" at Olive furnace is unusually thick. 
At one place it measures 2 ft. 6 in. (For section see Map IV, No. 13.) 
All the ores in this region are now obtained by drifting, it having been 
found a more desirable method than the old one of " stripping." 

Statistics of Olive Furnace. 

The furnace was built in 1846 and is owned by Campbell, McGugin 

&Co. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 38 

Diameter of top of boshes 10 6 

Batter of boshes per foot 9 

Height of hearth 6 

Diameter of hearth, top 4 4 

Diameter of hearth, bottom 3 6 

2 twyers — diameter of each - 3-J 

" Davis' Hot Blast," with 50 pipes. 
Pressure of blast per square inch, 3i lbs. 
Temperature of blast, 800°. 
Proportions of " half charge :" 

Ore, 850 lbs. 

Limestone, 10 lbs. 

Charcoal, 27 bushels. 
Average daily production Hi tons, of which 90 per cent., No. 1, foundry iron, and 10 

per cent., No. 2, foundry iron. 
2.54 tons raw ore, and 150 bush, of charcoal to 1 ton of iron. Ore used chiefly " lime- 
stone ore." All ores from furnace lands. 
In blast seven months per annum. 

Decatur Township. — At Buckhorn Furnace, section 9, the following sec- 
tion was taken : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Black flint, (fossiliferous) not measured 

2. Interval, not seen 126 

3. "Slater" ore, not measured 

4. Not seen 8 

5. Ore, not measured 

6. Notseen 22 

7. Ore, not measured 



GEOLOGICAL STJKVEY OF OHIO. 187 

Feet. Inches. 

8. Sandy limestone 

9 Notseen 10 

10. Ore, not measured 

11. Not seen 6 

12. Yellow kidney ore, not measured 

13. Not seen 36 

14. Coarse sandstone 25 

15. Notseen 20 

16. Ore 1 

17. Ferriferous limestone, not measured 

18. Sandstone, and not seen 68 

19. Blackshales 4 

20. Coal, not measured 

For the above section see Map IV, IsTo. 25. 

la the above section all of the ores have been dug, but none have been 
used to any considerable extent in the furnace, excepting the limestone ore. 
All the old excavations are filled up and measurements were impossible. 

Statistics of BuckJwm Furnace. 

Buckhorn Furnace was built in 1834, and is owned by the Charcoal 

Iron Company. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 34 6 

Diameter at top of boshes 10 

Batter of boshes per foot 9 

Diameter of hearth, top 3 9 

Diameter of hearth, bottom 3 3 

Height of hearth 6 

One twyer — diameter of do 4 

Uses " Dayis' Hot Blast." 
Average daily production, 12-J tons. 

Quality of iron — two-thirds No. 1 foundry iron; one-third No. 2 foundry and mill 
iron. 

Proportions of " half-charge : " 

Ore, 850 pounds. 

Limestone, 50 pounds. 

Charcoal, 25 bushels. 
Two and a half tons ra~v ore, or two tons burnt ore, produce one ton of iron. 
Five-sixths of ore used, "limestone ore," and all ores from the furnace lands. 
Average length of blast, 9 months a year. 

At Mount Vernon Furnace, section 22, Decatur township, the following 
section was made : (See No. 26, Map IV.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Buff limestone 1 

2. Notseen 133 

3. Irregularly bedded limestone 1 



188 OKEOLO&ICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

Feet. Inches. 

4. Not seen 17 

5. Limestone — earthy 5to 7 

6. Notseen 58 

7. Shaly sandstone 37 

8. Ore — not measured 

9. Sandstone 4 

10. Coal— "blossom" 

11. Clay shales 20 

12. Ore 11 

13. Ferriferous limestone 6 

14. Slate 2 

15. Coal 1 1 

16. Slate 6 

17. Coal 1 6 

18. Under-clay — not measured 

The limestone marked "earthy" was analyzed "by Prof. Wormley to 
ascertain the percentage of iron. His results were as follows : 

Percentage of iron 3.45 

" " carbonate of lime 65.75 

" " phosphoric acid trace. 

" " sulphur none. 

Remainder undetermined. 

Statistics of Mount Vernon Furnace. 

Built in 1830. Owned by H. Campbell & Co. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 35 

Diameter at top of boshes 10 6 

Batter of boshes per foot 9i 

Height of hearth 6 

Diameter of hearth, top 4 

" " bottom 2 4 

One twyer — diameter 4 

Uses Davis' " hot blast." 
Pressure of blast, 2f pounds. 
Temperature of blast, not known. 
Proportions of " half-charge : " 

Ore, 1,000 pounds. 

Limestone, 80 pounds. 

Charcoal, 30 bushels. 
Average daily production, 14 tons ; of which 95 per cent, is No. 1 foundry, and 5 

per cent, mill iron. 
Two and one-third tons of raw ore, or two tons burnt ore, make one ton of iron. 
" Limestone ore " exclusively used. 
In blast 10 months a year. 



GEOLOGICAL SUKVET OF OHIO. 



189 



At Venter Furnace, section 31, Decatur township, a section was made, 
revealing the following strata : (See Map IV, No. 27.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore — not measured 

2. Limestone irregularly bedded 10 

3. Not seen 35 o 

4. Sandstone 12 

5. Coal — not measured 

6. Not seen 8 

7. Clay shales 12 

8. Ore 1 o 

9. Ferriferous limestone 3 

10. Not seen 66 

11. Coal— "blossom" 

12. Shales and black slate 19 

13. Coal 1 

14. Slate 6 

15. Coal 1 4 

16. Notseen 15 

17. Block ore — not measured 

Center Furnace is owned by W. D. Kelly & Sons. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 40 

Diameter at top of boshes 11 

Diameter of hearth, top 3 9 

" " bottom 2 11 

Batter of boshes, per foot 10 

Height of hearth 5 10 

One twyer — diameter of do 4| 

Uses "Davis' hot blast." 

Pressure and temperature of blast not known. 

Average daily production, 11-J tons. 

Quality of iron— 90 per ct. No. 1 foundry, and 10 per ct. No. 2 foundry and mill iron. 

Proportions of "half-charge: " 

Ore, 1,000 pounds. 

Limestone, 50 pounds. 

Charcoal, 30 bushels. 
Uses "limestone ore" exclusively, all obtained from furnace lands. 
Two and a half tons raw, or two tons burnt ore, make one ton of iron. 
In blast 9 months a year. 

Symmes Township. — East of Decatur lies Symmes township. In this 
township the mineral resources have not been developed. A few coal 
seams have been opened to supply a local demand. 

The upper limestones are found, and a heavy conglomerate sand rock 
appears, 253 feet above the Ferriferous limestone. This conglomerate or 
its equivalent, appears with some variation of elevation over the entire 
eastern portion of Lawrence county. 



190 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



Elisabeth Township. — Keturning to the western part of Lawrence 

county, we find at Lawrence Furnace, section 16, Elizabeth township, the 

following geological section : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore , 9 

2. Ferriferous limestone, not measured 

3. Not seen 22 

4. Sandy block ore, not measured 

5. Not seen 72 

6. Coal " blossom " 

7. Not seen 11 

8. Block ore, not measured 

For this section see Map IV, No. 28. 



Statistics of Lawrence Furnace. 
Built in 1834 ; owned by the Lawrence Furnace Company. 

Feet. 

Height of stack 34 

Diameter at top of boshes 11 

Batter of boshes per foot 

Height of hearth 6 

Diameter of hearth — top 4 

" " bottom 3 

One twyer, diameter 

" Allen's hot blast," with 48 perpendicular pipes. 

Pressure of blast on square inch, 2J pounds. 

Temperature of blast not known. 

Average daily production of iron, 12 tons. 

Quality of iron — i No. 1 foundry, and i No. 2 foundry and mill iron. 

Proportions of " half charge " : 

Ore, 1,000 pounds. 

Limestone, 65 pounds. 

Charcoal, 28 bushels. 
Two and one-half tons of raw ore, or 2 tons burnt ore, make 1 ton of iron. 
" Limestone ore " used chiefly. 
All ores obtained from furnace lands. 



Inches. 

4 

8* 
1 
2 
4 
4 



At Pine Grove Furnace, in the same township, the following section 

was obtained : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sandstone 18 

2. Slaty coal 8 

3. Coal '. 2 2 

4. Slate 2 

5. Coal 10 

6. Under-clay 3 

7. Sandstone 14 6 

8. Ore 1 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 191 

Feet. Inches. 

9. Ferriferous limestone 4 

10. Notseen 54 

11. Coal blossom 

12. Soft sandstone and sandy shales 28 

13. Coal 1 2 

14. Notseen 26 

15. Block ore, not measured 

For this section see Map V, Kb. 8. 

Pine Grove Furnace is owned by Messrs. Means, Kyle & Co. It was 
built in 1829, 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 36 o 

Diameter at top of boshes 11 q 

Batter of boshes per foot 10^ 

Diameter of hearth — top 3 8 

" " bottom 3 6 

Height of hearth 6 

Uses one twyer, diameter 4 

Uses " Davis' hot blast." 

Average production is 15 4-5 tons of iron per diem. Of this, 80 per cent, is No. 1 

foundry iron, and the remainder No. 2 foundry and mill iron. 
Proportions of " half charge " are : 

Charcoal, 30 bushels. 

Ore, 1,150 pounds. 

Limestone, 50 pounds. 
Two and one-half tons of raw ore produce one ton of iron. 
Uses limestone ore mostly. 
All ore is from the furnace lands. 
The furnace is in blast eight months per annum. 

The Pine Grove Furnace is not only remarkable for its great success in 
a business point of view, but it has the honorable pre-eminence of being 
the first furnace in the West to demonstrate the entire feasibility of stop- 
ping the working of a blast-furnace on Sunday. From the example first 
set by Eobert Hamilton and the associate owners of Pine Grove, the 
custom has quite extensively prevailed for many years in southern Ohio 
to omit working furnaces on Sunday. Many of the wiser furnace men, 
aside from any religious consideration, regard the custom as in the end 
pecuniarily profitable, as it enables them to secure a class of furnace 
attendants more respectable and conscientious, and more devoted to the 
interests of their employers. This custom has extended to some of the 
largest of the stone-coal furnaces. 

On the lands of Etna Furnace, sections 16 and 21, Elizabeth township, 
are found the following strata : (See Map IV, No. 29.) 



192 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore 5 

2. Not seen 19 

3. Ore — not measured 5 to 7 

4. Limestone — not measured 5 to 10 

5. Notseen 56 

6. Sandstone 8 

7. Coal 3 2 

8. Slate parting 1 

9. Coal 11 

10. Under-clay — estimated 1 6 

11. Notseen 16 6 

12. Ore „ 10 

13. Ferriferous limestone 7 

14. Notseen 39 

15. Ore— sandy block 6 

16. Notseen 3 

17. Blossom of coal 

18. Shale 9 

19. Black slate 10 

20. Coal - 1 5 

21. Fire-clay - 3 

22. Sandstone, quarried for hearth-stones 8 

23. Notseen 24 

24. Block ore — not measured 

Mtna Furnace is owned by Ellison, Dempsey & Ellison. It was built 

in 1832. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 37 

Diameter at top of boshes 10 6 

Batter of boshes per foot 10 

Diameter of hearth—top 4 1 

" " bottom 3 5 

Height of hearth 6 2 

Uses one twyer, diameter 4 

" Uses Davis' Hot Blast, with pressure of 4fr pounds per square inch. 

Average temperature not known. 

Average production of iron, 14 tons per diem. 

Of this, 80 per cent, is No. 1 foundry Iron, and the remainder mill iron. 

Proportions of half charge are — 

Charcoal, 32 bushels. 

Ore, 1,100 to 1,200 pounds. 

Limestone, 30 pounds. 
Two and a half tons of raw iron ore are used in making one ton of iron. 
Uses mostly " limestone ore," obtained from the furnace lands. 
The f oinace is in blast nin» months in the year. 

At Vesuvius Furnace, Section 26 3 Elizabeth township, a geological sec, 

tion was carefully measured, which gives the following strata (see Map 
V, No. 13) : 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 198 

Feet. Inches* 

1. Ore,"TopHill" 4 

2. Not seen 41 

3. Sandstone 25 

4. Slatycoal 8 

5. Slate 6 

6. Coal 1 11 

7. Slate 5 

8. Coal 10 

9. Fire-clay 2 

10. Clay shales - 18 

11. Ore 10 

12. Ferriferous limestone 2 6 

13. Notseen 20 

14. Slateore 4 

15. Notseen 15 

16. Shaly sandstone 10 

17. Coarse sandstone 6 © 

18. Blueshales 3 

19. Coal y. 3 

20. Compact bine shales 5 

21. Soft blue shales 10 

22. Coal 2 

23. Black slate with fossil Lingulae, etc 2 

The sandstone above the Ferriferous limestone in this region, is often 
thirty feet thick. It juts out on the hill-sides in bold, weather-beaten, 
honeycombed cliffs, and gives the whole country a mural appearance. 

Two specimens of ore from Vesuvius Furnace were analyzed by Prof. 
Wormley with the following results : 

No. 1. Limestone ore. Seam 2 feet 6 inches thick. 

Ho. 2. Gray limestone ore. 

No. 1. N». 2. 

Specific gravity, dried at 212 c 3.066 3.439 

Water combined 5.60 

Silicious matter : 2.00 26.32 

Iron, sesquioxide 77.70 24.37 

Iron, carbonate ' 40.91 

Manganese 1.90 1.05 

Alumina 0.60 

Carbonate of lime 9.09 4.20 

Lime 3.67 

Magnesia trace. 2.65 

Phosphoric acid trace. 

Sulphur trace. trace. 

Total 99.96 100.10 

Percentage of metallic iron 54.39 36.81 

13 



184 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

From this it appears that the "gray limestone ore," which works so 
easily in the furnace, and is held in high esteem, yields a comparatively 
small percentage of iron. This has also been observed at other localities. 

Vesuvius JFurnaee is owned by Gray, Amos & Co., and was built in 
1633. 

Feet. Inches. 
Height of stack 33 

Diameter of boshes 10 

Batter of boshes per foot 10£ 

Diameter of hearth — top 4 2 

." " bottom 3 10 

Height of hearth 6 

Uses one twyer — diameter 4 

Uses " Allen's Gooseneck" Warm Blast. 

Pressure of blast and average temperature not known. 

The average amount of iron produced is 11 tons per diem, all sold as " car- wheel 

iron." 
Proportion of half charge are — 

Charcoal, 20 bushels. 

Ore, 1,000 pounds. 

Limestone, 30 pounds. 
Uses limestone ores, and obtains them from the furnace lands. 
2 16-17ths tons of raw ore produce one ton of iron. 
The furnace is in blast nine months in the year. 

Aid Township. — Bast of Elizabeth towDship lies Aid township. The 
Ferriferous limestone disappears beneath the surface in the middle of 
this township, near Oak Eidge, Section 22. A combined geological sec- 
tion presents the following strata : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. White limestone 

2. Notseen 48 

3. Conglomerate and coarse sandstone 25 

4. Notseen 42 

5. Limestone with fossils — not measured 

6. Notseen .' 120 

7. Sand-rock 3 

8. Clay shales : 7 

9. Coal 2 3 

10. Slate 6 

11. Coal 2 2 

12. Under-clay — notseen 12 

13. Sandy ore — not measured 

For this section, see Map V, No. 7. 

Three specimens of the coal in the above section were analyzed by 
Prof. Wormley. 
No. 1. Lower part of lower layer. 
No. 2. Upper " " 

No. 3. Upper layer, above slate parting. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



195 



Specific gravity 

Water 

Ash 

Volatile matter 

Fixed carbon 

Total 

Sulphur 

Permanent gas per pound — in cubic feet 

Color of ash 

Coke 



No. 1. 



1.333 



5.65 

6.75 

35.15 

52.45 



100.00 

1.35 

2.97 

■white 

compact 



No. 2. 



1.347 



5.15 

9.90 

36.85 

48.10 



100.00 

2.28 

3.32 

■white 

compact 



No. 3. 



1.384 



5.35 
15.90 
32.05 

48.80 



100.00 

2.22 

3.40 

■white 

compact 



On section 32 of the same township, a section was obtained reaching 
as high as the white limestone. It is as follows: 

Feet. Inches. 

1. White limestone — not measured 

2. Notseen 117 

3. Lime&tone with fossils, Crinoids, Aihyris, etc 1 

4. Clay 2 

5. " Blossom " of coal .. 

6. Sandy shales 25 

7. Limestone with fossils 1 

8. Clay shales, and not seen 67 

9. " Blossom " of coal 



For this section, see Map V, !No. 5. 

At Marion, section 36, Aid township, the following strata were seen : 
(See Map V, No. 10.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. White crumbling limestone 

• 2. Sand-rock 12 

3. Notseen 40 

4. Limestone with fossils 1 

5. Shaly sandstone 3 

6. Coal 2 

7. Notseen 43 

8. Sandstone 20 

9. " Blossom "of coal 

10. Notseen 50 

11. Shaly sandstone 5 

12. Fire-clay 8 

13. Coal 2 11 

14. Slate 1 

15. Coal 2 

16. Under clay 



196 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

Mason toimship. — Proceeding eastward from Aid township we find, at 
section 19, Mason township, the following strata : (See Map V, No. 9.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. White limestone 

2. Not seen 50 

3. Conglomerate and sandstone 20 

4. Not seen 50 

5. Fossiliferous limestone — not measured 

6. Notseen 120 

7. Oak Ridge eoal 

Still further to the east and north we find, on section 10, at Greasy 
Eidge, that a coal seam of considerable thickness comes in above the 
white limestone. A section made there gives the following : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Shaly sandstone 1 

2. Coal — no partings 4 

3. Under clay, and not seen 5 

4. White limestone — not measured 

5. Notseen '38 

6. Crumbling sandy limestone — not measured 

For this section, see Map V, No. 24. 

The coal seam above the white limestone, seen first at this point, ex 
tends to the south-east through this and Borne township. 

On the land of Wm. Haskins, section 24, Mason township, the follow- 
ing section was measured : (See Map V, No. 25.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Crumbling limestone 

2. Notseen , 32 

3. Sandstone 12 

4. Slate 1 6 

5. Coal 3 11 

6. Notseen 17 

7. Conglomerate and sandstone 25 

8. Not exposed 15 

9. Reported place of limestone 

The coal in the above section is the same with the Greasy Eidge coal. 
It was analyzed by Prof. Wormley, with a result as follows : 

Specific gravity 1.345 

Water 3 45 

Ash 6.40 

Volatile matter 36.75 

Fixed carbon 53.40 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 2-55 

Permanent gas per pound in cubic feet 3.16 



GEOLOGICAL STJRYEY OP OHIO. 197 

Hamilton Township. — Beturning to the western limit of the county, we 
find at the New Castle Coal Mines, in Hamilton township, the following 
section : (See Map V, No. 11.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore — not measured 

2. Sandy limestone .. 

3. Notseen 68 

4. Sand-rock 12 

5. Coal— -upper 6 inches slaty 2 4 

6. Slate 1 

7. Coal 11 

8. Slate 2 

9. Coal 8 

10. Under-clay and sand-stone , 13 

11. Ore— estimated 11 

12. Ferriferous limestone 2 

13. Coal blossom and clav 



Sandstone 5 25 ° 

14. Sandy ore — not measured 

15. Sandstone 24 

16. Ore 5 

17. Sandstone 

Tipper Township. — East of Hamilton township, in Upper township, one- 
half mile north-east of Ironton, the following section was measured in 

the tunnel : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sand-rock 12 

2. Gray ore, with slate and limestone 2 

3. S bale, slate and iron ore 3 

4. Slate 2 

5. Coal 10 

6. Fire-clay 1 2 

7. Sand-rock 10 

The stratigraphical position of the tunnel is seen on Map V. 

A mile further to the east, on section 16, Upper township, the following 

strata were found: (See Map V, No. 6.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sand-rock 6 

2. Coal 6 

3. Sandstone 6 

4. Slate 1 

5. Coal 2 4 

6. Slate 7 

7. Coal 1 3 

8. Fire-clay 3 

9. Clay shales 15 

10. Ore — not measured 

11. Ferriferous limestone 



198 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



At Heela Furnace, section 14, Upper township, a combined section, was 

measured, whicb presents the following strata : 

Feet. Inche s 

1. Ore— "tophill" 6 

2. Irregular limestone 

3. Notseen 104 

4. Shaly sandstone 12 

5. Coal 1 6 

6. Fire-clay 3 

7. Notseen 17 

8. Sandstone 20 

9. Slate 1 

10. Coal 2 4 

11. Slate 10 

12. Coal 1 

13. Fire-clay 3 

14. Notseen 2 

15. Sandy limestone 15 

16. Ore (limonite) 11 

17. Ferriferous limestone 



pPbp trill Off . . 



i 3TofrSee4t< 



104- 



W pEIsp Sandstone . 
flTtre Clay. 




JssSi:-. 3<*n^Toc?T. 



~Evre Clay. 



J^vtnoWfte Org. 

ferriferous 
Tntnesttnte . 



Pig. 11. 



This section is seen in Fig. 11. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 199 

Hecla Furnace is owned by the Hecla Iron and Mining Company. It 
was built in 1833. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 34 

Diameter of t>oshes 11 

Batter of boshes per foot 10J 

Diameter of hearth — top '. 4 2 

" " bottom 3 4 

Height of hearth 6 

One twyer ; diameter of do 3 

Average pressure of blast not known. 
Furnace cold blast. 

Daily production, 8 tons of "car- wheel iron" of the highest reputation. During 
the war the whole product of the furnace was used by the U. S. Government 
for heavy ordnance. It is believed that the famous " Swamp Angel " was 
made from Hecla iron. 
Proportions of half charge : 
Charcoal, 20 bushels. 
Ore, 650 pounds 
Limestone, 40 pounds. 
Sixty-eight half charges in 24 hours. 
Two and one-half tons of raw ore to one ton of iron. 

Uses " limestone ore " (limonite) chiefly, with some mixture of " top hill " ore. 
All ore obtained from the furnace lands. 
Average duration of blast, 10 months each year. 

A mile and a half north of Hecla Furnace, at the place of Mr. Howejl, 
the coal above the Ferriferous limestone was found in the following con- 
dition : (See Map V, No. 16.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sandstone 

2. Blackslate with iron? 1 6 

3. Coal 2 

4. Slate 1 

5. Coal 8 

6. Notseen 10 

7. Coal 4 

8. Under-clay 

9. Sandstone 1 

10. Shale 5 

11. Blackslate 1 

12. Clayshale 5 

13. Coal 3 

14. Clayshale 1 

15. Coal 5 

16. Under-clay 1 

17. Not seen 4 6 

18. Ore 10 

19. Ferriferous limestone .. 



GEOLOGICAL STTEVEY OP OHIO. 

Belfont Furnace is owned by Belfont Iron Works Co. This furnace 

was built in 1868. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 50 

Diameter at top of boshes 13 

Uses Player's " hot blast." 

Production, 20 to 25 tons per diem, No. 1 mill iron. 

Ores used, mixture Missouri with native and mill cinders. 

Iron all used in the Rolling-Mill and Nail- Works belonging to the company. 

When visited, this furnace had been in continuous blast for nearly two 
and a half years. It is proposed, when this blast is ended, to eolarge the 
ibrnace to a height of 70 feet, and width across the boshes of 16 feet. 

This furnace uses the Kentucky Ooalton coal, brought by rail from 
(Uoalton (12 miles) to Ashland, and thence by the Ohio river to Ironton. 
I/imestone from the Silurian formation near Manchester, Ohio, is chiefly 
used for flux. 

Grant Furnace is owned by W. D. Kelly & Sons. This is a charcoal 
hot blast furnace; uses native ores, chiefly "limestone ore." No statis- 
tics of this f.rnace have been received. 

The following are Prof. Wormley's analyses of two varieties of mill 
cinders furnished by J. E. Williams, of the Ironton Rolling Mill: 

¥o. 1 labeled » Fix Cinder." 

Uo. 2 " " Flue Cinder." 

No. 1. No. 2. 

Silicious matter 30.00 29.60 

Protoxide of iron 65.04 64.67 

Sesquioxide of alumina 1.20 2.40 

Metallic iron 2.35 

Manganese 1.60 trace. 

Lime 0.20 0.44 

Magnesia trace. trace. 

Phosphoric acid 1.247 0.54 

Sulphur trace, trace. 

Total 99.287 100.00 

Total metallic iron 50.59 52.65 

The " fix cinder" has been generally preferred for smelting in the blast 
fftaruace, but according to these analyses, the "flue cinder" contains a 
larger percentage of iron, and decidedly less phosphoric acid. Neither 
eentaius more than a trace of sulphur. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 201 

Lawrence Township. — Iu section 3, of Lawrence township, the following 
section was made on the land of Elias Clark: (See Map V, No. 4.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. White limestone * , 

2. Not seen 14 

3. Buff limestone, with fossils 1 6 

4. Notseen 100 

5. Bluish limestone, with fossils 10 

6. Shale 1 

7. Compact heavy black clay 8 

8. Coal — not measured 

9. Notseen.... 84 

10. Buff limestone 1 2 

In section 9 of the same township the following section was obtained: 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Sandstone 8 

2. Shale 2 

3. Coal 8 

4. Slaty coal 4 

5. Coal 2 

6. Under-clay .. . ) vi ft 

7. Sandy shales - 5 

8. Buff limestone 1 2 

9. Notseen 38 

10. Clayshales 12 

11. Coal — not measured 

For this section, see Map V, No. 2. 

Windsor township. — Through all this region the mass of the hills is 
composed of yellow shales, with layers of iuterstratinVd sandstone. It 
was almost impossible to find good exposures, and, although very rarely, 
nodules of limestone were fonnd in the surface soil, they could not be 
traced to the stratum from which they were originally derived. 

On the land of Edmund Bramer, at Willow Wood, section 7, Windsor 
township, a proximate section was made, as follows: 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Limestone, reported elsewhere thicker 1 

2. Drabshale 4 

3. Slaty cannel coal, reported 2 4 

4. Bituminous coal, reported 10 

5. Under clay 

6. Notseen 30 (?) 

7. Sand-rock — used for building purposes 

On the high hills a seam of coal is reported, but it was not opened, and 
no measurement was attempted. The sand-rock used for building appears 
to be of superior quality. 



202 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

At Whitehouse, section 17, Windsor township, no accurately measured 
section was made, but some facts were gathered which show the following 
grouping of strata : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Limestone, probable place 2 6 

2. Black slate 5 

3. Coal 10 

4. Notseen 20 

5. Coarse sand-rock 15 to 20 

6. Coal, very irregular, reported 1 3 

Bed of stream. 

On the land of E. W. Wakefield, section 26, Windsor township, and in 
that vicinity, a proximate section was made, as follows : 

Feet. Incb.es. 

1. Sandstones laminated and used for flagstones and foundations of 

buildings 

2. Limestone, clay and iron — concretions 6 

3. Yellow shales 30 (?) 

4. Limestone and nodules - 6 

5. Whiteclay 4 (?) 

6. Soft, laminated sandstone — seen 10 

Bed of Indian Guyandotte creek. 



The hills in all this region are made up chiefly of yellow shales, with 
some interstratified sandstones. A seam of coal is reported well up in 
the hill on Wolf creek, on the land of Lewis Jones. 

The ridge north-east from Unionville. Union township, which divides 
the waters of Indian Guyandotte and Symmes creeks, was found, by 
barometer, to be 340 feet high above the latter stream. This ridge ap- 
pears very well adapted to fruit-raising, and the very extensive orchards 
— apple and peach — of Mr. Cox looked very promising. From the ap- 
pearance of the soil and vegetation there is probably a seam of fertilizing 
limestone near the summit of the hills, although it was not seen in place. 
There may also be more or less carbonate of lime in some of the upper 
shales. 

Borne township. — Bast of Windsor township lies Rome township. As 
before stated, the coal seam discovered at Greasy Ridge, in Mason town- 
ship, extends through Rome. 

In section 22, on the estate of Captain Gillet, the following strata were 
found : 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 203 

Feet. Inolies. 

1. Nodular crumbling limestone 

2. Notexposed 21 

3. Sand-rook 15 

4. Clay shales 4 

5. Coal 5 

6. Slate 1 

7. Coal 3 2 

8. Notseen 7 

9. White limestone — not measured 

For this section, see Map V, No. 31. 

The coal has been mined to a considerable extent, and is held in good 
repute. 
The upper part of this township has not yet been examined. 

Perry Township lies to the south of Lawrence township, and along the 
banks of the Ohio River. Here the Ferriferous limestone is found. The 
space above it, instead of being occupied by clay shales, as in the town- 
ships to the Dorth-east, is mostly filled by heavy ledges of sand-rock. 
The principal coal of the township is the one lying 66 feet above the 
Ferriferous limestone. It is extensively mined at the Sheridan Coal- 
Works, and the name given it in this report is the " Sheridan coal." On 
section 2, Perry township, opposite Ashland, Ky., the following strata 
were measured : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Coal, not exposed 

2. Under-clay 3 

3. Sand-rock..... 37 

4. Clay shale, with coal plants 1 

5. Coal blossom and clay 1 

6. Sand-rock 15 

7. Sandy shale 5 

8. Sand-rock 7 

9. Hard fire-clay 1 

10. Fire-clay mixed with iron ore 4 

11. Shale 3 

12. Ore 10 

13. Ferriferous limestone 3 

For this section see Map V., No. 18. 

Half a mile farther up the river, on the same section, the following 
section was obtained : (See Map V, No. 20.) 



204 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Buff sandy limestone, with fossils 11 

2. Not exposed 6 

3. Sand-rook, Fucoids, Spirophyton cauda-galli, etc 15 

4. Supposed place of coal 

5. Not exposed 18 

6. Sandy shale, with nodules of siderite ore 15 

7. Not exposed 68 

8. Sand-rock 40 

9. Fire-clay — place of Sheridan coal 

10. Not exposed 10 

11. Saud-rock 30 

12. Notexposed 25 

13. Ore 10 

14. Ferriferous limestone 4 

At this point it was difficult to make measurements of strata in place, 
as the bill-sides were exceedingly steep. At an elevation of 66 feet above 
the buff sandy limestone several mounds were found, which were, no 
doubt, the work of the Mound-builders. 

On section 1, Perry township, on the estate of Mrs. Israel, the following 
strata were seen : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Ore digging 

2. Notexposed 31 

3. Ore digging 

4. Notexposed 34 

5. Coal, reported 2 

6. Under-clay 2 

7. Saud-rock... 44 

8. Clay shale with coal blossom .2 

9. Notexposed 14 

10. Fire-clay 4 

11. Ore 8 

12. Ferriferous limestone, not measured 

For this section see Map V, No. 19. 

On Winter's Hill, section 8, Perry township, the following section was 
obtained : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. White crumbling limestone 

2. Notexposed 7 

3. Shaly sandstone 37 

4. Shale 1 6 

5. Clay with coal blossom 1 " 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 205 

Feet. Inches. 

6. Not exposed 6 

7. Compact white limestone, with few fossils 1 2 

8. Not exposed 64 

9. Ore, Hmonite 7 

10. Notexposed 72 

11. Coal, exposed 1 2 

For this section see Map V, No. 23 and No. 26. 

On the land of Mr. Bruce, at the foot of Winter's Hill on the west, the 
following section was made : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Limestone, with Crinoids, etc 1 

2. Clay shale 3 

3. Coal, reported 1 4 

4. Notexposed 23 

5. Sandy limestone, ferruginous 10 

6. Shales, with nodules of siderite ore 20 

7. Coal, in bed of stream, not measured 

This lower coal is the same as the lowest in the section of "Winter's 
Hill. For this section see Map V, No. 22. 

On the land of Roswell Chatfield, section 18, Perry township, the follow- 
ing section was made : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Light-colored limestone, with SpirorMs 1 2 

2. Notexposed 59 

3. Coarse sand-rock 79 

4. Notexposed 6 

5. Siderite ore, mixed with sandy limestone 8 

6. Conglomerate, passing down into coarse sand-rock 25 

7. Notexposed 110 

8. Sandstone 1 

9. Laminated sandstone 5 

10. Fire-clay 1 6 

11. Coal -| r 11 

12. Slate parting > Sheridan Coal. <! ° 1 

13. Coal J ( 2 2 

14. Under-clay . J 2 r 

15. Not exposed 5 

16. Dark blue clay in bed of stream, used in glazing pottery— not 

measured 

For this section see Map V, No. 15. 

The hills here are very high, and the sand-rocks stand out in bold cliffs. 
The Conglomerate is coarse, and made up of white quartz peboles. 



206 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

On the land of Stephen Chatfield, about a mile north-east of Eoswell 
Ohatfield's, the following section was taken : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Limestone, fragments oti top of hill 

2. Not exposed 8 

3. Soft sand-rook 80 

4. Laminated sandstone 15 

5. Iron ore (limonite) - 7 

6. Laminated sandstone 10 

7. Conglomerate, passing down into coarse sand-rock 60 

8. Laminated sandstone 10 

9. Clay shale and slate 2 

10. Clay 2 

11. Coal — Hatcher's seam 1 4 

12. Not seen — Sheridan coal 46 feet below 

For this section see Map V, No. 17. 

Tbe seam called the ''Hatcher seam" was first seen at Mr. Hatcher's, 
on Lick run, but no complete section could be made at that point. The 
coal is thicker at Mr. Hatchers, but no mine has been opeued. About 15 
feet below the coal at the latter place, large nodules of siderite ore were 
seen in the hard sandy shales in the bed of Lick run. 

On section 18, Perry township, are the mines of the Sheridan Coal 
Company. This company does an extensive coal business. A section 
taken at the mines gives the following strata: 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Upper part of hill not explored 

2. Buff limestone r lto2 

3. Not exposed 30 

4. Sand-rock 36 

5. Shale and fire-clay — estimated 6 

6. Coal 1 3 

7. Slate parting 1 

8. Coal 2 7 

9. Under-clay — reported 8 

For this section, see Map V., No. 21. 

In sinking a well at the mines, the coal above the Ferriferous limestone 
was seen at its proper distance below the Sheridan coal. The place of 
the Sheridan coal is 66 feet above the Ferriferous limestone. It has been 
traced in its appropriate horizon to the north as far as Vinton county. 
It is worked at Gallia Furnace, Jacob Webster's, in Walnut township, 
Gallia county, where the quality is very superior, Oak Bidge, Keystone 
Furnace, and at various points through Wilkesville township, Vinton 
county. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 207 

Analyses of the coal from the Sheridan mines : 
No. 1, sample from near the bottom. 
No. 2, one-third of distance from top. 

No. 1. No. 2. 

Specific gravity 1.275 1.301 

Water combined 5.05 5.65 

Ash 1.80 4.20 

Volatile matter 33.35 32.65 

Fixed carbon 59.80 57.50 



Total 100.00 100.00 

Permanent gas per pound in cubic feet 3.48 3.48 

Sulphur 1.00 1.89 

Ash, color white. -white. 

Coke compact. 

These analyses indicate a coal of good quality. The average ash is 
small, while the large percentage of fixed carbon shows good heating 
power. For all purposes except iron and gas making, the coal must be 
valuable. The seam is remarkably even-bedded. I saw no " horsebacks " 
or similar inequalities anywhere in the mine. The roof and floor appear 
everywhere to constitute two perfectly parallel planes. 

At Boclc Gamp, section 28, Perry township, the Sheridan coal is mined 
for local use. A section obtained there presents the following strata : 
(See Map V, No. 12.) 

Feet. Inches. 

1. White crumbling limestone 

2. Not exposed 56 

3. Limestone, with fossils 1 

4. Notexposed 12 

5. Coal " blossom " 

6. Not exposed 56 

7. Clay shale and black slate 4 

8. Coal 1 

9. Notexposed 19 

10. Sand-rock 25 

11. Clay and black slate 2 

12. Hard white clay 10 

13. Coal 1 8 

14. Underolay, and not seen 8 

15. Siderite ore 6 



208 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

Fayette Township. — East of Perry township lies Payette township. On 

the farm of Mr. John Ferguson, section 4, of this township, the strata 

were found to be as follows : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Limestone, upper 6 inches pure, remainder clayey. 3 

2. Not exposed 32 

3. Shaly sandstone 15 

4. Not exposed 13 

5. Black slate with " coal blossom " 

6. Heavy sand-rock \ 

7. Yellow sandy shale > 74 

8. Heavy sand-rock 5 

9. Conglomerate., 3 

10. Blue clay used for pottery 3 6 

11. Not exposed 10 

12. Ore (limonite) 8 

13. Yellowshale 2 6 

14. Oi e (limonite) lft. linchto 1 7 

15. Sandyshale 11 

16. Clayshale 7 

17. Coal, " Sheridan seam " 3 

18. Fire-clay 4 

19. Shale with kidneys of ore 

For this section see Map V, No. 30. 

The coal in the above section was at one time mined to a considerable 
extent and shipped to markets on the Ohio river. 

The heavy deposit of ore is probably a local one. Although not very 
rich in iron it might serve a good purpose as a mixture with the richer 
ores of Missouri or Lake Superior. The coal exhibits considerable sul- 
phur. The sudden transition from the fine blue clay (No. 10 of section) 
to a coarse conglomerate is something remarkable. 

Union Township. — The hills in this township are very high and rugged. 
Shales and standstones constitute the mass of the hills, and little coal was 
seen. The township is too far east to take in the iron-ore belt. 

A section was made at Mr. Keeny's, on Leatherwood creek, section 6, 

Union township, which gave the following strata : 

Feet. Inches. 

1. Coarse sand-rock 70 

2. Conglomerate passing down into coarse sand-rock 25 

3. Not exposed 110 

4. Sandy limestone, estimated 1 3 

5. Notexposed 25 

6. Sandyshale 24 

7. Blue clay shale 5 ° 

8. Coal 1 6 

9. Underclay 4 

For this section see Map V, No. 29. 



GEOLOGICAL STJKYEY OP OHIO. 209 

The conglomerate in the above section is well characterized by white 
quartz pebbles. This is the highest conglomerate thus far seen in the 
county, being 380 ft. above the Ferriferous limestone and 720 ft. above 
the top of the Waverly. 

At Unionville, section 6, Union township, on Symtnes' creek, the follow- 
ing section was made : 

Feet. laches. 

1. Black slate, rich in fossil mollusca 5 

2. Coal 1 6 

3. Under-day, not measured > , , „ 

4. Sandy shales > 

This section is seen on Map V, Eo. 28. 

This coal is mined for neighborhood use. The shale above is rich in a 
group of bivalve forms, Schizodus, &c, which I have not found else- 
where. It also contains Productus, Bellerophon, &c, &c. 

On the land of Esquire Keeny, about three quarters of a mile below 
Unionville, the Unionville coal is seen with a limestone above and below 
it. The section is as follows : 

• Feet. Inches. 

1. Limestone, fossiliferous 8 

2. Shale and hi ack slate 5 

3. Coal, not exposed 

4. Not exposed 

5. Limestone, containing fossils, Productus, $c 1 3 

This section is seen on Map V, No. 27. 

On a hill in this neighborhood a little iron ore was seen in a corn- 
field, but its stratigraphical position could not well be obtained. The ore 
may be worthy of investigation should any use be found for it. It is a 
limonite ore. The thickness of the stratum could not be seen. 

General Remarks relative to Lawrence County. 

Lawrence county is rough and hilly. In a geological, point of view, its 
most interesting feature is the large supply of some of the finest ores of 
the world. The "limestone ore" belt sweeps through the county from 
north to south, averaging in width about ten miles. This ore is almost 
always thick enough for profitable mining, and is often thick enough to 
warrant mining by drifting. The ore is generally a very pure limonite or 
hydrated sesquioxide of iron. The "block ores " are generally of good 
quality, and are used more or less for a mixture with the "limestone 
ore/' and when well selected, make a good iron alone. The limestone 
seam, called in the Eeport the " Ferriferous limestone," furnishes an am- 
ple supply of flux of the best quality for the furnaces. 
14 



210 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

The bituminous coals are abundant, but have not, as yet, been found to 
be of the best quality for iron-making. But it must be admitted that the 
seams of coal have been less opened and worked in this county than in 
most counties within the limits of our Coal formation. This arises from 
the fact that the furnace estates are very large, (ranging from 5,000 to 
15,000 acres) and charcoal being the fuel used in the furnaces, there has 
been far less search for coal than if the lands were owned in small tracts 
and were occupied by the owners. As the case now is, the population in 
the furnace district is small, and all, with few exceptions, are connected 
directly or indirectly with the furnaces. Hence there has been relatively 
little exploration for coal. It is hoped that the strati graphical maps pre- 
sented in this Eeport will show the positions of the different seams of 
coal so distinctly and accurately that the future Avork of exploration will 
be greatly lightened. It is possible, and even probable, that seams of 
coal, of which we saw only the surface stain or "blossom," and which 
the State furnished no funds for opening, will, on being explored, be 
found to be of great metallurgic value, and of sufficient thickness for 
profitable wofking. The present reputation of the pig iron made in 
Lawrence county is very high. To keep up this reputation when the 
wood tor charcoal is exhausted, (as it must be in time, except on those 
vast furnace estates, where the annual growth of forest equals the de- 
struction), and the fine and abundant ores of the county are smelted with 
bituminous coal, will require a very superior coal, and such a coal must be 
carefully searched for. Should the State Geological Survey be continued, 
this search will be made; but if not continued, the future prosperity of 
this important portion of the celebrated "Hanging Eock Iron District" 
requires that it be done through some other agency. 

Besides the Kentucky coal now brought from Coalton, there is no coal 
of desirable iron-making quality rendered accessible by any railroad. 
There are good iron-making coals in Jackson, Vinton, Hocking, Athens 
and Perry counties, but no railroads bow exist by which these coals can 
be distributed to the furnaces of Lawrence county. 

The coal in Walnut township, Gallia county, is very pure, aDd has 
the important quality of making a coke almost free from sulphur. If 
this should be found to be sufficiently dry burning for use in the furnace 
in a raw state, it will be another coal added to the number of those of 
special value found in the lower productive Coal Measures in the 2nd 
Geological District. It is possible that the well known seams of coal in 
Lawrence county may furnish coal of such quality tliat when the impur- 
ities are removed by the modern process of washing, the residuum may 
make a coke of such character as will warrant its use in the blast fur- 



GEOLOGICAL STJKVEY OF OHIO. 211 

nace. It is well known that coke is used in the blast furnaces at Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., and in the " Cleveland," and some of the other iron-districts 
in England. 

While in the southern part of Lawrence county, it appeared very de- 
sirable to ascertain the stratigraphical position of the Ooalton or Ashland 
Coal, used so successfully for iron-making at Ashland, Boyd county, Ky., 
and in the Belfont Furnace, at Ironton. This coal is mined about 12 
miles back of Ashland, in Carter county, Ky. The mines are on the 
Lexington and Big Sandy Eailroad, which is completed from Ashland 
to the coal. The coal is the same as the Kilgore coal, of the Ken- 
tucky Geological Beports. In our examinations we were accompanied by 
M. T. Hilton, Esq., Civil Engineer and Superintendent of the L. & B. S. 
B. B., and by Hon. John Campbell, ot Ironton ; Mr. Bussell, of the Belle- 
fonte, Ky., Furnace ; Mr. Jones, and other citizens, who were familiar with 
the localities. 

In tracing the coal toward the Ohio river, our guide for several miles was 
a persistent stratum of dark flinty, compact, fossiliferous sandstone, prob- 
ably containing some lime. The Coalton or Kilgore coal seam is 81 feet 
above this stratum, which was called, for convenience of designation, the 
"Hilton base," after our friend, the Civil Engineer, who was able to point it 
out at several places on the line of his railroad. A stratum of h ard fire-clay 
was seen above the "Hilton base," at several points, and served as an 
additional guide. Under the " Hilton base " is a seam of coal, generally 
thin, but in the railroad cut, between Coalton and Kilgore's, the total coal 
of the several layers is 3 feet 10 inches. 

At Eastham's, near the tunnel between Coalton and the Summit, the 
Eastham coal was found, by measurement, to be 82 feet above the " Hil- 
ton base." This coal seam is 3 feet 4 inches thick, and appeared to be of 
good quality. This is, doubtless, the equivalent of the Coalton coal. 

Further toward the Summit Station a seam of coal was seen, 46 feet 
above the railroad. The seam was supposed to be the Eastham coal. 
This seam is 21 feet below the railroad track at the Summit. Here we 
lost all our former guiding strata. Beginning anew at the Bellefonte 
Furnaee, near the Ohio river, where the great Ohio Ferriferous limestone 
is well developed, and tracing this limestone to the south, we came to the 
end of it about three-quarters of a mile north of the Summit Station. 
To fill up the gap no good guides could be found, as no strata were ex- 
posed. By taking a barometric level over a ridge it was judged that the 
true place of the Ferriferous limestone, if continued, would be a 
little above the coal seam at the Summit. This would make the 
Coalton or Kilgore seam the equivalent of the seam first below the Fer- 



212 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

riferous limestone, a seam which we have traced in its various modifica- 
tions of quantity and quality from Licking and Muskingum counties on 
the north, through the Straitsville and Nelsonville region, and through 
Hocking, Athens, Yinton, Jackson, Gallia, Scioto and Lawrence counties 
to the Ohio river. In southern Perry county, it is the thickest seam of 
coal in Ohio, and is of a quality sr.ited to the blastfurnace. In Kentucky 
it regains its good quality, and is a most successful furnace coal. It is 
not impossible that at places between these two widely separated points, 
the coal may, by careful examination, be found equally good. The seam 
is always near the limestone ore, the ore being above and the coal just 
below the Ferriferous limestone. Very little attention has been paid, 
generally on the large furnace estates, to the coals, and over quite large 
areas this seam has never been opened at all. In some places it is known 
to be very thin, but, as a general rule, very little attention has been paid 
to it. In some places, where opened, it is too sulphurous for iron making, 
in others a part of the seam is probably fit for this use. The problem is 
to find enough of it fit for the furnace. The owners of the land must 
first expose the coal for examination. 

While at Ashland, Col. Douglas Putnam, Jr., the very successful man- 
ager and agent of the Ashland Furnace, furnished me the following 
statistics relative to the furnace. As this furnace may be regarded as 
almost an Ohio enterprise, and as it is one of the most successful in the 
Ohio valley, I have thought best to publish them : 

Feet. Inches. 

Total height of stack 65 

Diameter of tunnel-head 6 

Diameter at top of boshes 15 

Distance from top of boshes to top of hearth 13 9 

Diameter of top of hearth 6 

Diameter of bottom of hearth 6 

Six four-inch twy ers enter hearth from bottom 3 6 

Pressure of blast per square inch, 3-J-4 pounds. 

Temperature of blast at twyers, by Guantlett's English pyrometer, 750° to 800°. 

Average daily production, 33-35 tons iron. 

Ten thousand tons produced in 304i running days, including the first heating up. 

The furnace stops Sundays ; this is the rule. 

Ores used — 

One third Iron Mountain, Missouri. 

One-fourth Pilot Knob, Missouri. 

One-third native, chiefly limonite ore, from Kentucky. 

One- twelfth mill cinder. 
Coal used — 

" Ashland coal," from Coalton, Ky., used raw. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 213 

Limestone used — 

Chiefly Silurian limestone, from the neighborhood of Manchester, Adams 
county, Ohio. 
Of ores mixed as above, 1.91 tons make a ton (2268 pounds) of iron. 
Of coal, 2.66 tons (of 2000 pounds) to a ton of iron. 
Quality of iron, No. 1 gray mill iron. 
Time of casting, once in 10 hours, with original hearth ; once in 12 hours, with 

hearth enlarged by use. 
This furnace is directly on the bank of the Ohio River. 
The principal officers of the company are, John Means, Esq., President ; Wm. F. 

Gay lord, Secretary ; Col. D. Putnam, Manager and Agent. 



214 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



CHAPTER VII. 

GENERAL DISCUSSION OP THE LOWER COAL MEASURES IN THE 
SECOND GEOLOGICAL DISTRICT J 

With Tables of Analyses by Prof. T. G. Wormley. 

The ores of the Ohio Coal-measures in the 2nd Geological District are 
classified as limonites, or hydrated sesquioxides of iron, and siderites or 
blue carbonates of iron. 

In a few samples the sesquioxides exhibit very little combined water, 
and many of the siderite ores show that a portion of tbe ore is changed 
into the sesquioxide. These ores have only been in part analyzed by 
Prof. Wormley, but I hare selected samples to represent some of the 
more important varieties. 

Only tbe ores of the lower Coal-measures, with a few exceptions, have 
as yet been studied. It is found that everywhere in the 2nd Geological 
District seams of iron ore exist, intertitratified with the strata of the 
lower productive Coal-measures. 

There is every reason to believe that these ores were all originally car- 
bonates of the protoxide of iron, but that many have become gradually 
changed into limonites or sesquioxides. In some seams this change is 
very slight, and ore of the limonite character is the rare exception. In 
other seams, like the famous " limestone ore," and most of the block ores, 
the Jimonite character is the rule and the carbonate form is the exception. 
On the same furnace estate we sometimes find the "limestone ore" re- 
taining over considerable areas its original carbonate character. Where 
the " limestone ore " has a sandstone cover, or where the overlying shales 
are exposed on comparatively dry hill sides or hill-tops, and have been 
penetrated by the air, we almost always find the ore changed into a red 
or dark red limonite. But where these clay shales are very heavy and 
compact, and especially where they are soaked with water, as in swampy 
places or in the wet heads of hollows, the ore is always a blue carbonate. 

The change from the carbonate to the hydrated sesquioxide has a most 
remarkable effect upon the general quality of the ore. The ore loses 
greatly in specific gravity, and becomes more soft and porous. For ex- 
ample, a sample of blue carbonate of iron from the "limestone ore " seam 
on the Buckeye furnace lands, has a specific gravity of 4.872, while three 
samples of the limonite ore from the same seam and on the same estate, 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 215 

showed a specific gravity of 2.980, 2.868 and 2.983 respectively. But, on 
the other hand, while the change from siderite to limonite diminishes the 
specific gravity, it increases the per ceutage of metallic iron. For exam- 
ple, from the sample of siderite above given, with a specific gravity of 
4.872, we obtain only 25.91 per cent, metallic iron ; while the three limonite 
ores referred to give, respectively, 55.58, 50.83 and 61.51 per cent, of me- 
tallic iron. The ore yielding 61.51 per ceut. is a very dark red ore, and 
had been so thoroughly changed by the removal, by atmospheric agen- 
cies, of foreign matter, that besides the 87.89 per cent, of sesquioxide of 
iron and the 7.40 per cent, of combined water, wm'ch together constitute 
the pure limonite, we find only 3.44 percent, silicious matter, 0.10 per cent, 
manganese, 0.62 per cent, magnesia, and 0.414 per cent, of phosphoric acid. 
Many similar illustrations of the good effects of the change from the sider- 
ite to the limonite might be adduced. 

For the sake of comparison, I have taken the average percentage of 
meta'lic iron in a large number of the more important limonite ores of 
the famous " limestone ore " seam, and the percentage of iron in the blue 
carbonates or siderites of the same ore seam, and also the percentage of a 
class of favorite ores (siderites) from the same seam, called " gray lime- 
stone ores." The results are as follows: 

Average metallic iron, limonite ore of "limestone ore" seam 51.6R6 

" " " blue siderite ore, " " " 38.050 

" " " gray siderite '• " " " 35.526 

From these figures the very great superiority of the limonite portion of 
the "limestone ore " seam is very apparent. The ore least rich in iron is 
the "gray" limestone ore. This ore is generally composed of small 
globules of siderite imbedded in a light-colored matrix. This matrix is 
made up largely of very finely comminuted silica, and when the ore has 
been exposed for a time the mass softens, and often becomes like a plastic 
clay. On roasting the ore, the fiue particles of the siderite become thor- 
oughly oxidized and fitted for the furnace, and in this state it is easily 
smelted. Hence the general popularity of the "gray limestoue ore." 
But it is not generally suspected how lean the ore is in metallic iron, al- 
though I believe an examination of the metallic product of those f iraaces 
which use it most will show that they obtain less iron in proportion to 
ore used than those furnaces which use little or none of it. 

On some of the furnace estates nearly all the " limestone ore" is of the 
limonite class. This is not only true of the ore found around the outcrop 
of the stratum, but where drifts have been made, the ore under the hills 
continues to be limonite. This shows that the cover of the ore in the 
hills has not been sufficiently impervious to atmospheric ageucies, exerted, 



21G GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

as it must have been, through an immense period of time, to prevent the 
change from the blue siderite to the red limonite. Hence, in my opinion, 
there are areas in the " limestone ore " belt greatly to be preferred to 
others. 

By an examination of Prof. Worniley's tables for the limonite ores, we 
find that the ores of this class from the " limestone ore" seam contain 
scarcely any sulphur, generally only a mere trace. The same ore con- 
tains more phosphorus, but not generally in an injurious quantity. 
Probably the cold-short tendency of the phosphorus in the ore is often 
neutralized by mixture with the blue or siderite ores, which generally 
contain more or less sulphur. But this cannot always be the case, be- 
cause the blue ores also contain their own phosphorus. 

Besides the limonite ore of the "limestone ore" seam, we find other 
limonite ores occurring, chiefly in the form of u block ores." These latter 
ores are rich in metallic iron, and are but little inferior to the former. 
The average per cent, of metallic iron of a large number of the leading 
'< block ores " from the southern iron district is 47.99. Many of these ores 
are very pure and of great excellence. They generally contain very little 
sulphur, but show more phosphorus. 

The Craig ore (the upper 10 in. of the 15 in. seam), found between 
Hamden and McArthur Station, is a very rich limonite. It appears to 
have been completely changed from its original state of carbonate or 
siderite, and, like the very best red ores of the '• limestone ore" seam, is 
very dark red, very light ia specific gravity (viz., 2.814), very soft and 
chalk-like, and contains 58.62 per cent, of metallic iron. The lower 5 
inches of the layer still retains its original condition as a blue carbonate, 
and as usual has a high specific gravity (viz., 3.516), and contains only 
42 per cent, of metallic iron. 

Besides the ores already spoken of, there are many blue or siderite ores 
not belonging to the " limestone ore " seam. I find that the more impor- 
tant of these give an average of 26.99 per cent, of metallic iron. The 
so-called " kidney ores " generally belong to this class, although we some- 
times find them changed, under atmospheric agencies, into limonites. 

Few of the ores of the lower Coal measures, north of the Hocking 
river, have yet been analyzed. Many of these ores are excellent and are 
profitably used. They supply the Logan Furnace, in whole or in part, also 
the furnaces at Columbus and Zanesville, for a mixture with the richer 
Lake Superior ores. These ores range through Hocking and Perry coun- 
ties. Considerable ore is brought from Gore, on the Straitsville branch 
of the C. & H. V. R. E., to the furnace at Columbus. Much ore is also 
obtained along the Cincinnati & Muskingum Valley R. B. in the western 
part of Perry county, and taken to Zanesville. Considerable ore is found 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 217 

along the railroad now building from Newark to Straitsville. These ores 
are generally limonites. 

From these general remarks, it will be seen that there is, in the lower 
Ooal measures of the 2nd District, a large development of very fine iron 
ore. The ores, as a whole, are much richer and purer than the Coal- 
measures ores in other parts of the country, and give this District an 
enviable pre-eininence. The "Hanging Eock" iron, (for this name is 
generally given to all the iron made south of the Hocking river,) is every- 
where celebrated for its superior quality. 

The first furnace in the Hanging Eock District was built in 1826, by 
Messrs. Sparks, Means & Fair. It was called the Union Furnace, and 
was situated about four miles back from the present village of Hanging 
Eock. It is reported that it went iuto blast in 1827, and that the first 
fire in it was kindled by Thos. W. Means, Esq., now the senior partner of 
the firm of Means, Kyle & Co. That fire was kindled to some purpose, for 
Mr. Means has lived to see nearly 50 furnaces in the Hanging Eock Iron 
District. 

It may not be without interest to know something of the details of the 
working of one of the earlier furnaces. In the old Geological Eeport of 
Ohio. Dr. Caleb Briggs, one of the assistant geologists, gives the follow- 
ing statement, furnished him by Mr. McCollum, of the production and 
materials used at the Clinton Furnace in a blast of 204 days, in 1836 : 



"Charcoal 307,876 bushels. 

Stone ooal 30,277 " 

Limestone 260 tons. 

Iron ore 2,54(5 " 

Pigsmade 896 " 

Average quantity per day 4t., 7 cwt., 3 qrs., 10 lbs. 

Average stock used per day : 

Charcoal 1,509 bushels. 

Bituminous coal 148 " 

Iron ore 12 1., 9 cwt.. 2 qrs., 12 lbs. 

Limestone 1 1., 7 cwt., 1 qr., 22 lbs. 

Average stock to make each ton of iron : 

Charcoal 343f bushels. 

Ore 2 1., 16 cwt., 3 qrs., 9 lbs. 

Bituminous coal 33f bushels. 

Limestone 6 cwt., 1 qr., 25 lbs. 

Ore used in the blast 28,511,040 lbs. 

Iron made 10,161,280 lbs. 

Which is equal to a yield of 35.64 per cent." 



218 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 

Now the same old furnace makes 9 tons a day, and instead of using 
313f bushels of charcoal, besides 38| bushels of bituminous coal, it uses 
only 158 bushels of charcoal, without any bituminous coal. Many fur 
naces make twice as much iron daily, and with even less coal per ton. 
It is believed that our furnaces have not yefc reached the maximum limit 
of production. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



219 



IRON ORES. — TABLE I. 

HYDEATBD SESQUIOXIDES. 

Analyses by Prof. T. 6f. Wormley. 





1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


Specific gravity 


2529 


2.653 


2.685 


4.554 


3.260 


3.018 


2.714 




10 10 
12.44 
64.59 
2.60 
5 90 
2.95 
0.0 
1.00 
0.0 
0.0 


13.42 
24.40 
60.75 

0.0 
trace, 
trace. 

0.89 

0.0 
trace. 

0.38 


8.40 

38.06 

49.34 

0.90 

1.40 

0.75 

0.0 

0.75 

0.11 

trace. 


1.20 
10.60 
78.90 
7.70 
00 
0.0 
0.0 
00 
0.0 
0.25 


7.80 
0.37 

66.87 

trace. 
2.92 
7 81 

12.62 
0.0 
1.47 

trace. 


10.60 
1.55 

78,75 
2.64 
0.80 
2.88 
0.0 
0.98 
0.63 
0.12 


8.90 




25.60 


Sesquioxide of iron 


59.03 
*2.15 


Oxide of manganese 

Phosphate of lime 


2.40 
1.10 
0.0 


Phosphate of magnesia 

Carbonate of magnesia 


0.70 
0.0 
trace. 






Total 

Metallic iron 


99.58 
45.20 

1.88 


99.84 
42.53 
trace. 


99.71 
34.54 

0.76 


98.65 

55.23 

0.0 


99.61 

46.81 

3.58 


98.95 
55.12 

1.85 


99.81 

41.31 

1.21 







* Alumina, 1.56, and Phosphate of Alumina, 0.59. 



No. 



1. Ore, 2 m. S. W. of Jackson C. H. 

2. Ore, Union Fur., Hocking Co. — " supposed to contain an excess of phosphorus.' ' 

3. Ore, G. M. Parsons, Jackson Co. 

4. Ore from Jas. Dutton'a farm, Maxburg, Washington Co. 

5. Ore frqm lands of Vinton Pur. Co. — rejected for phosphorus. 

a it u it a a it 

7, " Sour apple" ore, Great Vein Min. Co., Sunday Creek. 



IRON ORES — TABLE II. 

HYDRATED SESQUIOXIDES. 

Analyses l>y Prof. T. £f. Wormley. 



to 

o 



William Craig's upper layer, Vinton county 

R. Tiinrna, Mc Arthur, Vinton county 

Star Furnace, limestone ore, No. 1 

Star Furnace, block ore, No. 3 

Buckeye Furnace, "best limestone ore" 

Buckeye Furnace, 'good limestone ore" 

Buckeye Furnace, "dark red limestone ore" 

Buckeye Furnace, "shaly limestone ore' 

Patrick McAllister, Vinton Station, limestone ore, bottom 

Patiiok McAllister, Vinton Station, limestone ore, middle 

Patrick McAllister, Vinton Station, limestone ore, top 

Patrick McAllister, Vinton Station, fine block ore 

Patrick McAllister, Vinton Station, little fine block ore .*... .. 

Patrick McAllister, Vinton Station, red block ore 

Vesuvius Furnace, Lawrence county, limestone ore 

Anthony's ore on Blue limestone 



OQ 



814 
182 
,268 
774 
,980 
,868 
,983 
704 
,709 
30? 
333 
018 
.287 
,682 
066 



is 
a 

a 

o 
o 



7.50 
10.20 
10.50 
11.3d 
10.4( 
11.90 

7.4(1 
11.16 

12.6; 

8.9< 

7.50 

7.7E 

11.61 

8.7J 

5.60 

12.20 



02 



6.49 

21.70 

5.9(1 

9.16 

5.84 

1.62 

3.44 

23.64 

17.26 

22.16 

6.64 

10.04 

13.08 

43.46 

2.00 

7.64 



o 
'a 



83.74 
65.00 
79.70 
74.63 
79.40 
72.61 
87 .89 
62.69 
65.65 
60.86 
79.3? 
78.74 
72.43 
45.95 
77.70 
72.20 



t8 

a 

a 



0.70 

0.20 

0.04 

1.20 

0.40 

40 

0.0 

0.0 

O.Of 

0.0 

0.0 

0.30 

0.0 

00 

0.0 

3.20 



3 
1 






c3 

a 
o 
■a 

O 



trace. 
0.95 
1.15 
1.15 
1.90 
1.05 
0.10 
0.07 
1.40 
3.95 
1.75 
1.7! 
1.10 
0.50 
1.90 
2.15 



0.12 
0.39 
0.9? 
0.52 
0.40 
9.75 

trace. 

trace. 
0.55 
0.12 
2.95 
0.0 
0.55 
0.2P 
12.76 
1.30 



SB 



o 



0.30 
0.76 
0.52 
0.76 
0.68 
1.59 
0.62 
0.75 
1.28 
0.83 
0.56 
0.64 
0.83 
0.50 
trace. 
0.72 



o 

,a 

Oi 
m 
a 
■a 

CM 



0.95 

0.0 

0.38 

0.83 

064 

0.46 

0.41 

0.7? 

0.21 

2.52 

0.91 

0.22 

0.25 

0.9: 

0.0 

0.83 



"a 
m 



0.06 
trace, 
trace, 
i race. 

0.12 

0.14 
trace, 
trace, 

0.10 
trace. 

0.0 

0.0 
trace, 
trace, 
trace. 

0.21 



o 
H 



99.86 
99.29 
99.16 
99.55 
99.88 
99.52 
99 86 
99.00 
99.15 
99.34 
99.68 
99.44 
99.84 

100.33 
99 96 

100.45 



58.62 
45.50 
55.79 
52.24 
55.58 
50.83 
61.52 
43.88 
45.95 
42.60 
55.06 
55.12 
50.70 
32.17 
54.39 
50.54 



© 
It 1 
o 
£5 

M 

Q 
02 

d 



o 

o 
a 



IRON ORES — TABLE III. 

CARBONATES OF IEON. 
Analyses by Prof. T. G. Wormley. 





^ 




a 
o 
.a 


d 
o 

.a 




0> 
CD 

e 

1 
bo 


6 

a 


6 

a 


.5 

© 

B 
Sao 

cS 

a 










s 




% 


-8 


o 


o 

4? 




B 




O 






c3 




S 


C3 




£n 


a 


4> 






a 


0> 


© 


© 

+3 




nS 




^ 








DO 


"5 




C8 




C3 


cS 


cS 










o 






B 


fl 




B 




fl 


B 


B 


B 








fl 








o 






<D 


ft 


o 


o 


,B 








Oh 




5 


O 


■a 


c 


a 


s 


o 


■a 


■s 


ft 


a 




•+^ 


SO 

o 






r^ 


c3 






M 


fl 


cS 


cS 


B 


o 


o 


S 


fl 




TJl 


m 


O 


CO 


<i 


O 


Pw 


O 


o 


02 


o 


H 


Ph 


Gephart's Station, ore in conglomerate shale 


3.321 


14.60 


42.5? 


10.50 


1.50 


trace. 


13.40 


10.04 


2.73 


0.0 


4.65 


100.00 


26.69 


6.14 


Vinton Co., Hope Furnace lauds gray limestone ore 


3.31? 


18.17 


64.70 


9.18 


0.60 


0.40 


0.24 


4.60 


1.97 


0.10 


0.0 


:9.96 


37.1f- 


0.11 


Lawrence Co., Vesuvius Furnace, gray limestone ore 


3.439 


26.32 


40.91 


24.3? 


0.60 


1.0E 


trace. 


4.20 


2.6F 


trace. 


0.0 


100.10 


36.81 


trace. 




3.583 
3.585 
3.125 


7.52 

15.42 

0.62 


68.44 
63 2? 
58.39 


13.51 

7.72 
22.79 


0.59 
0.75 
3.03 


0.14 
1.55 
3.10 


0.76 
0.87 
1.24 


6.12 

5.40 
6.00 


2.11 
3.44 
3.12 


0.15 
0.12 
0.95 


0.0 
1.10 

00 


99.3: 
99.70 
99.24 


41.89 
38.91 
44.14 


0.35 




0.38 




0.57 



o 

o 
Q 

M 

a 
F 



3 
o 

o 

W 



to 
to 
Hi 



to 
to 



IRON ORES. — TABLE IV. 

CARBONATES OF IRON. 

Analyses by Prof. T. O. Wormley. 





£ 




d 
o 


a 
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Wm. Craig's ore, lower 5 in. of 15 in. seam, Vinton Co... 


3.516 


3.93 


70.10 


11. If 


0.0 


trace. 


4.10 


6.17 


0.42 


0.03 


1.77 


98.18 


42.00 


Gephart's Station, just above Conglomerate ore 


3.000 


57.58 


10.2C 


26.6f 


trace. 


0.70 


trace. 


0.48 


0.07 


0.0 


4.10 


99.87 


23.62 




3.169 


11.47 


64.0H 


13^ 


trace 


0.65 


3.31 


5.50 


0.10 


0.59 


0.0 


99.69 


40.68 






7.54 


73.31: 


9.6( 


0.24 


2 00 


2.50 


2.04 


0.21 


0.36 


1.24 


99.17 


42.29 




4.872 


31.56 


34.01 


13.5f 


2.60 


0.45 


, 9.25 


10.40 


0.89 


0.12 


3.2f 


97.08 


25.91 


" Earthy blue Carbonate 


3.375 


8.84 


55.99 


13.91 


0.30 


0.55 


4.70 


2.38 


0.53 


8.33 


3.33 


98.86 


36.77 




3.245 


23.36 


48.44 


13.1f 


0.80 


0.25 


4.90 


0.81 


0.06 


0.16 


3.20 


95.14 


32.59 






8.56 


25.68 


46.6E 


1.00 


1.45 


3.57 


5.60 


0.38 


2.53 


4.38 


99.80 


45.09 









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IKON ORES.— TABLE V. 

CARBONATES OF IKON. 

Analyses by Prof. T. G. Wormley. 



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1. Henry Hazelton's, top layer 


3.540 


39.62 


15.07 




7.07 


60 


0.38 


6 95 


24.21 


0.48 


0.18 


3.70 


1.74 




100.00 


41.37 


2. " " 2dlayer 


3.833 


40.67 


8.54 


0.54 





1.06 


1.33 


21.72 


20.80 


0.75 




0.40 




4.14 


100.00 


37.59 


3. " " 3d layer 

4. Snow Fort— Jas. Hawkins, 9 feet 


2.675 


19.48 


4.01 










62.60 


7.15 






1.55 








17.99 






















below Nelson ville coal 


3.20C 


37.22 


3.64 


1.20 


0.60 


2.40 


2.16 


18.82 


27.00 






4.40 




2.56 


loo.oo 


31.50 


5. Perry Co. — Ed. Damson's, top of 


































Maxville limestone 


3.600 
3.118 


37.36 


15.50 


4.30 




2.90 


2.77 


5.32 


28.10 


trace. 


trace. 


5.70 




0.25 


100.00 


38.87 


6. Perry Co. — Henry Welch, 2d layer 


27.04 



































to 

to 



224 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



Goals of the Lower Coal Measures. 

The examinations made in 1870 have greatly added to our knowledge 
of the coals of the Lower Coal Measures in the 2nd Geological District. 

There are tour distinct fields in which we find coals of great purity 
and excellence — viz. : on Elk Fork, in Vinton county ; in the vicinity of 
Jackson, Jackson county; in Hamilton township, in same county; and 
in Walnut township, Gallia county. Samples of coals from these locali- 
ties were obtained, and subjected t© careful analysis by Prof. Wormley, 

These analyses will be found in the accompanying table. 

These coals are all rich in carbon, with, generally, very light ash, 
and little sulphur. So far as determinations have been made these coals 
ose in coking a large part of their sulphur. The " shaft coal" at Jack- 
son, and the coal in Hamilton township, in Jackson county, are probably 
the geological equivalents of the Briar Hill coal of Mahoning county. 
The exact relation of the Elk Fork coal, Vinton county, to the underlying 
Waverly could not be determined with certainty. In physical characters 
it greatly resembles the Jackson shaft coal. The Anthony and Hill 
seams, at Jackson, are above the horizon of the shaft seam. The Web- 
ster coal, in Walnut township, Gallia county, is the equivalent of the 
Sheridan coal, the place of which is 66 feet above the Ferriferous lime- 
stone. 

These seams of coal, with the Nelsonville or Straitsville seam, now 
fully authenticated as well fitted for iron making and for gas of high 
illuminating power, are destined to play a very important part in the 
future history of Central and Southern Ohio. The coals of Vinton and 
Jackson counties are in rich iron-ore districts, and the time is not far 
distant when they will be largely used in the manufacture of iron. INo 
one knows better than an intelligent geologist how very rare is a first- 
class bituminous coal, one adapted to the higher purposes of iron and gas 
making. The discovery of such a coal is no small addition to the wealth 
of a State. Much credit is due to Prof. Wormley for the exceedingly 
thorough and scientific chemical analysis of our coals. The fact which 
he has entirely demonstrated, that the sulphur in many of our best coals 
is not chiefly combined with iron but with the volatile portion of the coal, 
and consequently passes off in coking, is one of the highest importance, 
and may be regarded as one of the most valuable contributions ever made 
by chemistry to economical geology. The bearings of this fact upon the 
metallurgy of iron are apparent. 

Since the Eeport of 1869 was prepared, some new investigations have 
been made in the New Straitsville region, called for by the building of a 



GEOLOGICAL STJKYEY OF OHIO. 225 

branch railroad from Logan to that district, and the opening of several 
extensive mines -where the seam of coal is from 10 to 11 feet thick. The 
coal from this new mining district has been considerably used in the blast 
furnace and in gas works. It was proper, therefore, that the coal from 
this locality should be re-examined. Prof. Wormley and myself visited 
the mines, and together selected samples of coal to represent different 
portions of the seam from roof to floor. The results of the analysis of 
these samples are given in Nos. 40, 41, 42 and 43 in the appended Table 
of Analyses, page 231. 

Some additional investigation was also made by Prof. Wormley of the 
coal of the same seam, taken from the mines of W. B. Brooks, at Nelson- 
ville. His more extended analyses are given in Nos. 44, 45 and 46 of the 
same table. To these is added, in No. 47, a very full analysis of a sample 
of the well-known Youghiogheny coal of Pennsylvania. 

The coal from New Straitsville was found to contain, as the average of 
four samples representing the whole seam, 0.79 per cent, of sulphur. 
When reduced to coke, it was found that 0.657 per cent, had passed away 
in the gasses, leaving only 0.134 per cent, in the coke. The percentage of 
the coke represented by the residual sulphur is 0.173. 

In the analysis of the two lower layers of the Nelsonville coal at Mr. 
Brooks' mines (no determination was made of the upper layer of coal), 
the loss of sulphur in coking is even more remarkable. Here the average 
per cent, of sulphur in the coal is 0.69. Of this 0.649 per cent, passes off 
in coking, leaving in the coke only an average oi 0.041 per cent. The 
sulphur constitutes only 0.065 per cent, of the coke, considered as coke. 
These are remarkably pure cokes, and present a marked contrast with 
the cokes of many of the most celebrated coals of this country and of 
Europe. 

By reference to the analysis of the Youghiogheny coal, in No. 47 in the 
table, it will be seen that of the 0.98 per cent, of sulphur in the coal, 0.66 
per cent, remains in the coke. Here the percentage of the coke repre- 
sented by sulphur is 0.81. The fuel most used in England for furnace 
purposes is the coke of the South Durham coal-field. The famous Cleve- 
land Iron District uses this coke exclusively, and in the West-Coast Iron 
District of Cumberland and Lancashire it is also the chief fuel, although 
mixed to limited extent with a Cumberland coke. The sulphur in the 
coke of the South Durham coal is given by the English authorities as 
0.60 per cent., and that of the coke of the Cumberland coal, 1.50 per cent. 

From these facts it will be seen that the Straitsville and Nelsonville 
coals do not contain sulphur enough to injure them for use in the blast 
furnace. I have no doubt that there are areas in the coal-field where 
15 



226 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

there will be found more sulphur, for no seam of coal is everywhere free 
from visible sulphur ; but it cannot be doubted that, as a rule, the coal 
seam, where it is best developed in the Hocking, Monday Creek and 
Sunday Creek Valleys, will serve an admirable purpose for iron-making. 
The fact that the finest of No. 1 foundry iron has been made from this 
coal proves conclusively the capabilities of the coal in this respect. 

The New Straitsville Coal has been introduced into the Columbus Gas 
Works as a gas coal. At first thought, the fact that the sulphur in the 
coal passes off with the gas, a fact which fits the coal admirably for fur- 
nace use, would militate against the idea of using the coal for gas mak- 
ing. It is found, however, that the gas possesses such remarkable illum- 
inating power as to more than compensate for the extra expense and 
trouble of purifying it. The illuminating power of the gas, according 
to the photometric tests of Prof. Wormley, the State Inspector of Gas, 
ranges from 17 to 19 sperm candles, with an average of 18 candles. The 
power of the gas from the Youghiogheny Coal, the standard gas-coal of 
the Western States, is by the same tests from 13 to 15 candles. Mr. 
Doty, the Superintendent of the Columbus Gas Works, states that by his 
photometer, he also finds the illuminating power of the New Straitsville 
gas to be on an average 18 candles, while the average of that of the gas of 
the Youghiogheny Coal is but 14 candles. The great advantage in 
brilliancy added to the comparative cheapness of the coal, will more than 
counterbalance the other defects of the coal as a gas-coal. 

Dip of the Coal Seam near Straitsville. 

Through the kindness of Mr. C. E. Jennings, C. E., I have been fur- 
nished with a . number of measurements of the elevation of this seam of 
coal at several points above the base line of the Straitsville Branch Bail- 
road, with the distances between the points. These data have enabled 
Mr. A. G. Farr, of the Columbus High School, to determine the dip of 
the coal seam in two triangles, each covering a considerable area. The first 
triangle extends from a coal opening on the land of the Lancaster and 
Straitsville Mining Company, south of the railroad, 6,100 feet to an 
opening of the coal on the land of the Straitsville Mining Company, east 
of the depot at New Straitsville, thence to an opening on the land of 
I. Truax, 2,700 feet ; and thence to the place of starting, 5,300 ft. The plane 
of the coal in this triangle dips south 54 deg. 13 min. east, at the rate of 
42 feet 6 inches per mile. 

The other triangle extends from the opening on the Truax, land, 3,600 
feet to an opening on the land of Hosmer, Bear & Co., about half the 
distance between New and Old Straitsville, thence 4,700 feet, to the 
opening on the land of the Lancaster and Straitsville Mining Company, 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 22C 

and thence 5,300 feet to the stalling place on the Trnax land. This 
triangle adjoins the other. The direction, of the liue of the greatest dip 
is south 87 deg. 28 min. east, and the amount of dip, is 36 feet 6 inches 
per mile. 

These calculations made by Mr. Farr, show that the dip is irregular, 
both in quantity and direction. I presume it would be impossible to find 
over any considerable area in our coal fields a uniform dip. As a 
rule the dip of strata is in a direction a little south of east. We often 
find, however, over limited areas, a reversed dip. 

I append a table of Prof. Worinley's analyses of the ashes of a few of 
the coals of the 2nd District, with an added one of the ash of the Yonghio- 
gheny coal. The Ohio coals show very little phosphorus, while the 
Youghiogheny coal-ash contains 2.23 per cent., or in terms of the coal, 
0.075 per cent. 

In No. 5 of the table we have the analyses of the smallest ash yet 
found in the 2nd District. It is the ash of the Sells coal, in Jackson 
county, and amounts to only 0.77 per cent. It is very doubtful whether 
this ash contains much more earthy matter than belonged to the ash of 
the original vegetation constituting the coal. 

It is an interesting fact that we find in all the ashes of coal yet exam- 
ined, a notable quantity of the alkalies, (potash and soda). In the table 
appended it will be seen that the alkalies range from 1 per cent, to 1.82 
per cent, of the ash. This quantity must certainly have a good fertilizing 
effect upon soils when int 'lligently applied. The alkalies are regarded 
as specially adapted to aid the growth of potatoes and other root crops. 

I append, also, a transcript of the Table of Ultimate Analyses of Ohio 
coals, by Prof. Wormley. Several of these analyses refer to coals from 
the 1st Geological District, but as Mr. Mendenhall has, in the very valu- 
able and scientific paper on the Heating Powers of our Coals, which he has 
been kind enough to prepare at my request, included these more northern 
coals in his discussion, they are allowed to remain for the purpose of 
reference. 

The coals from the 2nd District have generally more combined water 
than those from the 1st. This is a loss, but it is not strictly an impurity. 
Hence for furnace uses, the water in the coal being driven off by the sur- 
plus heat in the top of the stack, does no mischief. On the other hand, 
many coals with high heating power, possess impurities, such as sulphur, 
to the extent to unfit them fpr the blast furnace. They are, however, 
very valuable coals for the generation of steam and domestic uses. 
Hence the table of Heating Powers prepared by Mr. Mendenhall must be 
used with an intelligent understanding of all the facts before we can de- 
termine from them the uses to which a coal may be best applied. 



03 



TABLE VI-ANALYSES^OF COALS IK 2nd GEOLOGICAL DISTEICT. 
.By Prof. T. &. Wormley. 





1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


12. 




1.280 


1.309 


1.262 


1.348 


1.277 


1.350 


1.321 


1.281 


1.284 


1.300 


1.292 


1.298 






Water 


7.50 

1.60 

32.20 

58.70 


5.40 

6.20 

28.20 

60.20 


6.80 

1.50 

30.80 

60.90 


5.10 

9.25 

27.50 

58.1C 


3.90 

3.05 

35.90 

57.15 


5.30 

4.85 

36.50 

53.35 


4.60 
10.60 
29.00 
55.80 


4.90 

6.60 

30.70 

57.80 


9.10 

1.20 

31.60 

58.10 


8.35 

1.30 

23.65 

66.70 


8.85 

0.85 

29.75 

60.55 


8.50 


Ash 


2 35 




32.20 




56.95 






Total 


100. 
C.63 


100. 
0.66 


100. 
1.08 


100. 
1.11 


100. 
2.00 


100. 
1.31 


100. 
1.30 


100. 
0.65 


100. 
0.8? 


100. 
0.77 


100. 
0.67 


100. 




0.91 
























































0.122 


Cnbic feet permanent gas per lb. coal 

Color of ash 


3.11 

yell'w 


3.11 
white. 





2.75 


2.92 


3.24 


2.92 


2.99 


3.05 
fawD. 


2.90 
fawn. 


2.98 
br'wn 


3.44 



















No. 1. 
No. 2. 
No. 3. 
No. 4. 
No. 5. 
No. 6. 



Dr. Wolfe's coal, Elk Fork, Vinton county. 

ti u « 

Austin Thompson, Allensville, " 
J. Coil, Richland township, " 

R. P. Stokeley, Jackson tp., " 

Cincinnati .Furnace, See. 3, Richland tp., Vinton county. 



No. 7. Vinton Furnace, shaft coal, (near bottom) Vinton county. 

No. 8. "" " (near middle) " 

No. 9. Frank Scott, Pigeon creek, Jackson county (bottom.) 

No. 10. " " " (middle.) 

No. 11. " " " (top.) 

No. 12. Jacob Sells, Pigeon creek, Jackson county (lower part.) 



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TABLE VI— ANALYSES OP COALS IN 2nd GEOLOGICAL DISTRICT— Continued. 





13. 


14. 


15. 


16. 


17. 


18. 


19. 


20. 


21. 


22. 


23. 


24. 




1.271 


1.292 


1.239 


1.285 


1.295 


1.319 


1.282 


1.267 


1296 


1.336 


1.2.81 


1.415 






Water 


8.65 

0.77 

28.45 

62.13 


6.40 

5 20 

38 40 

50.00 


5.25 

1.50 

29.75 

63.50 


6.60 

2.40 

29.60 

61.40 


6.8C 

3.5C 

30.80 

58.90 


8.40 

8 00 

25.60 

58.00 


7.75 

2.03 

31.27 

58.95 


7.50 

4.10 

30.90 

57.50 


3.70 

5.0,' 

28.11 

63 15 


7.60 

3.79 

30.96 

57.65 


8.70 

150 

28.30 

61.60 


2.25 


Ash 


23.00 




34 75 


Fixed carbon 


40.00 


Total , 


100. 

0.6S 
0.30 


100. 
1.27 


100. 

0.98 
0.37 
0.57 


100, 
0.70 


100. 
0.9t, 


100. 

0.82 


100. 
0.53 


100. 

0.74 
0.22 
34 
0.102 
2.51 


100. 
1.40 


100. 
0.49 


100. 

0.57 
0.43 
0.68 
0.102 
2.67 


100. 




84 
























0r»2 
3.44 


3*44 


















3.00 


3.16 


3.32 


2.83 




2.67 




2 19 

































No. 13. Jacob Sells, Pigeon ereek, Jackson Co. (upper under cannel.) 
No. 14. " " " (caunel on top of seam.) 

No. 15. Anthony coal, Lick township, Jackson Co. 

No. 16. Petrea Coal Co., " " (bottom of seam.) 

No. 17. " " " (middle of seam.) 

No. 18. " " " (top of seam.) 



No. 19. 
No. 20. 
No. 21. 
No. 22. 
No. 23. 
No. 24. 



"Shaft coal," Fulton shaft, Jackson C. H. 

Star " " 

Lowest coal. Pine Hill, Lick township, Jackson Co. 

" Hill coal," Stephenson's bank, Lick township, Jackson Co. 

" « « « 

Cannel coal, Lick township, Jackson Co. 



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TABLE VI.— ANALYSES OF COALS IN 2nd GEOLOGICAL DISTRICT— Continued. 





25. 


26. 


27. 


28. 


29. 


30. 


31. 


G2. 


33. 


34. 


35. 


36. 




1.281 


1,317 


1.298 


1.296 


1.276 


1.319 


1.275 


1.301 


1.333 


1.347 


1.384 


1.345 




5.50 

2.46 

35.44 

56.60 


7.40 

4.31 

35.00 

53.29 


8.55 

5.20 

25.25 

61.00 


5.30 

3.10 

32.60 

59.00 


4.30 

6.25 

37.70 

51.75 


4.40 

5.75 

34.20 

55.65 


5.05 

1.80 

33.35 

59.80 


5.65 

4.20 

32.65 

57.50 


5.65 

6.75 

35.15 

52.45 


5.15 

9.90 

36.85 

48.10 


5.35 
15.90 
32.05 

48.80 


3.45 


Ash 

Volatile matter 


6.40 
36.75 


Fixed carbon . 


53.40 






Total 


100. 
0.91 


100. 
2.73 


100. 
0.5S- 


100. 

0,78 


100. 
1.25 


100. 
0.63 


100. 
1.00 


100. 
1.89 


100. 
1.35 


100. 
2.28 


100. 
2.22 


100. 


Snlphnr 


2.55 


























































Cubic feet permanent gas per lb. coal 


3.24 




white. 


yell'w 


yell'w 


white. 


3.48 
white. 


3.48 
white. 


2.97 
white. 


3.32 

white. 


3.40 
white. 


3.16 


Color of ash 













No. 25. Austin's Shaft, Milton township, Jackson county. 

(t Og i< ti u <1 1< u 

" 27. Enoch Canter, Hamilton. Jackson county. 

" 28. Jackson Furnace lauds, Hamilroii, Jackson county. 

" 29. Cannel coal, on top of J. Gillilaud's seam, Hamilton, Jack- 
son county. 

'■ 30. Steven's Cut, Harrison township, .Scioto county. 



No. 31. Sheridan coal, Lawrence county — (near bottom). . 
" 32. " " " " (S up fioni bottom). 

" 33. Oak Eidge, Lawrence county — (bottom lower seam). 
" 34. " " " (upper part lower seam). 

'' 35. " " " (upper bench above parting). 

" 36. Haskin's coal, Greasy Ridge, Lawrence county. 



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TABLE VI.— ANALYSES OF COALS IN 2nd GEOLOGICAL DISTRICT— Continued. 





37.. 


38. 


39. 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43. 


44. 


45. 


46. 


47. 




1.307 


1.295 


1.309 


1.260 


1.281 


1.262 


.1276 


1.285 


1.272 


1.284 


1.30 








4.05 
7.60 


6.00 

4.65 

31.20 

58.15 


5.15 

4.60 

29.65 

60.60 


7.70 

2.60 

30.70 

59.00 


7.40 

2.95 

29.20 

60.45 


7.20 

5.15 

30.10 

57.55 


5.30 

7.95 

31.00 

55.75 


6.20 

2.70 

31.30 

59.80 


6.65 

1.90 

33.05 

58.40 


5.00 

9.05 

32.80 

53.15 


0.90 


Ash - 


3.35 




28.90 




54.00 


66.85 






Total : 


100. 
1.15 


100. 
0.86 


100. 

0.82 
0.07 

0.11 


100. 

0.49 
0.082 

0.133 


100. 

0.93 
O.Olf 

0.02S 


100. 

0.57 
0.26 

0.41 


100. 

1.18 
0.082 

0.128 

0.742 
3.01 


100. 

0.97 
0.082 

0.13 


100. 

0.41 
trace. 

trace. 


100. 

0.94 
undeter- 
mined, 
undeter- 
mined. 


100. 




0.98 




0.66 








0.81 








0.086 




3.48 


3.07 


3.24 


3.51 


3.11 


3.08 








3.36 




gray. 


yellow. 


gray. 























o 
o 

a 
d 



o 

o 

W 



No. 37. Jacob Webster, Walnut tp., Gallia Co. (top, 9 in.) No. 43. 

" 38. •' " " " " (middle. 9 in.) " 44. 

" 39. " " " " " (lower layer, 4 ft. 3 in.) " 45. 

" 40. New Straitsville, Perry cotmty flower laver.) " 46. 

" 41. " " " (middle layer.) " 47. 
" 42. " " " (lower part upper layer.) 



New Straitsville, Perry county (upper part upper layer.) 
W. B. Brooks, Nelson ville (lower.) 
" " (middle.) 

" (top.) 

Youghiogheny coal, Pa., Columbus Gas Works. 



to 

03 



be 
w 
*9 



TABLE VII.— COMPOSITION OF ASHES OF COALS IN 2nd GEOLOGICAL DISTRICT. 

By Prof. T. G. Wormlej. 





No 


1. 


No 


2. 


No. 


3. 


No 


4. 


No 


5. 




Per cent, 
ash. 


Per cent, 
coal. 


Per ceDt. 
ash. 


Per cent, 
coal. 


Per cent, 
ash. 


Per ceDt. 
coal. 


Per cent, 
ash. 


Per cent. 
coal. 


Per cent. 
ash. 


Per cent. 
coal. 


Silicic acid 


58.75 
2.09 

35.30 
1.20 
0.68 
1.08 
0.13 
24 
0.41 
trace. 


3.026 
0.103 
1.819 
0.062 
0.035 
0.056 
0.007 
0.013 
0.022 
trace. 


55.10 

13.33 

27.10 

1.85 

0.27 

1.00 

0.41 

0.58 

0.22 

trace. 


4.380 
1.060 
2.155 
0.147 
0.022 
0.079 
0.033 
0.046 
0.018 
trace. 


49.10 
3.68 

38.60 
4.53 
0.16 
1.10 
2.23 
0.07 
0.14 
trace. 


1.645 
0.123 
1.293 
0.152 
0.005 
0.037 
0.075 
0.002 
0.005 
trace. 


44.60 
7.40 

41.10 
3.61 
1.23 
1.82 
0.29 
0.58 
0.03 


1.048 
0.174 
0.965 
0.085 
0.030 
0.043 
0.007 
0.014. 
0.0007 


37..40 
9.73 

40.77 
627 
1.60 
1.29 
0.51 
1.99 
0.08 


0.28880 




0.0749 




0.3139 




0.0483 


Magnesia 


0.0123 




0099 


Phosphoric acid 


0.0039 


Sulphuric acid 


0.0153 


Sulphur combined 


0.0006 
















Total 


99.88 


5.148 


99.86 


7.940 


99.61 


3.337 


100.71 


2.3667 


99.64 


0.7670 







No. 1. New Straitsville coal, lower part of upper layer. 
" 2. New Straitsville coal, upper part of upper layer. 
" 3. Youghiogheny coal, Pa., Columbus Gas Works. 



' No. 4. Lower part of Jacob Sells' coal, Jackson county. 
" 5. Upper part of Jacob Sells' coal, Jackson county. 



O 

o 

2 

3 



o 



TABLE VIII.— ULTIMATE ANALYSES OF COALS. 
By Prof. T. G. Wormley. 





i. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 

81.24 
5.71 
1.72 
0.98 
8.55 
1.80 


10. 


11. 


12. 


Carbon 


75.00 
5.80 
1.51 
0.64 

15.9(5 
1.09 


73.80 
5.79 

1.5a 

0.41 

16.58 

1.90 


71.4r 
5.47 

1.26 

0.57 

16.07 

5.15 


81.27 
5.66 
1.66 
0.98 
7.08 
3.35 


70.46 
5.69 
1.82 
0.91 

18.77 
2 35 


73.48 
5.4)- 

1.40 

0.6t- 

18.19 

0.77 


79.28 
5.92 
1.62 
2.00 
6.18 
5.00 


78.9! 
5.9- 
1..!*- 
0.56 

11.50 
1.45 


50.56 
6.43 
1.23 
0.33 

34.85 
6.60 


82.31 
0.55 
0.00 
2.24 
0.00 

14.90 


70.42 




6.50 


Sulphur 


1.65 
1.34 


Oxygen 


6.89 


Ash 


13.20 






Total 


100. 

5.30 
0.59 
4.71 


100. 

6.65 
0.74 
5.91 


100. 

7.20 
0.80 
6.40 


100. 

0.90 
0.10 
0.S0 


100. 

8.50 
0.94 
7.56 


100. 

8.65 
0.96 
7.69 


100. 

1.40 
0.15 
1.25 


100. 

2.47 
0.27 
2.20 


100. 

1.40 
0.15 
1.25 


100. 

10.40 
1.15 
9.25 


100. 

0.00 
0.00 
0.00 


100. 




2.60 




0.29 


compose* of.... ? *» ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 


2.31 







No. 1.^ Middle layer, Hayden's coal. 

" 2. ~ Middle layer, Brooks' coal. 

" 3. New Straitsville, below middle of upper layer. 

" 4. Youghiogheny, Pa., coal, Columbus Oas Works. 

" 5. Lower part Jacob Sells' coal, Jackson county. 
J' 6. Upper part Jacob Sells' coal, Jackson county. 



No. 7. Jay, Root & Burnett's mine." 

" 8. Briar Hill, Youngstown. 

" 9. Shaft coal, Steubenville. 

" 10. Peat, Summit county. 

" 11. Coke, Big Vein coal, Salineville. 

" 12. Judge Ban's cannel coal, Flint Eidge. 



i 
O 

o 

£ 

w 
O 

o 

M 



234 GEOLOGICAL, SURVEY OF OHIO. 

Statistics of Iron in 2d District. 
I am indebted to Col. Wm, M. Bolles, of Portsmouth, for the following : 

TODB. 

Charcoal pig iron from Ohio furnaces in the Hanging Rock Iron District 

in 1870 73,018 

Bituminous coal pig iron from same district 14,269 

Total 87,287 

A ton— 2268 lbs. 

For list of furnaces in the 2d Geological District, see Eeport of Pro- 
gress for 1869, p. 133. 

To this number there has been added a stone-coal furnace, built at 
Columbus, belonging to the Columbus Iron Company. This company 
uses the Sfraitsville coal with entire satisfaction, and makes with it No. 1 
foundry iron. I append the following statistics of the structure, etc., of 
this furnace, kindly furnished by Mr. S. Baird, President of the company: 

Columbus Iron Company, 8. Baird, President. Statistics of Furnace. 

Feet. Inches. 

Height of stack 61 

Diameter at top of boshes 14 6 

Diameter of hearth — top _ 6 

" bottom 6 

Height of hearth 6 

Six twyers, diameter of do , -•- . 4 

Twyers enter hearth above bottom 3 10 

Capacity of furnace, 30 tons a day. 

Quality of iron, No. 1 foundry and No. 1 mill. 

Uses Straitsville coal — the whole seam. 

Uses Lake Superior and native Ohio ores, from Frayzeesburg, (limonite,) Gore, 

(limonite,) and Fort Washington, (black band). 
Pressure of blast, 2^ pounds. 
Temperature of blast not known. 

Statistics of the production of Salt in the 2d District for 1870. 

ATHENS COUNTY. 

I am indebted to Hon. J. L. Kessinger, Collector of U. S. Internal 
Bevenue fcr the 15th District of Ohio, for the following statistics of salt 
production in Athens county for 1870 : 

Barrels. 

Hocking Valley Coal and Salt Co., (salt works at Chauncey) 11,863 

M. M. Greene &Co., (salt works at Salina) 11,240 

Joseph Herrold, (salt works in Athens township) 10,000 

PrudenBros., (salt works in Canaan township,) 4,008 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 235 

MOKGA.N COUNTY. 

No definite statistics have been received from this county for 1870. 
Probably the production was a little less in 1870 than iu some former 
years. In 18G7 the exact production, as given by W. W. McCarty, 
Deputy Collector U. S. Eevenue, was 25,356 barrels. 

MUSKINGUM COUNTY. 

No statistics Lave been received from this county. The production iu 
1870 was probably a little less than 20.000 barrels. 

GUERNSEY COUNTY 

E. M. Scott, Centre township, manufactures " 40 barrels a day." 

MEIGS COUNTY. 

No statistics of the salt production have been received from Meigs 
county for the year 1870. The production in 1869 was 1,866,690 bushels 
from 9 salt furnaces. 

The statistics of the production of coal in the 2d District for the year 
1870 have not been received. 

E. B. ANDREWS, 

Assistant Geologist. 



DISCUSSION OF THE HEATING POWERS OF SOME OHIO COALS, 



BY t. c. mendenhall, 



Data. 

Calorific power of Hydrogen 34462 

" " Carbon 8080 

" " Sulphur 2221 

Specific heat of Carbonic acid 2164 

" " Nitrogen 244 

" " Wateryvapor 4805 

" " Sulphurous acid 1554 

Latent heat of steam 537° C 

Parts nitrogen to one of oxygen in air (by weight) 3.314 

Weight of 100 cubic inches of air 31 grs. 

In order to estimate correctly the heating values of various fuels, it 
would be necessary to undertake and complete an extensive series of ex- 
periments, involving much time and great expense. This has been done 
in two instances; in 1844, on the part of the United States Government, 
under the supervision of Prof. W. E. Johnson ; and iu 1848, by the Brit- 
ish Government, under the care of Dr. Lyon Playfair and Sir Henry 
De Le Beche. These experiments were undertaken in the main, in the 
interests of the Departments of the Navy, and were conducted, princi- 
pally, with a view to the selection of the most available coals for the use 
of the Government steam vessels. 

The reports of the results of these experiments, which were managed with 
great skill and care, are, perhaps, the most complete records we have of any 
experimental treatment of this subject; and, although recently our engineers 
have contrived many new and greatly improved methods for the thorough 
consumptions of coals, these results are highly valuable as a means of 
testing our formula} expressing the relation of their heating powers to 
their ultimate constitution. The State of Ohio has not, iu connection 
with the Geological Survey which is now in progress, assumed an experi- 
mental discussion of the products of its vast coal fields, and in the many 
trials made by Prof. Johnson previous to 1844 none were of Ohio coals. 
At the request of Prof. B. B. Andrews, the writer has attempted the com- 
putation of the heating and thermometric powers of several specimens of 



GEOLOGICAL SUEVET OP OHIO. 237 

Ohio coals, basing it upon the proportion of combustible elements in each 
pound of coal, as determined by the ultimate analyses of Prof. Wormley. 
A method for the determination of the heating power of fuels, at one 
time much in favor, is known as the lead test. This was introduced 
by Berthier, and is founded on the erroneous theory of Welter, that the 
quantity of heat developed by the combustion of bodies is proportional 
to the amount of oxygen assimilated. The heating power of hydrogen is 
expressed by the number 34462, and that of carbon by 8080 ; the lormer 
consumes precisely three times as much oxygen in its combustion as the 
latter, whereas, its heating power is more than four times as great. Other 
exceptions to the rule might be adduced. In the preparation of the tabu- 
lar results appended, the formulae made use of are generally those recom- 
mended by Cooke, Muspratt, Bunsen, and other authorities upon this sub- 
ject, and it is thought that the results are as approximately correct as is 
at present possible. A somewhat detailed description of the plan pur- 
sued may be of interest to those not familar with processes of a like na- 
ture. 

The elements in the composition of our coals which, in their combus- 
tion, produce heat are carbon, hydrogen and sulphur, the latter appearing 
only in small quantities and being ot feeble calorific power. Determina- 
tions of the amount of heat evolved in the process of combustion of one 
pound of each of these elements have been made by many chemists, 
among whom may be named, Lavoisier, Dalton, Davy, Dulong, Despretz, 
and more recently by Andrews, Favre and Silbermann. Those of the 
last named experimentalists were made with unusual care and accuracy, 
and they have been accepted as the data upon which these calculations 
are founded. It is proper here to state that the heating value of a fuel 
may be estimated in two ways, as calorific power and as calorific intensity. 
By the former is meant the total quantity of heat developed in the com- 
bustion of a given weight of the substance, and by the latter, the maxi- 
mum temperature developed in the process. It is plain that in the com- 
plete combustion of one pound of any fuel, the absolute amount of heat 
developed is constant under any and all conditions, whether the process 
be rapid or slow, in air or in oxygen. But the result is quite different in 
the matter of temperature or thermometric intensity. This is very mate- 
rially influenced by the nature of the products of combustion, and the 
rapidity of the development of heat compared with the rapidity of its 
dissipation among surrounding objects. It thus appears that a fuel may 
have a high absolute heating power and yet, in consequence of the pecu- 
liar nature of the products of combustion, may develop a low tempera 
ture ; and again, it may show a comparatively low heating power and a 
great thermometric intensity. These conditions are realized, respectively, 



238 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

in specimens Nos. 4 and 11. Both of these results are valuable, and both 
are calculated for the accompanying table. The plan of this computation 
can best be understood by an illustration, and for this purpose No. 17 is 
selected. The ultimate analysis of this coal stands as follows : 

Carbon 79.28 

Hydrogen 5.92. 

Nitrogen 1.62 

Sulphur 2.00 

Oxygen 6.18 

Ash 5.00 

Total.. 100.00 

There being no absolute or natural unit of heat, relative values alone 
can be obtained and the unit assumed may be the amount of heat required 
to raise one pound of water one degree in temperature. The value of the 
elements is expressed in terms of this unit, and the value of the coals in 
this table are given in the same, and in addition, the evaporative power 
which is easily obtained from this. From the data we learn that in the 
combustion of one pound of carbon, enough heat is developed to raise 
8080 pounds of water one degree in temperature. This multiplied by the 
total amount of carbon, 79.28, gives for the value of the carbon 640582.4 
units. From the hydrogen enough must be subtracted to combine with 
the 6.18 pounds of oxygen and form water. This leaves 5.15 pounds 
which is useful in the combustion, and which, multiplied by the calorific 
power of hydrogen, 34462, gives 177479.3 units as the value of the hydro- 
gen. In the same manner we find the power of the sulphur to be 4442 
units, and the total amount is 822503.7 units. From this, however, must 
be deducted the amount of heat required to convert all of the water formed 
in the process of combustion, together with what may be hygroscopic, 
into steam, starting from 100° C. This is 28611.4 units, and leaves an 
available balance of 793892 units, or for one pound of fuel 7938 units. 
The complete combustion, therefore, of one pound of this coal, would be 
accompanied by the generation of sufficient heat to raise 7938 pounds of 
water in temperature, 1° C. or 14288 pounds 1° F. This represents the 
calorific power. To ascertain the maximum intensity or thermometric 
value of the combustion, we must consider, in addition to the heating 
power, the nature of the substances resulting, especially in regard to 
their specific heats. The result is obtained by dividing the calorific power 
by the sum of the products of each of the results of. the combastion by its 
specific heat; and in the present instance the computation is as follows, 
resulting from the combustion of one hundred pounds of coal, we have— 

Carbonic acid 290.69 lbs. 

Water 53.23 " 

Sulphurous acid 4.00 " 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 239 

These require for their formation 260.67 pounds of oxygen, and, deduct- 
ing the 6.18 pounds found in the coal, 254.49 pounds must come from the 
atmosphere. This must necessarily be accompanied by 843.38 pounds of 
nitrogen, which, with the 162 pounds of nitrogen already in the sub- 
stance, makes 845 pounds of nitrogen, to be added to the above list. It 
is proper to state here, that in these calculations no account is taken of 
the specific heat of the ash since it is too small to affect the result mater- 
ially. Taking from the table of data, the specific heats of carbonic acid, 
watery vapor, sulphurous acid and nitrogen we have : 

290.69 by .2164= 62.90 

- r 3.28 by .4805= 25.6 

4.00 by .1554= .62 

845.00 by .244 =206.18 

Total for one pound 2.953 

That is, it requires as much heat to raise the temperature of the results 
of the combustion one pound of this coal 1° C. as will heat to the same 
degree 2.953 of water, and dividing the calorific power 7938 by this num- 
ber, we have 2685° C, as the temperature produced in the complete and 
instantaneous combustion of any portion of this fuel. In the table of 
results the calorific intensity is also given in degrees Fahrenheit, the 
graduation most generally in use in this country. In an adjoining column is 
found ihe evaporative powers of the coals ; easily deduced from their heat 
ing powers, and being, in this table, represented by the number of pounds of 
water which can be evaporated from 212 6 * P. by one pound of the fuel. In 
another column is given the number of cubic feet of air which is re- 
quired for the combustion of one pound of each. It must be noticed 
that these numbers represent the quantities absolutely necessary for com- 
plete combustion and that in practice, never less, but always much greater 
than these must be supplied, the excess being determined by the nature 
of the furnace, and the experience and good judgment of the operator. 
This introduction of additional quantities of air will, as a natural conse- 
quence, lessen the temperature of combustion ; as the same absolute heating 
power is applied to a greater quantity of matter. This computation clearly 
shows the great value of that improvement which consists of the intro- 
duction into the furnace of air already heated, and the importance of 
having the amount properly regulated, that there may be no excess 
above that necessary for the greatest efficiency of the furnace. 

From this table, which is doubtless correct to a considerable degree of 
approximation, some valuable facts may be gleaned. One of these is the 
effect of the different elements of a fuel upon its usefulness for different 
purposes. We learn that the presence of hydrogen in considerable quan- 



TABLE OF HEATING POWERS OF FUELS. 

COMPUTED BY T. C. MENDENHALL, FROM ULTIMATE ANALYSES FURNISHED BY PROS'. WORMXEY. 





Calorific power — 
or number of lbs. 
water raised in 
temperatare 1° C. 
by lib., fuel. 


Calorific intensity 
in degrees 
Centigrade. 


Calorific intensity 
in degrees 
Fahi'enheit. 


Number lbs. water 
evaporated from 
212° F. by 1 lb. of . 
fuel. 


Cubic feet of air 
required for com- 
bustion of 1 lb. of 
fuel. 


Calorific power 
compared with 
pure charcoal. 


Calorific intensity 
compared with 
pure charcoal. 




7 


7938 


2685° 


4833° 


14.78 


143 


98.2 


98.1 


Jay, Root & Burnett. 


8 


7653 


2649° 


4768° 


14.25 


139 


94.7 


96.8 


Briar Hill, Youugstown. 


9 


7910 


2671° 


4808° 


14.73 


143 


97.9 


97.6 


Shaft coal, Steubenville. 


10 


4495 


2351° 


4232° 


8.37 


85 


55.6 


86.6 


Peat, Summit county. 


11 


6863 


2729° 


4912° 


12.78 


127 


85.9 


99.7 


Big Vein coal, Salineville. 


12 


7349 


2677° 


4819° 


13.68 


133 


90.9 


97.8 


Judge Barrt cannel coal, Flint Ridge. 


1 


7103 


2615° 


4707° 


13.23 . 


130 


87.9 


95.5 


Hayden's (middle layer). 


2 


6974 


2603° 


4686° 


12.98 


128 


86.3 


95.1 


Brooks' (middle layer). 


3 


6716 


2595° 


4671° 


12.51 


124 


83.1 


-94.8 


New Straitsville (upper layer). 


4 


7959 


2663° 


4794° 


14.82 


146 


98.5 


97.3 


Youghiogheny (Pa.) gas coal. 


5 


6589 


2576° 


4637° 


12 27 


121 


81.5 


94.1 


Sells', Jackson county (lower part). 


6 


6794 


2591° 


4664° 


12.65 


125 


84.1 


94.6 


" " " (upper part). 


Pure charcoal 


8080 


2737° 


4927° 


15.04 


150 


100 


100 


Charcoal. 



a 
a 
o 
t- 1 
o 

s 

02 



o 

o 

I 



* The numbers refer to Table VHI, page 233* 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 24 L 

tities in a coal may tend to increase its calorific power; but not its cal- 
orific intensity. Hydrogen, which has more than four times the heating 
power of carbon, when both are burned in pure oxygen, has a calorific in- 
tensity much less, and in air nearly the same. The reason is easily seen 
in the fact that the specific heat of steam is .4805 and that of carbonic 
acid is .244. In the table will be found the calorific intensity of each of the 
specimens, compared with that of pure charcoal. The combustion in both 
cases being supposed to take place in air. It would appear from the re- 
sults, however, that coals containing a considerable portion of volatile mat- 
ter, if it be properly constituted, excel in evaporative power, although 
they fall below in elevation of temperature. Until recently, the supposed 
superiority in heating value of the more concentrated fuels led to the 
practice of coking or de-bituminizing the coals, and quite lately the prac- 
tice was followed upon all English railways, for the sake of the greater 
calorific power. Semi-bituminous coals are, however, now in use, and in 
a work published in 1858, entitled "Permanent Way and Coal-Burning 
Locomotive Boilers of European Bailways," the authors, Messrs. Holley & 
Colburu, assert that by improvement in the method of consumption of 
bituminous coals, they were made to evaporate in a given time, 20 per 
cent, more than equal weights of anthracite. In the experiments of Prof. 
W. E. Johnson, before alluded to, the two coals giving the highest evap- 
orative power for equal weights, Atkinson & Templeman's and Quinn's 
Bun, were bituminous. A committee appointed by the "Steam Coal 
Colliers' Association," at New Castle-u'pon-Tyne, which made a report in 
1858, upon experiments with various improved methods of coal combus- 
tion, declared that they had suceeded in showing that the bituminous 
coals from the Hartley district, had an evaporative power fully equal to 
the best Welsh steam coals, and in many respects, practically, they were 
decidedly superior. In these experiments, by an improved method of 
burning, proposed by C. Wye Williams, Esq., they were enabled to com- 
bine with great rapidity of evaporation, the maximum economic effect of 
the conversion into steam from 212° E. — 11.70 pounds of water for every 
pound of coal. This was quite contrary to the generally received opin- 
ion, which, based upon the reports presented to government by Sir 
H. De La Beche and Dr. Lyon Playfair, was strongly in favor of Welsh 
coals. 

Indeed for many years the bituminous fuels are found to be superior, 
and a knowledge of their real value is leading to the contrivance of more 
perfect methods of burning them, in order to realize as high a per cent, 
of their calorific power as is possible. It is hoped that these computa- 
tions concerning Ohio coals, may be useful in showing of what they are 
capable. Although based upon the supposition of a perfect combustion, 
16 



242 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

to which, at best we can only approximate, it is thought, in view of re- 
cent calorimetrical investigations, that they do not in the least exagger- 
ate the value of coals. In a late memoir of Messrs. Sheurer, Kestner and 
Meunier, entitled " Eeserches sur la combustion de la houille," the original 
of which I have not been able to obtain, some of the most important re- 
sults having been kindly communicated to me by Prof. B. Silliman, it is 
shown that in some instances the calorific effects have been surprisingly 
high, in some cases exceeding by 8 per cent, or 10 ten per cent, the sum 
of the heats of combustion of the elements, taking no acconnt of the 
oxygen. In conclusion, I cannot omifc calling attention to an anomalous 
case given in the memoir above mentioned, of two coals of almost identical 
composition, affording strikingly different calorific results. Wur tz has sug- 
gested, in view of this case, that a different molecular arrangement of the 
same proportion of elements may make a vast difference in their calorific 
powers. Of this, analysis reveals nothing to us, and it would seem that 
the only way to reach the truth, would be by means of a series of care- 
fully conducted experiments, which, it is hoped, maybe undertaken at no 
distant day. 
CoLtTMBtrs, Ohio. 



Drawn by fPT B.Gilbert. r 

•I. Logtoi or I pper Wat 

2. Marritte limestone. 

3. Coal-Measures Conglomerate (shown in, part.) 

4. Lowest Ore. 

s. Jowkson- Shaft CmU. 



t> . sltttliony Coal. 
7 Thompson Coal'. 
6. Ore. 

9. Jackson Hill Coal. 
(0. Coal,. 



If Flint Btdoe Coal. 

12. .'Putnam, Bill- limestone. 

13. Ore. 

/*. Blorlr Ore . 



±$. Coal 75 belon Ferriferous limestone.. 

16. Kidney Ore. 

17. Lower "Sim Lexington- Coal , 
IS. JtcLroni'iUc Coal. 



S_K C 0\NT» GOE OX* O CrlC AL :i)JS TRICT, OHIO. No I. 

General Section of loTrer Coal-Measures. 

~&y E.B. AKDRjrVrS ,adedT>3rM T 8-, MAUL AS TIME & WTB. GILBERT 

HOR7AOWTAT- SCALE** HTCK PER ItTXfc; VERTICAL, E 0. 1U7CH FEB.. 400 PEEl. 



19. ferriferous Unwstone,. 

20. Limestone Ore . 

21 Fhnt Ridae Jlmt. 

22. 2few Castle Coai. 



23. A T orris Coal. 

24. Sheridan. Coal 

25. Muff tmutotone 

2b. SUtUomitA's Coal.. 



??3 ^ ' W----^ 



27. Hatdur Coal. 

2S. ffiikrsvUU Coal 

Mfi. tapper mikpsvMe. fjfrwm.) 

30. Lotto. Ore. 



3f. Sandy FossififeToas limestone 

32. Upper Conglomerate. 

33 white limestone. 

M. Grwy Ridae Coal. 







.faefcsm Shaft Oral. 
2. AnJUwtty- Cool, 
■i. Jackson Wll Coal. 
■/■. liltte ft'otnam Hilljtimestone . 



5. Orm ui'Oft Ft*. 4. 

*. Coal 76' helm*- Rrrifcro*r$ limestone 

7. Kidney Ore 

<?. Coal- under ferriikrovs KrmMH. 



SECOITD Q£OXiOOXCAL DISTRICT, OHIO. S_EC. I%.X 

Sectioxi from Sec. 7 Washington Tp. Jackson Co to TWlkesville, Vinton County. 

BT E.B. ASTORIA WS and IF. B GII.BERT. 

HORTZOJSTAI, SCJUB % INCH PER MILE,\ T ERTirAL,J!0. 1 TWCK PER 400 FEET 



Ferriferous limestone 

Lrmertone Ore. 

Cool oyer fimestmie(Fc*r Castle Coal. I 

Sheridan Coal: 



IS- Coal. 

t>4. Sandy limestone. 

15. Coal. 

16 Cannot Coal fffllkesnUeJ 




Drawn by WM Gilbert 



1. Top of Fpper Wbrerly. 

2. Fire Clay (StiotorilU.) 

3. Ore. 

4. Coed. 

J, Putnam Hill limestone. 



Ore. 

Blt>ck Ore. 

Coal 75 " 'lelow Ferriferous limestone. 

Ferriferous Hmtstone 

Limestone Ore 



SKCOXI) G E O L O Ci I CAT. 1 i I fl T n I C T - O il I O . SF. C - No. ID 

Section from Sciotoville to Sec. 22 Roxrve Tp. Lawrence. 

.by x.b.awtir.kws mm "W. b . &ilb ert. 

HGREZONTAX SCAT. E U liTCH PER mLE j VERTICAL ? 3)0 . 1 IKCH PSE 400 VXBT ■ 



// Netr Castle Coal. 
1Z. Sheridan Coal,. 
13. Matcher Coal. 
t4: Bruce Coal/ 'lower. J 
IS Top Mill Ore 



ifi. Fottsititerous limestone. 
17. finite limestone. 
16\ Greasy ffigftp Coal.. 
19. Crumlling ' limosrtone . 



EXPLANATION OP MAPS. 



The Maps of Grouped Sections show the strata of the lower Coal-for- 
mation in detail, carefully measured and grouped. The spaces between 
the horizontal lines represent 10 feet in vertical distance. 

There is also a small Map giving the leading facts of the large Maps, 
but in such reduced form as to be seen at a glance. This Map gives a 
vertical section along the whole western outcrop of the lower Coal meas- 
ures, in the 2nd Geological District.. 

There are two other smaller cross sections, one through Jackson county, 
on an east and west line, and the other a cross section from Sciotoville, 
to the eastern border of Lawrence county. 



BEGISTEK OE MAPS OE GKOUPED SECTIONS. 

IN SECOND GEOLOGICAL DISTRICT. 



MAP I. 

HOCKING, ATHENS AND VINTON COUNTIES. 

Section 1. Sec. near Union Furnace, Starr township, Hocking county. 
" 2. Sec. on land of John Backus, Starr township, Hocking county. 
' 3. Sec. on land of Matthew D. Wolf, Starr township, Hocking county. 
" 4. Sec. on land of Hocking Coal, Coke and Mining Co., York township, Athens 

county. 
" 5. Sec. on land of J. W. Hes, Section 19, Washington township, Hocking 

county. 
" 6. General section on Meeker's run, York township, Athens county. 
" 7. Sec. on land of Leander Emerine, Section 21, Washington township, Hock- 
ing county. 
" 8. Sec. on land of Robert Gordon, Section 21, Washington township, Hocking 

county. 
" 9. Sec. on land of Henry Trimmer, Section 30, Washington township, Hocking 

county. 
" 10. Sec. on land of Philip Johnson, Section 34, Washington township, Hock- 
ing county. 
" 11. Sec. on land of Jacob Werheim, south-west part York township, Athens 

county. 
" 12. Sec. on land of Jacob Bauersack, south-west part York township, Athens 

county. 
" 13. Sec. on land of Charles French, Waterloo township, Athens county. 
" 14. Sec. on land of E. J. Brandenberg, Section 19, York township, Athens 

county. 
" 15. Sec. en land of Southern Ohio Coal Co., Carbondale, Section 36, Waterloo 

township, Athens county. 
" 16. Sec. on land of George Carter, Section 30, Waterloo township, Athens 

county. 
" 17. Sec. on land of J. F. Sheffield, Section 30, Waterloo township, Athens county. 
" 18. Sec. at Mineral City, Waterloo township, Athens county. 
" 19. Sec. near King's Switch, M. & C. R. R., Waterloo township, Athens county 
" 20. Sec. at King's Switch, M. & C. R. R., Waterloo township, Athens county. 
" 21. Sec. at Moonville Station, M. & C. R. R., feown township, Vinton county. 
" 22. Sec. at Brewer's Cut, M. & C. R. R., Brown township, Vinton county. 
" 23. General section on Hope Furnace lands, Brown township, Vinton county. 
' 24. General section at Zaleski, Madison township, Vinton county. 



Section 25. 


a 


26. 


a 


27. 


u 


28. 


t 


29. 


tt 


30. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 245 

Sec. at Henry Packard's mill, Section 35, Knox township Vinton county. 
Sec. at George Brown's hill, Section 1, Richland township, Vinton county. 
Sec. on land of R. P. Stokely, Section 5, Jackson township, Vinton county. 
Sec. on land of Matthew Hanna, Section 9, Richland township, Vinton 

county. 
Sec. on land of Mr. Zeigler, Richland township, Vinton county. 
Sec. on land of Doctor Andrew "Wolfe, ("Speed place,") Section 16, Elk 

township, Vinton county. 



246 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

MAP II. 

VINTON AND JACKSON COUNTIES. 

Section 1. Sec. on land of Doctor Andrew Wolfe, Section 8, Elk township, Vinton 
county. 

" 2. Sec. on land of Austin Thompson, Section 16, Richland township, Vinton 
county. 

" 3. Sec. on land of Joseph Kaler, Sec. 8, Elk township, Vinton county. 

" 4. Sec. on land of E. P. Bothwell, Section 1, Richland township, Vinton county. 

" 5. Sec. on land of John Coil, Section 29, Richland township, Vinton county. 

" 6. Sec. on land of John S. Dillon, Section 17, Elk township, Vinton county. 

" 7. Sec. on land of Thomas B. Davis, one-half mile north-west of McArthur, 
Elk township, Vinton county. 

" 8. Sec. on land of John Huhn, Section 30, Elk township, Vinton county. 

" 9. Sec. on land of Vinton Furnace Co., Section 15, Elk township, Vinton 
county. 

" 10. Sec. on land of William Huggins, Section 14, Elk township, Vinton county. 

" 11. Sec. on land of William Gold, Section 22, Elk township, Vinton county. 

" 12. Sec. on land of Conrad Schmidt, Section 27, Elk township, Vinton county. 

" 13. Sec. on land of J. Shockey, Section 27, Elk township, Vinton county. 

" 14. Sec. at ore diggings, of P. McAllister, Vinton Furnace Station Elk town- 
ship, Vinton county. 

" 15. A combination section, Vinton Furnace lands, Madison township, Vinton 
county. 

" 16. Sec. near Vinton Furnace, Madison township, Vinton county. 

" 17. Sec. on land of Otho L. Marfield, Section 27, Elk township, Vinton county. 

" 18. Sec. on land of Richard Timms, McArthur Station, Clinton township, Vin- 
ton county. 

" 19. Sec. on land of Winthrop Sargeant's heirs, Vinton township, Vinton, county. 

" 20. Sec. of Maxville Limestone, Reed's mill, (Hamden), Clinton township, Vin- 
ton county. 

" 21. Sec. at Eakin's mill, Section 4, Vinton township, Vinton county. 

" 22. Sec. on land of William Craig, Section 8, Clinton township, Vinton county. 

" 23. Sec. on land of Ephraim Robbins, one-half mile west of Hamden, Washing- 
ton township, Jackson county. 

" 24. Sec. on land of Eagle Furnace, Section 33, Vinton township, Vinton county. 

'• 25. Sec. near railroad bridge, north-east of Hamden, Clinton township, Vinton 
county. 

" 26. Sec. near Hamden Furnace Company Section 21, Clinton township, Vinton 
county. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 247 



MAP III. 

JACKSON COUNTY. 

Section 1. Sec. on land of Lincoln Furnace Company, Section 35, Milton township, 

Jackson county. 
" 2. Sec. on land of H. F. Austin, Section 7, Milton township, Jackson county. 
" 3. " " _ Frank Scott, Section 33, Washington township, Jackson 

county. 
" 4. Sec. on land of Latrobe Furnace Company, Section 21, Milton township, 

Jackson county. 
" 5. Sec. on- land of Capt. B. F. Stearns, Section 19, Milton township, Jackson 

county. 
" 6. Sec. on land of Jacob Sells, Section 22, Washington township, Jackson county. 
" 7. " " Buckeye Furnace Company, Section 28, Milton township, 

Jackson county. 
" 3. Sec. of Conglomerate, Pigeon creek, Section 29, Washington township, 

Jackson eounty. 
" 9. See. on Pigeon creek, Section 29, Washington township, Jackson county. 
" 10. Sec. on land of Joseph Pheteplace, Section 13, Milton township, Jackson 

county. 
" 11. Sec. at Hartley's Mill, Seetion 24, Wilkesville township, Vinton county. 
" 12. Sec. of Conglomerate on Salt creek, Col. W. M. Bolles' land, Liberty town- 
ship, Jackson county. 
" 13. Sec. on land of W. H. Pearce, Section 7, Lick township, Jackson county. 
" 14. " " Mr. Hawk, Section 22, Wilkesville township, Vinton county. 

" 15. See. on Section 10, Wilkesville township, Vinton county. 
"" 16. See. in vicinity of above, Wilkesville township, Vinton county. 
" 17. Sec. on land of Samuel Anthony, Section 7, Lick township, Jackson county. 
" 18. " " " Charles McKinniss, Section 6, Lick township, Jackson county. 
" 19. " " George M. Parsons, " 6, " . u " 

" 20. " " Samuel Anthony, " 7, " " " 

" 21. See. at Bartlett's coal bank, Buffalo Skull creek, Lick township, Jackson 

county. 
" 22. Sec. at Downey's coal bank, B-offalo Skull creek, Lick township, Jackson 

county. 
" 23. Sec. on land of Mr. Lively, Seetion 10, Lick township, Jackson county. 
" 24. " " A.Brown, " 10, " " 

" 25. " " Petrea Coal Company, Lot 27, Lick township, Jackson 

county. 
■" 26. " " Charles Walden, Section 15, Lick township, Jackson county. 

" 27. " " Charles Walden, " " " 

" 28. Sec. near Young America Furna«e, Lot 3, Lick township, Jackson county. 
" 29. Sec. on land of John Hope, Section 8, " " " 

** 30. " " Mr. Haldeman, Lot 17, •" " " 

" 31. " " Mj. Van Fossan, Lot 13, " " " 

" 32. ■" " Mr. McKittxick, Lot 44, " " ' 



248 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

Sec. of Orange Furnace shaft, Jackson, Lick township, Jackson county. 

Sec. of slope of Kyle, Brown & Co., Jackson, " " " 

Sec. of Keystone Furnace Company, Section 12, Bloomfield township, Jack- 
son county. 

Sec. of Star Furnace shaft, Jackson, Lick township, Jackson county. 

Sec. on land of Keystone Furnace Company, Section 7, Huntington town- 
ship, Gallia county. 

Sec. of Fulton Furnace shaft, Jackson, Lick township, Jackson county. 

Sec. on land of Madison Furnace Company, Section 5, Madison township, 
Jackson county. 



Section 33. 


it 


34. 


tt 


35. 


it 


36. 


u 


37. 


a 


38: 


l< 


39. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. "249 

MAP IV. 

JACKSON, GALLIA, SCIOTO AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES. 

Section 1. Sec. on land of Monroe Furnace Company, Jefferson township, Jackson 
eounty. 
" 2. Sec. on land of Jefferson Furnace Company, Sec. 14, Jefferson township, 
Jackson county. 

3. Sec. on land of Enoch Canter, Sec. 24, Hamilton township, Jackson county. 

4. " " Jackson Gilliland, Sec. 26, Hamilton township, Jackson 
county. 

5. Sec. on land of Gallia Furnace Company, Sec. 16, Greenfield township, Gallia 
county. 

6. Sec. on Dry Ridge South-east Gallia Furnace, Greenfield township, Gallia 
township. 

7. Sec. on the land of Jackson Furnace .Company, Sec. 34, Hamilton township, 
Jackson county. 

8. Sec. on land of Henry Schump, Sec. 6, Bloom township, Scioto county. 

9. " " Jacob Webster, Sec. 19, Walnut township, Gallia county. 

10. " " Scioto Furnace Company, Sec. 10, Bloom township, Scioto 
county. 

11. Sec. on land of Scioto Furnace Company, Bloom township, Scioto county. 

12. " " Olive " " Sees. 34 and 35, Washington town- 
ship, Lawrence county. 

13. Sec. on land of Olive Furnace Company,Secs. 34 and 35, Washington town- 
ship, Lawrence county. 

14. Sec on land of Scioto Furnace Company, Sec. 28, Bloom township, Scioto 
connty. 

15. Sec. at Steven's cut., M. & C. R. R., Sec. 36, Harrison township, Scioto 
county. 

16. Sec. on land of Howard Furnace Company, Sec. 12, Vernon township, Scioto 
county. 

17. Sec. on land of Howard Furnace Company, Vernon township, Scioto eounty. 

18. Sec. on land of Harrison Furnace Company, Sec. 24, Clay township, Scioto 
county. 

19. Sec. on land of Harrison Furnace Company, Harrison township, Scioto 
county. 

20. Sec. on land of Empire Furnace Company, Vernon township, Scioto county. 

qj u u a a tt u 

22. on Sec. 6, Porter township, Scioto county. 

23. " " of Empire Furnace Company, Vernon township, Scioto county. 

24. " " Clinton Furnace Company, Sec. 25, Vernon township, Scioto 
county. 

25. See. on land of Buckhorn Furnace Company, Sec. 9, Decatur township, Law- 
re ace county. 



250 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 

Section 26. Sec. on land of Mt. Vernon Furnace Company, Sec. 22, Decatur township, 
Lawrence county. 

" 27. Sec. on land of Centre Furnace Company, Sec. 31, Decatur township, Law- 
rence county. 

" 28. Sec. on land of Lawrence Furnace Company, Sec. 16, Elizabeth township, 
Lawrence county. 

" 29. Sec. on land of Etna Furnace Company, Sees. 21 and 16, Elizabeth township, 
Lawrence county. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 251 



MAP V. 



SCIOTO AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES. 

Section 1. Sec. on land of Ohio Furnace Company, Green township, Scioto county. 

" 2. " Sec. 9, Lawrence township, Lawrence county. 

" 3. " land of Franklin Furnace, Lot 21, French Grant, Green township, 

Scioto county. 

" 4. Sec. on land of Elias Clark, Sec. 3, Lawrence township, Lawrence county. 

" 5. " Sec. 32, Aid township, Lawrence county. 

" 6. " Sec. 16, Upper township, Lawrence county. 

" 7. " Oak Ridge, Sec. 22, Aid township, Lawrence county. 

" 8. • " land of Pine Grove Fnrnace Compauy, Elizabeth township, Law- 
rence county. 

" 9. Sec. on Sec. 19, Mason township, Lawrence county. 

" 10. Sec. at Marion, Sec. 36, Aid township, Lawrence county. 

" 11. Sec. on land of New Castle Coal mines, Hamilton township, Lawrence 
county. 

" 12. Sec. at Rock Camp, Sec. 28, Perry township, Lawrence county. 

" 13. " " Vesuvius Furnace Company, Sec. '26, Elizabeth township, 

Lawrence county. 

" 14. Sec. on land of Hecla Furnace Company, Sec. 14, Upper township, Lawrence 
county. 

" 15. Sec. on land of Roswell Chatfield, Sec. 18, Perry township, Lawrence county. 

" 16. " " Mr. Howell, 1£ miles north Hecla Furnace, Upper township , 

Lawrence county. 

'' 17. Sec. on land of Stephen Chatfield, Sec. 17, Perry township, Lawrence county. 

" 18. Sec. opposite Ashland, Ky., Sec. 2, " " 

" 19.. Sec. on land of Mrs. Israel, Sec. 1, " " 

" 20. " Ohio river hills, Sec. 2, " " 

" 21. Sec. at Sheridan Coal Company's mine3, Sec. 18, Perry township, Law- 
rence county. 

" 22. Sec. on land of Mr. Bruce, Sec. 8, Perry township, Lawrence county. 

" 23. " Winters' hill, Sec. 8, " " 

" 24. Sec. at Greasy Ridge, Sec. 10, Mason township, Lawrence county. 

" 25. Sec. on land of William Haskins, Sec. 24, Mason township, Lawrence county ■ 

" 26. " Winters' hill, Sec. 8, Perry township, Lawrence county. 

" 27. " land of Esquire Keeny, f mile below Unionville, Union township 

Lawrence county. 

" 28. Sec. at Unionville, Union township, Lawrence county. 

'■ 29. Sec. on land of Mr. Keeny, Leatherwood creek, Sec. 6, Union township, Law- 
rence county.- 

" 30. Sec. on land of John Ferguson, Sec. 4, Fayette township, Lawrence county. 

" 31. " " Capt. Gillett, Sec. 22, Rome township, Lawrence county. 



PART III. 

THE GEOLOGY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY, 



BY EDWAED OETOK, 

ASSISTANT GEOLOGIST. 



Dr. J. S. NewbeKRY, Chief Geologist : 

Sie : — I beg leave to submit the following Report on the Geology of Highland County, 

and on the Cliff Limestone of Highland and Adams counties, as a contribution to the 

Report of Progress for 1870. 

My field-work, during the past year, was principally devoted to the eastern' counties 

of my district, the early part of the summer being spent in completing the outlines of 

the great formations for the geological map of the State, and the remainder of the 

season being spent in a detailed study of Highland and adjacent counties. 

With great respect, 

"Very truly yours, 

EDWARD ORTON, 

Assistant State Geologist, 

In charge of 3d District. 
February 26th, 1871, 






COUNTY 
OH TO . 



0° /c& 



a. ./. 







ROSS Co. 



PIKE Co. 



THE GEOLOGY OF HIGHLAND COUNTY. 



BY EDWABD ORTON, Assistant Geologist. 



CHAPTER I. 



Highland county is bounded on the north by Clinton and Fayette coun- 
ties, on the east by Boss and Pike, on the south by Adams and Brown, 
and on the west by Brown and Clinton. Its physical features and its agri- 
cultural capacities are very closely connected with the various rock-form - 
tions that underlie it. In these respects, it is in striking contrast with 
the counties immediately north of it, where the rocky floor of the country 
is so deeply covered with beds of drift as to be removed from any but 
the most general influence on the surface. 

Among the physical features of Highland county that are directly de- 
pendent on its rock-formations are these : the relative elevations of its 
various sections ; the nature of the surface, whether broken or level ; the 
kinds of vallesy which the streams have wrought, whether broad and 
shallow, or narrow and deep; the natural drainage,. whether prompt and 
efficient, or dilatory and inadequate.. When, in addition to these points, 
the soil itself is found dependent, in good measure, on the rocks for its 
constitution, it can be readily understood that a geological examination 
and report will involve a presentation of all the conspicuous geographical 
and agricultural features of the county. 

The geological series represented in Highland county is more extensive 
than is to be found in any other county of the State. Beginning with the 
upper beds of the Cincinnati group, the lowest and oldest of the rocks of 
Ohio, it includes the Clinton, Niagara and Helderberg limestones, the 
Huron shales, more familiarly known as the black slate, and the Wav- 
erly sandstone; By a comparison of this series with the tabular view of 
the rocks of the State, it will be seen that all of the great divisions of 
geological time which are represented in Ohio, find a place also in High- 
land county. These great divisions are, in ascending order, Lower Silur- 
ian, Upper Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous. To the Carboniferous 
series, the Waverly sandstone belongs, the Huron shale to the Devonian . 
the Helderberg, Niagara and Clinton limestone, are ©f Upper Silurian age, 



256 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

while the Cincinnati group represents the Lower Silurian. It is also 
worthy of note that this whole series can be traversed at certain points 
within the limits of the county in the space of four or five miles. The 
south eastern corner of Highland county and the northern and eastern 
portions of Adams county are the only sections of the State in which 
so concise an exhibition of its great formations is afforded, and these 
regions are therefore sure to become classic ground to students of the 
geology of Ohio. 

The maximum thickness of the above named formations within the 
limits of the county is approximately as follows. 

Feet. 

Cincinnati group * 100 

Clinton limestone 50 

Niagara series ^ 275 

Helderberg limestone 100 

Huron shale (black slate) 250 

Waverly Sandstone 100 

Total section 875 

The accompanying diagram — Figure'l — -is designed to represent to the 
eye this series of facts, but it must be understood that the section is ideal 
to this extent- — viz. : that there is no one point in the county where all 
the formations attain their maximum thickness. The Helderberg lime- 
stone, for instance, attains its maximum thickness at Greenfield. The 
Niagara series is in greatest force at Hillsboro and at the mouth of the 
Rocky Fork of Paint Creek. The maximum thickness of the Clinton 
limestone, again, is attained on the south-eastern border of the county. 
A number of actual sections, obtained in different portions of the county, 
will be found in the succeeding pages of this report. 

The strata of Highland county are nowhere horizontal, but uniformly 
slope to the eastward and northward — the dip sometimes amounting to 
25 feet to the mile. This fact is of fundamental importance in the geo- 
logical structure of this region, and needs to be kept constantly in view 
by all who would gain an intelligent comprehension of this structure. A 
stratum that enters the county on the westward, would, if followed to the 
eastern boundary, be found from 400 feet to 500 feet below the level at 
which it was first marked. For example, the grade of the railroad in the 
village of Lynchburg, on the western side of the county, is 1,001 feet 
above the sea-level, and the grade at Marshall Station, on the abandoned 
line of the Hillsboro & Cincinnati railroad eastward from Hillsboro, is 
1,011 feet above the same level. The geological position of Lynchburg i 
in the uppermost beds of the Cincinnati group, while Marshall is at, or 



GEOLOGICAL SUKVEY OF OHIO. ,257 

near the summit .of the Niagara series. Between these two points, in the 
geological scale of the county, there are interposed at least 300 feet of 
rocks, and yet Marshall has no greater elevation than Lynchburg. Its 
higher place in the geological scale is just counterbalanced by the east- 
ward dip of the strata. These facts are represented in the accompanying 
diagrams—Figure 2. 

In Figure 3, a general section of the formations of the county is repre- 
sented — such a section as would be obtained by passing from west to 
east across the county through Hillsboro. The section exhibits the suc- 
cession of the formations, their proportional breadth, and — in a gen- 
eral way — their dip and the varying elevations of the surface, but the 
figure possesses no minute degree of accuracy. The Blue limestone, or 
Cincinnati group, is represented as occurring in the western districts of 
the county, but it is seldom exposed there, as this whole region is buried 
under drift-beds. The subordinate divisions of the Niagara series are 
also represented in the diagram. A better understanding of this part of 
the illustration can be had when the detailed statement of the rocks of 
the county shall be given. 

An equally instructive section, involving all but one of the formations 
above enumerated, is obtained by passing across the county from south 
to north through Hillsboro. This section is represented in Figure 4. At 
the southern boundary of the county, the section crosses the valley of 
the West Fork of Brush creek — which has its bed at that point in the 
uppermost courses of the Blue limestone, or in the Medina shales. In 
passing northward, the Clinton limestone is left behind near the margin 
of the stream, but is met with once more in the deep excavation made 
by Bocky Fork — two miles south of Hillsboro. All of the high and 
broken country intervening between the valley of Brush creek and Sa- 
mantha — five miles north of Hillsboro — with the single exception already 
noted, belongs to the great Magara series. Indeed, by far the most ex- 
tensive and interesting exhibition of this formation to, be found in Ohio, 
occurs in the valleys and hills of the very section now under consid- 
eration. 

At Samantha — in the Burying Ground Hill-^the Helderberg limestone 
and the Huron shales are added to the formations already recognized — 
viz. : the Cincinnati group and the Clinton and Magara limestones — and 
between Samantha and Lexington an extensive, insulated mass of Hel- 
derberg limestone occurs, attaining a thickness at Lexington of at least 
75 feet. The islands of Huron shale' at Samantha, and that of Helder- 
berg limestone at Lexington, are, in both cases, the most westerly of all 
the .out-liers of the great formations to which they belong. The pitch of 
17 



258 GEOLOGICAL SUBYEY OP OHIO. 

the rocks to the northward is to be noted, but it does not nearly equal in 
amount the easterly dip previously described. The most easily marked 
fact under this head is that the limestone which forms the cliffs of Lea's 
creek at Lexington, is identical with the limestone on which the court- 
house at Hillsboro stands, showing a depression of the series between 
f certainly more than 100 feet. It is probable that this de. 
pression is mainly produced in the last five miles of its extension to the 
northward. 

The highest land of the county is found — not in the Hillsboro hills as 
is quite commonly believed — but upon the eastern border. There is a 
series of insulated summits here, along the margins of Eocky Fork, Brush 
creek and Sunflsh creek that show very like mountains and that are pop- 
ularly known under this designation. All of these summits belong to 
Brush Creek township. Barometrical measurements taken of several 
of the principal ones, indicate that Stults's Mountain and Fisher's 
Knob have the greatest elevation of any in the series. The barometer 
gave tP the former an elevation of 1,325 feet above tide-water — to the 
latter, about 20 feet less. The most trustworthy measurements obtained 
however, were those of Long Lick Mountain, just east of the village of 
Carmel, a recent turnpike survey made by H. L. Dickey, Esq., of the 
Marshall & Oynthiann road, giving a well-settled base near the foot of 
the mountain from which to work. This summit has an elevation above 
tide-water of 1,254 feet. Bapids Forge Mountain, in the north-eastern 
corner of the county, appears to be 100 feet lower than this — its height 
being about 1,150 feet. 

The falling off in the elevations of these summits as we move north- 
wards is due, not to a lesser height of the hills themselves, but to the 
depression of the general level of the country in that direction. A sec- 
tion of Bapids Forge Mountain, from the waters of Bocky Fork, gives 125 
feet of limestone, 250 feet of Huron shales, and 100 feet of Waverly 
shale and sandstone. This section is almost identical with that obtained 
in the ascent of Stults's Mountain from the waters of Brush creek. The 
difference of 150 feet in the total elevation is to be charged to the higher 
level of the bed of Brush creek above that of Bocky Fork, in the points 
named in the sections. 

It will thus be seen that Highland county cannot claim the highest land 
in the State. According to a table of elevations of different portions of 
the State, compiled and published several years since by Colonel Charles 
Whittlesey, the head-waters of the Scioto and Miami rivers, in Logan 
county, have an elevation of 1,344 feet above the sea. It is quite proba- 
ble that the hills around Bellefontaine, in the same county, have a still 



GEOLOGICAL STJRYEY OP OHIO. 259 

greater elevation. In the south-east corner of Bichland county a summit 
has been measured that is 1,389 feet above the sea-leveL 

A few levels, obtained from railroad or turnpike surveys in Highland 
county, are here appended. I am indebted to H. L. Dickey, Esq., by 
whom the recently ordered turnpike surveys of the county have princi- 
pally been made, for a statement of the elevations of the villages and 
other conspicuous points along these lines. Low-water mark of the Ohio 
river, at Cincinnati, being 432 feet above tide-water, according to Hum- 
phreys and Abbott — we have the grade of the railroad atHillsboro depot, 
1,054 feet above tide-water. The hill on which the court-honse stands is 
65 feet higher — Lilley's Hill, east of the town, is about 100 feet, and Col- 
lege Hill is 75 feet higher. This would then give the following elevations 
above the sea-level : 

Feet. 

Hillsboro depot - ... 1,064 

Court-house 1,129 

Lilley's Hill 1,165 

College Hill 1,140 

Lynchburg (B. E grade) 1,001 

Vienna " 1,117 

Summit between Vienna and Lexington (E. K. grade) 1,170 

Lexington (B. B. grade) 1,060 

Leasburg " 1,000 

Monroe " 938 

Greenfield " , — 883 

Samantha ,. 1,124 

Burying Ground Hill (near Samantha — by barometer) ,.,, 1,214 

DanviHe . .....,..,« 1,065 

Pricetown . .,....., 1,001 

Marshall , 1,031 

Carmel 939 

To this list may be appended the summits in Brush Creek township, 
already given: 

Feet. 

Strife's Mountain (barometric) 1,325. 

Fisher's Knob " 1,30ft 

FortHUl— by Locke, 1838, (barometric) 1,232. 

Bald Mountain or Slate Knob " 1,250 

Long Liek Mountain " 1,254 

Eapids Forge Mountain " 1,160 

The lowest elevations of the county are to be found in the valleys of 
the various branches of Brush creek, in Jackson and Brush Creek town- 
ships, on their southern boundary, and in the valley of Bocky Fork, in 
the north-eastern corner of the county — in Faint township. 



260 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

The surface of the county is divided into five quite well marked divis- 
ions which result from geological differences in the underlying rocks, but 
though originating in the varying rock formations of the county, it is by 
no means necessary that a person should have a knowledge of technical 
geology in order to recognize them. In fact, every observing man who 
is acquainted with the different sections of the county, has already learned 
to recognize them. 

Beginning on the western border, it will be found that Dodson, Salem, 
Clay, Hamer and White Oak townships, agree in all the general features 
of their surface. The townships of Union, Liberty, New Market, Wash- 
ington, Concord and Jackson in its western half— constitute a second 
division characterized by a like substantial agreement in general features. 

The third division consists of Penn, Fairfield, Madison and thenorthern 
part of Paint townships. 

Marshall with the western half of Brush creek and the eastern half of 
Jackson — constitutes the fourth. 

The eastern boundary of the county in Brush Creek and Paint town- 
ships, makes the fifth and last of these divisions. 

(1). The townships first named consist of low-lying lauds, with little 
variation of the surface, which holds a general level of 500 to 600 feet 
above low-water mark at Cincinnati, or of 930 to 1030 ft. above the sea. 
They are uniformly and quite heavily covered with clays of the Drift Series, 
which are generally white in color except When they have been blackened 
by swampy growths upon them at an earlier day. The main streams that 
pass across these tracts have a tolerably rapid flow, but there are many 
portions of the surface that hold, the water in wide but shallow basins. 
The marshy character of these regions is indicated by its present re- 
lations and especially by the kind of forest growth that it supports. The 
most abundant trees are the swamp white oak, ( Quercus prinus var. dis- 
color J, the swamp Spanish oak, (Quereus palustris), and the swamp maple, 
(Acer rubrum). They constitute generally the poorer and less inviting por- 
tions of the county, not from any original lack of the elements necessary 
for vegetable growth, but because they demand a more skillful tillage than 
in the main they have received. The one indispensable condition of their 
fertility is the abundant presence of organic matter in the soil, but the 
system of farming to which they have been subjected has robbed the soil 
of its original supply and done nothing to renew this supply. 

This division may be styled the Blue Limestone land of the county, as 
all the townships above named are underlain by this formation. The prin- 
cipal influence that the rock has in determining the physical geography of 
this region is found in the fact that is furnishes a level floor for the de- 
posits that cover it. It takes but very little part in the formation of the 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 261 

soil itself. The peculiarities of the soil in this district mast be referred to 
some peculiar source. Such a source can be found in the Xiagara Shales 
that must have been very largely removed iu the region environing that 
now under consideration. 

(2.) The second division named, which embraces the central regions of 
the county, consists, essentially of a plateau from 600 feet to 700 feet 
above low water mark at Cincinnati, or from 1,030 feet to 1,130 feet above 
the sea. It consitutes the principal water shed of the county. A part of 
its drainage is delivered to the Miami by the East Fork, another part by 
White Oak creek to the Ohio, a third part to the Ohio, by Brush creek, 
and a fourth to the Scioto, by the Rocky Pork of Paint Greek. All these 
various streams have cut deep and wide valleys for themselves, which in 
many cases approach each other so closely from different directions as to 
leave but small portions of the plateau remaining in the insulated sum- 
mits of the district. These summits are commonly known as hills. The 
village of Hillsboro is located on one of these remnants of the plateau. 
To reach it from any direction but the westward, it is necessary to 
traverse the deep valleys, by which it is on every side surrounded. The 
western boundary of the plateau is, in general, quite abrupt. It rises 
precipitously from the Blue limestone plain, already described by a 
range of hills at least 100 feet in height. These hills are the first out- 
crop of the Cliff limestone, an entirely different formation from that 
represented in the preceding division. 

The agricultural characteristics of the lands embraced in this division 
are varied. The wide bottom-fends of the Bocky Fork and Clear creek, 
constitute as valuable farms as are found in the county, while the slopes 
and summits of the hills present all gradations from strong and fertile 
soils, abundantly rewarding the labors of husbandry to the barren up- 
lands around Fairfax, where from 5 to 8 bushels of wheat and from 20 
to 30 bushels of corn, constitute an average yield. Some of these up- 
lands present ng with the first considerable examples of native soils that 
are to be met with, in passing southward through Ohio. The most 
northerly of these areas in which the soil is formed in situ by the decom- 
position of the underlying rock, is Chapman's Hill, on the New Market 
and Danville road — 6 or 7 miles south-west from Hillsboro. These soils 
consist of red or chocolate colored clays, generally but 4 or 5 feet in depth 
and gradually merging into the unbroken rock. An analysis made by Dr. 
TVormley, Chemist of the Survey, of a sample obtained in the vicinity of 
Hillsboro, gives the following results : 



262 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Of OHIO. 

Organic matter 9.80 

Silica 47.84 

Alumina 31.26 

Iron, Besqnioxide 5.84 

Lime, phosphate 56 

Lime, carbonate 2.94 

Magnesia " 1.20 

Potash and soda 96 

100.40 

This analysis shows them to be rich in the essential elements of vege- 
table growth — a conclusion abundantly sustained by the rank and varied 
forest growth that originally covered them, and by the generous harvests 
that they at present yield. The large proportion of phosphate of lime 
and also of potash and soda, will be particularly noted. It may give sur- 
prise that in a soil formed from the decomposition of limestone rock, 
there should be found no more than 4 or 5 per cent, of the carbonates of 
lime and magnesia ; but in explanation of this fact, it is only needful to 
remember that these substances are soluble in rain-water, which is there- 
fore constantly engaged in removing them to a lower level. 

These Cliff limestone soils are much better adapted . to fruit growing 
than the most of the drift soils of the county, as in addition to the ele- 
ments of fertility already mentioned, they are naturally and efficiently 
underdrained, at least, through a large part of their extent, and their sit- 
uation renders them less liable to the late frosts in the spring, than the 
low-lands around them. 

(3.) The third division, comprising the northern portions of the county, 
is made up of lands lying at a high level, a considerable part of them be- 
ing higher than the Hillsboro plateau, as the table of elevations pre- 
viously given, shows. This district does not differ from the second so 
much in the nature of its underlying rocks as in the fact that its valleys 
have been filled and its rough places made smooth by the great deposits 
of the drift that have been spread over its entire surface. The cliff lime- 
stones of the Magara and Helderberg groups constitute the rocky sub- 
stratum of this district. The streams that traverse these limestones, have 
wrought in them narrow gorges which furnish admirable sections of the 
the strata involved and which are often picturesque to a high degree. 
The valley of Paint creek on the eastern boundary of the county furnishes' 
with its tributaries, numerous illustrations of this agency, the most 
noteworthy of which is, perhaps, the gorge of Eocky Fork. This 
stream is an important element in the geography of the county and it also 
exhibits its geology most satisfactorily. It is bedded in rock from its 
source to its mouth and in its banks and bordering cliffs it discloses every 



GEOLOGICAL SUETKY OP OHIO. 263 

foot of the great Niagara formation of the county. Due south of Hills- 
boro, it has cut its valley down to the Clinton limestone, on which it runs 
for several miles, but as the strata fall more rapidly to the eastward than 
the stream descends, it has been made to intersect higher and still higher 
members of the Magara series, until at its month it has reached the 
very summit of the system, and the structure of these upper beds, it 
reveals in a gorge whose vertical walls are 90 feet high and the width 
of which is scarcely more than 200 feet Certain portions of this 
limestone, weather and dissolve more easily than the rest and have been 
carried away in considerable quantity, leaving overhanging cliffs and re- 
ceding caves along the lines of its outcrop. The caves and gorge of 
Rocky Fork are notable places of resort for the country around and with 
very good reason, as the scenery is the most striking and beautiful of its 
kind in south-western Ohio. Its claims upon our interest in its geological 
relations are also quite as great as in any other direction. From the 
bottom of the gorge near the house of James Plummer, a very concise 
and satisfactory section can be obtained, extending to the summit of 
Eapids Fork Mountains. The section gives in ascending order : 

Feet. 

Niagara limestone 120 

Huron shale 230 

"Waverly shale and sandstone 100 

450 

The limestone abounds in very interesting fossils. The great bivalve 
shell, Megalomus Canadensis, is especially abundant, as are also large 
univalve shells, all of which can be obtained to good advantage in the 
cliffs near Ogle's distillery. 

The lands of this division are the most valuable for agricultural pur- 
poses in the county, the bottom lands of the main valleys alone being 
excepted. Its quarries also, which are wrought in the even bedded Hel- 
derberg limestone, are by far the most valuable in the county and indeed 
are among the valuable quarries of the State. 

(4.) The fourth district has been described as composed of Marshall 
township, with the eastern half of Jackson and the western half of Brush 
creek. To this area may be added also the southern portion of Paint 
township. It is less definitely characterized than either of the other dis- 
tricts, and, perhaps, scarcely deserves a separate place in the surface dis- 
tricts of the county. Still it is hard to see with which of the areas already 
named it could be properly united. Its lands lie lower than those of any 
other section of the county, except the Blue Limestone division. With 



264 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

this region it generally agrees in this particular ; without, however, sharing 
in its monotonous uniformity of surface. It agrees in geological forma- 
tions with the 2d and 3d districts, the only bedded rocks that are met 
with, belonging to the Niagara series. The easterly dip of the strata of 
the county, however, has brought down the upper and firmer members of 
this group to a level lower by 150 feet or 200 feet than they possess in the 
neighborhood of Hillsboro. 

These, then, are the leading peculiarities of the fourth division, an alti- 
tude of less than 1,000 feet above the sea, with a firmrncky floor; which, 
combined with the low elevation, secures comparatively shallow valleys. 
The drift deposits are nowhere very heavy and almost disappear to the 
southward. The land varies greatly in productiveness, but may be said, 
on the whole, to give good returns, when the system of agriculture here 
pursued is taken into account. 

(5.) The fifth district comprises the hills of Brush Creek and Bocky 
Fork, which rise abruptly from the limestones last named, all along the 
eastern border of the county. These hills have an altitude of 400 feet or 
500 feet above the lowlands that surround them. Their bases consist of 
Niagara limestone, upon which 250 feet of Huron shale Js deposited, the 
summits holding 100 feet of Waverly shales and sandstone. These sum- 
mits crowd hard upon the highest lands of the State, some of them being 
more than 1,300 feet above the sea level, as has been previously men- 
tioned. 

Marked differences in forest vegetation immediately connect themselves 
with these differences in geological structure, the chestnut and chestnut- 
oak holding on from the eastward persistently to the very edge of the 
slates, but not one passing this limit, unless by a very rare exception. 

From the summit of these hills, wide and beautiful views can be had of 
the central regions of the county, and the hills themselves in turn furnish 
a notable feature in the scenery when viewed from the Hillsboro hills, or 
from anywhere along the central line of the county. 

The leading physical features of the county have now been pointed out, 
but they will come into clearer light as the detailed description of the 
rocks proceeds. Before entering upon this subject, however, it will be 
proper to briefly characterize the Drift deposits of the county. 

There are some facts which give unusual interest to the Drift of this 
section of the State. Highland county evidently constitutes the southern 
limit of this great formation, the boundary beyond which its glaciers, at 
least, did not advance. The northern half of the county shares in "the 
general features which the Drift confers upon the northern and cen- 
tral portions of Ohio. It makes the beginning of the great plain which 



GEOLOGICAL StTEYET OP OHIO. 265 

stretches northward from this region to the lakes. Its roeky floor is 
always covered and often most effectually hidden from observation. 

The southern half of the county, however, takes its place with the States 
south of the Ohio river. Its valleys have been invaded, to some extent, 
it is true, by the gravels and bowlders of the north, but its upland soils 
are in part, at least, composed of the weathered rocks which they cover, 
and where the drift clays occur, they are always shallow. The table land 
that originally constituted its surface has been intersected by deep val- 
leys, the precipitous descent to which is over the uncovered edges of the 
rocks. 

The Drift formations of Highland county agree in general characters 
with the formations of this series throughout southwestern Ohio. They 
belong, principally, to the modified Drift, the stratification of the series 
proving unmistakably its deposition in water. There is proof, however, 
that the glacial sheet itself, to which as a producing cause, the most 
important of the Drift phenomena are to be ascribed, advanced within the 
limits of Highland county. The polishing and grooving of the rocks that 
constitutes so distinct and unequivocal an indication of the former exis- 
tence of glaciers over all the northern regions of the continent, are found 
also in Highland county. 

A- significant example of this occurs on the line of the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad, a half mile east of Lexington Station. A cut at this point brings 
the railroad grade down to the floor of the rock, which is found to be pol- 
isned and scored. Immediately south, a conical limestone hill of the Hel- 
derberg formation, rises 75 feet above the railroad track and at about the 
same distance below, to the northward, the cliffs of the Niagara limestone 
in Lea's Creek are found. This polished portion of the rock there occurs 
half way up the northern slope of the hill. It seems fair to presume that 
the whole surface of the slope has been subjected to this agency. It is 
one of those cases which glacier movement only can adequately explain. 
This is the most southerly example of this action noted in the county. 
Other exhibitions of it are afforded on the Helderberg limestone of Paint 
Creek, in the vicinity of Greenfield. 

Beds of blue clay constitute the oldest of the Drift deposits in the 
county. They are, however, often wanting, the face of the rock being 
directly covered with white, yellow or black clays, or with gravel, but in 
sections where the different formations are represented, the blue clay 
always forms the base of the series. It contains more or less scratched peb- 
bles and bowlders of northern origin. 25b section has yet been met with in 
which more than 20 feet of the blue clays are found. Indeed, they are but 
seldom struck in the wells of the county, as they generally constitute, where 



266 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

they occur, the water bearing stratum, so that it is not needful to go 
below their surface for water supply. 

A fact of great interest in this connection, in, that the uppermost beds 
of the blue clay give proof of having been a soil in their earlier history. 
They are discolored by vegetable mould and mingled with their substance, 
are found quantities of leaves, branches, roots and tree-trunks. In some 
districts of the county, this forest soil seems everywhere present. It was 
met with, in one instance, in the wells that were dug on four adjacent or 
closely contiguous farms. In the village of Marshall, eleven wells out of 
about twenty that have been dug there, are known to have reached this 
stratum of vegetable matter. In some instances the water that is found 
at this horizon is so impregnated with the decomposing products as to be 
unfit for use. 

The presence in this buried soil of leaves of existing species of forest 
trees is vouched for by many careful and well-informed observers. These 
leaves are identified as those of sycamore, hickory, beech, etc. But by 
far the largest portion of the wood that comes to light is coniferous and 
is commonly pronounced to be red-cedar. 

The depth at which the forest soil is met with varies from 10 to 90 feet, 
but in a large majority of the cases it will be found to be between 20 and 30 
feet. It is much more frequently met with on the high plateaus than in 
the valleys. 

It thus appears that after the surface of the country had been scored 
and scoured by the advancing glacier, after it had been covered with 
the unstratified blue clay which was formed from the melting of the gla- 
cial sheet, it became again the abode of life. The vegetation that had 
been pushed southward in the 'previous stages of this history, return- 
ed and established itself over the continent once more. It would certainly 
seem that a long time would be necessary for the extension of this vegetation 
over the stubborn clay. But by the addition of leaves and roots, the clay 
is gradually converted into a soil, upon which the low-growing forests of 
cedar are borne and upon this southern border, other trees are now ap- 
pearing, such for example as the sycamore and beech, the names of which 
have been already mentioned. The blue clay — by exposure to the air, 
became weathered in its upper portions into yellow clay and when the 
continent sunk once more under the water, the materials of its former sur- 
face were rearranged and redistributed into the various strata, sand, 
gravel, yellow or white clay that overlie the first named beds. 

A stratum of sand is quite uniformly found in close proximity to the 
surface of the blue clay and its contact with the impervious beds beneath 
determines the water supply that has already been named as occurring 
here. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 267 

No definite order obtains for the deposits that follow the bine clay, bat 
in general terms it may be said that the heavy beds of gravel and the 
bowlders, are the most recent of the series. The gravel beds do not extend 
to the southward mnch beyond the parallel of Hillsboro. A noticeable ex- 
ample is met with one mile south of this place on the Belfast pike, and still 
another on the same east and west line, on the Danville pike. The southern- 
most noted is in the vicinity of Berry ville. The gravel of this region is 
more largely composed of limestone pebbles than the gravel found further 
nrrth, in Greene and Montgomery counties for instance, and a good deal 
of it is made up of limestones so soft that they are but poorly adapted to 
road making. It is often cemented into large masses of conglomerate 
through the partial solution and reprecipitation of some of its limestone 
pebbles. Bain-water is competent to effect the solution of limestone and 
the exposure of the dissolved rock to the air, causes it to be thrown down 
as a limestone cement once more. Bowlders are scattered through the 
valleys as far as the south line of the county — but in steadily decreasing 
numbers as we go southward. 

On account of the lack of gravel, all turn-pikes south of Hillsboro are 
mainly constructed of broken stone. In the northern portions of the 
county, the supply of gravel is abundant for road making and is always 
brought into requisition for this purpose. 

The various rock formations of the county will next be considered. 

I. No extended account will here be given of the lowest of these forma- 
tions, viz: the Cincinnati or Blue Limestone group, the only Lower 
Silurian formation in the county, as it is the only one in the State. Only 
the uppermost fifty to one hundred feet of the Cincinnati rocks are found 
in Highland county, and the whole formation can be treated to better 
advantage as a unit, in the discussion of the geology of those counties 
where a large exposure of it, vertical and horizontal, is met with. It 
is shown only in the western and southern sides of the county, and there it 
is entirely confined to the deepest valleys. It can be seen, with its char- 
acteristic fossils, in the bed of Turtle creek, near Lynchburg; in the 
branches of White Oak creek, in the four south-western townships of the 
county ; and best of all, in the" various branches of Brush creek, on the 
extreme southern border of the county. 

The termination of the series is precisely the same here as in the more 
northern counties, where the junction of the Lower and Upper Silurian 
rocks is to be observed. 

Prom ten to twenty teet of red shales, containing few or no traces of life, 
but principally of sedimentary origin^ overlie the fossiliferous beds — at least 
at frequent intervals — through the whole extent of this boundary from the 
Indiana line to the Ohio river. A characteristic example of these red 



268 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

shales can be seen in the banks of Brush creek, at Belfast, immediately 
below the mill. 

Where the shales are wanting, their place in the series is supplied by 
sandy or shaly limestones. These are occasionally massive in their bed- 
ding, but are seldom reliable for building purposes, as they cannot endure 
the action of frost. The abutments of the bridge at the first crossing of 
Brush creek, south of Belfast, on the turnpike, belong to this horizon. 
They have been in place but a year or two, and their durability has not, 
therefore, been sufficiently tested, but it may be affirmed that if they are 
found reliable they will make an exception to the general character of the 
strata from which they were taken. 

These upper beds of the Cincinnati group have been provisionally refer- 
red to the Medina sandstone, as they agree with it in stratigraphical 
position, and, to some extent, in lithological characters. The crowning 
test, however, of identity of fossils is still lacking. 

II. The Clinton limestone follows next in ascending order. . In its most 
characteristic forms, it varies in composition from eighty-four per cent, to 
ninety-three per cent, of carbonate of lime. The carbonate of magnesia 
never exceeds, and seldom reaches, twelve per cent. It does not every- 
where retain the characteristics of the formation as described in the 
Beport of the Geology of Montgomery County. It has a greater thick- 
ness in Highland than in Montgomery county — its maximum to the south- 
ward being fifty feet, and its average perhaps thirty-five feet. It is here 
as elsewhere — for the most part an uneven bedded rock — but occasionally 
valuable building stone can be obtained from it, as at the quarries of 
David Wilkin, south-west from Hillsboro. 

It remains, as in its more northern exposures, largely a crinoidal lime- 
stone, and hand specimens can be gathered that are not to be distinguished 
in any way from the Clinton rock of Montgomery, Greene or Preble coun- 
ties, just as the latter cannot be distinguished from the Clinton limestone 
of Western New York. It often happens, however, that there are no 
fossils present to reveal the precise origin of the rock. 

It is generally much richer in iron than in the counties northward, and 
adds to the formation in Ohio this well-marked and constant characteris- 
tic of the Clinton group in other localities. It is well known that in New 
York, in Canada, in Wisconsin, in Alabama, and elsewhere, this formation 
yields ores of iron, some of them being of excellent quality, as the "fossil 
ore " of Central New York, the " flax-seed ore " of Wisconsin, and the 
'' dye-stone ore " of Alabama. There are several points in Highland county 
where the Clinton limestone passes into a light iron ore, which is some- 
times oolitic in structure, or made up of small rounded grains, as the most 
of the ores already named have been found to be. The bed of Eocky 



GEOLOGICAL SUK.VET OF OHIO. 269 

Fork, soath of Hillsboro, may be cited as furnishing an example of this 
impure ore. An outcrop of the Clinton formation, however, in the vicinity 
of Sinking Spring, just south of the Highland county line, discloses a 
true Clinton, ore. It is found on the land of Nimrod Conaway and on 
some adjoining farms, and seems to be in considerable quantity. An 
analysis by Dr. Wormley, shows it to contain over 30 per cent, of metallic 
iron — 48 per cent, of carbonate of lime, and the moderate proportion, for 
a fossil ore, of 1.28 per cent, of phosphoric acid. 

Clinton ore, quite similar to this in physical properties and chemical 
constitution, is now brought into the State in large amount from Oneida 
county, New York, to be used in the smelting furnaces of Northern Ohio. 
Its composition, as will be observed, fits it to answer the double purpose 
of ore and flux, and it is particularly valued for use in combination with 
the heavy ores of Lake Superior and Iron Mountain. 

It seems certain that attention will be tamed to this native supply — 
the more especially as the newly-adopted line ol the Chesapeake & Ohio 
Railway runs within three miles of the location here noted. Nor is it to 
be doubted that other points will be found in the vicinity, containing 
equally valuable supplies of ore. 

The Clinton limestone constitutes in Adams county the " Flint* lime- 
stone " of Dr. Locke, so named by him lecause of the presence of cherty 
concretions in a certain portion of the series. This, however, is not a 
universal or even a general characteristic of the rock in Ohio. The Niagara 
limestone might be called, with equal propriety, in some of its beds, a 
flinty limestone, and it will be remembered that the Corniferous limestone 
really derived its name from the abundance of hofnstone (Latin — cornu — 
a horn) in its composition. But the silicious layers of Adams county are 
also found in Highland, in its southern limits. An exposure of them, 
very similar to Dr. Locke's typical section on Lick Fork, is found just 
south of Belfast in the banks of Brush creek. 

The Clinton limestone has scarcely a more extensive development in 
the county than the Cincinnati group which it covers. It is found in the 
southern and western sections of the county only. A single exception — 
but a very interesting and instructive one — occurs in an exposure of the 
rock in Liberty township, to which allusion has already been made. It 
is met with in the bed of Kocky Fork, two miles due south of Hillsboro, 
where the Bipley pike crosses the stream. From this point the stream is 
bedded in Clinton limestone for several miles, as far as Bisher's dam on 
the Belfast pike. This exposure gives an excellent and well-settled base 
from which to work in detennining the order of the extensive and com- 
plicated series with which it is there involved. 

A very interesting fact in the Clinton limestone of Highland county 



270 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

remains to be mentioned. A bed of limestone conglomerate, several feet 
in thickness, occurs near the base of the series in the southern part of the 
county. But a single exposure of the conglomerate has yet been noted. 
This is found one mile due west of Belfast, on the Belfast and Fairfax road, 
on the land of Charles Dalyrymple. The pebbles that compose the con- 
glomerate appear to have been derived from the Blue limestone or Cincin- 
nati rocks. The conglomerate is also fossiliferous, well-worn forms of 
ancient life being incorporated with it. The fossils can be referred either 
to the Cincinnati or Clinton group, as they consist of forms that are com- 
mon to both formations, viz : cyathophylloid corals of the genus Streptel- 
asma and the remarkable fossil — Orthis lynx — a bivalve shell of immense 
vertical range, as is shown by its occurrence in the Trenton, Hudson 
(Cincinnati), Clinton and Niagara limestones of the Lower and Upper 
Silurian ages, successively. It seems more probable, however, that the 
fossils in question were derived from Clinton seas rather than from the 
waste of rocks of a previous age. 

The occurrence of this conglomerate attests the existence of lard neai 
by — the shores of which were wasted by the sea, and the water- worn and 
rounded fragments of which, were re-deposited on the floor of the sea. 
Since the first systematic study of the geology of the Mississippi Valley, 
proofs have been accumulating" that a Silurian island stretched north- 
eastward from Nashville, toward and beyond Cincinnati. Highland 
county furnishes its full quota of facts as to the existence, and as to cer- 
tain of the boundaries of this ancient land. Other facts will be adduced 
that bear upon this point in the description of the remaining formations 
of the county. The 'date of the uplift of this island is approximately de- 
termined by the fact already quoted — as land at the westward is found in 
existence, early in the history of Clinton time. This folding of the crust, 
then, that transformed a portion of the ancient sea-bottom into dry land, 
probably occurred about the close of Lower Silurian time, and it seems 
also safe to say that it not only marks the date, but furnishes the pro- 
ducing cause .of the great change in the formation that then took place. 
The Medina shales may be referred to the sediments that settled in seas, 
disturbed by igneous agencies — the long-continued life of the preceding 
periods being exterminated in this region by the shallowing waters, as 
the low mountain chain emerges. 

III. The Niagara series comes next in ascending order, by far the most 
important formation of the county, both in vertical and horizontal range. 
The total thickness of its beds is not less than 275 feet, or if the maxi- 
mum development of its 5th member should be counted, which is found 
in but a single section, the aggregate thickness of the series would reach 
325 feet, and it is the surface rock for more than three-fourths of the area 



GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY OF OHIO. 271 

of the county. To the various divisidns of the Niagara group and their 
relations to each other, the most noticeable of the geographical features of 
the county, to which attention has already been called, are due. It will 
be remembered that in the description of these geographical features, 
frequent reference was made to the different beds of Niagara rock, that 
characterize the different districts. The Niagara series of Highland 
county, as has before been claimed, constitute by far the most interesting 
and extensive development of this great formation in Ohio. There is 
but one modification of the series found in the State, which does not ap- 
pear here, and for this modification, a distinct equivalent is furnished, 
while the most of the divisions elsewhere recognized, are fully doubled in 
the Highland county section, and one element is added as a unique con- 
tribution to the Niagara scale. 

By reference to Fig. 1st in which a tabular view of the series of the 
county is given, it will be seen that the formation in question, consists of 
the following members, in ascending order : 

1. Dayton stone. 

2. Niagara shale. 

3. West Union or Lower Cliff. 

4. Springfield stone or Bine Cliff. 

5. Cedarville guelph limestone. 

6. Hillsooro sandstone. 

These various divisions do not all appear in any one section, except in 
the immediate vicinity of Hillsboro. Here in a series of admirable ex- 
posures, the whole structure of this great formation is exhibited. It is 
true that these divisions do not, in scarcely any case, attain their maxi- 
mum thickness at this point, as the greatest vertical measurement obtained 
here does not exceed 200 feet, bnt within five miles of Hillsboro, every kind 
of rock that the Cliff limestone of the county contains, is to be seen, and 
what is of no small importance, is to be seen in its relations to the other 
members of the group. In an article preceding this, in the present re- 
port, on " The Cliff Limestones of Highland and Adams counties," one of 
the sections obtained near Hillsboro, is described at considerable length, 
viz. : the section from the bed of Bocky Fork, at Bisher's dam, to the 
summit of Lilley's hill, a half mile east of Hillsboro. This is, on the whole, 
the clearest and most nearly complete section of the Niagara series to be 
found, not only in the county, but even in the State. Every one of the 
members above enumerated, appears in it most distinctly. (See Fig. 6th.) 

1. In treating the Clinton.limestone, it was stated that an exposure of 
it near Hillsboro, furnishes a convenient and well-settled base from 



272 GEOLOGICAL STJKVEY OP OHIO. 

which to work in determining the order of the heavy deposits that overlie 
it. This exposure, in fact, furnishes the base of the section now under con- 
sideration. A few feet of the Dayton stone, the lowest member of the 
Niagara group, in Montgomery county, are found directly over it, true to 
the original in chemical composition, and in all its characteristics, except 
that its courses are too thin to make it a valuable deposit. 

2. The next division is the Niagara shale. It does not exceed 60 feet 
in thickness in the vicinity of Hillsboro ; but near lielfast, sections can 
be found holding 100 feet. The "Great Marie Stratum » of Dr. Locke, is 
the Niagara shale. At West Union, it has a thickness according to his 
measurements, of 106 feet. 

It has been found that the Niagara period was almost everywhere a 
shale-making period in its earlier history. The Falls of Niagara — where 
this great limestone is exposed in a fine natural section — not only show 
the presence of this shale, but depend upon it and its relations to the 
firm beds above it, for their existence. It has a thickness at the Falls of 
80 feet, but to the southward — along the Appalachian range — the enor- 
mous accumulation of 1,500 feet is disclosed. 

The shale of New York is crowded with the relics of the life of the 
seas in which it was deposited. In Oiiio, this formation is not highly 
fossiliferous, nor are their forms distinctly preserved — but enough remains 
to warrant us in saying that the same varieties of living things that the 
eastern seas contained were distributed through the western extension of 
the Niagara sea. It is a matter of regret that the fossils of the Niagara 
limestone of Ohio have not yet been systematically studied. There are 
several new species, and probably some new genera, in the specimens 
already collected for the State Cabinet. It is impossible to give more 
than the generic names of the forms that occur, until such an examina- 
tion is made. 

The composition of the shale in Highland county is substantially indi- 
cated in the following analysis, made by Prof. Wormley : 



Silicious matter 78.00 

Alumina and iron 3.20 

Lime, carbonate 11.40 

Magnesia, carbonate • 6.50 

99.10 

A specimen of the Niagara shale from Greene county gives very different 
results, as shown in the following analysis : 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 273 

Silica 12.21 

Alumina and traces of sesquioxide of iron 8.40 

Lime, silicate 8.48 

Lime, carbonate • 34.42 

Magnesia, carbonate 30.87 

Water combined - - 5.40 

99.78 

A shaly limestone of thin, fragile course's, valueless for all useful ap- 
plications, frequently takes the place of the shale, appearing in all the 
exposures of this horizon north of Hillsboro, within the limits of the 
county. It is also occasionally seen to the southward, in Highland and 
Adams counties. 

The physical geography of the county has been greatly modified by the 
presence of this element in its geological series, and modified generally 
to advantage for human occupation. Where the elevation of the land is 
such that the streams have cut through the strata overlying the shale, the 
valleys have been made comparatively broad, and have furnished suitable 
basins for receiving the latest of the drift deposits or alluvial formations. 
These valleys now constitute the most fertile districts of the county. The 
valleys of Rocky Fork and its main tributaries, near Hillsboro, and for 
five or sis miles to the eastward, are examples of this action. When the 
easterly dip of the strata brings down the firm and heavy limestones of 
the upper part of the Niagara formation, so that the streams are obliged 
to work out their channels in them, the valleys are contracted within 
very narrow limits. Eocky Fork shrinks from a broad and fertile valley 
— nearly a mile in width at some points near Hillsboro — to a narrow 
gorge, across which a stone can be tossed, at its mouth — and this, too, 
after its volume has been increased many fold. Ho more striking illus- 
tration of the connection of Geology with Geography and Agriculture 
can readily be found than the valley of Eocky Fork exhibits. 

The upper surface of the shale is marked by the presence of strong 
springs, as all the conditions required for such springs are manifestly 
fulfilled in the relations of its impervious beds to the porous cliff above it. 

The analysis already given of its chemical constitution does not indi- 
cate that soils formed from it would be characterized by sterility — nor 
yet does it warrant any great expectation of fertility. It seems probable 
that a large part of the white Drift clays, in the south-western district of 
the county, were originally derived from Niagara shale, stripped from the 
region northward by glacial denudation. If this be the principal source 
of these clays, they still received, in the process of deposition, accessions 
of other materials, so as to give them greater variety than an undivided 
origin of this sort would confer. 
18 



274 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

3. By referring again to the geological scale of the county, it will Le 
observed that a rock styled the " Lower Cliff," or " West Union Cliff," 
conies next in ascending order. 

It is a very widely-spread and important member of the Cliff limestone 
— covering a considerably larger area than either of the divisions that 
succeed it. It is to be seen in the numberless exposures through the 
central and southern regions of the county. It can be studied to excel- 
lent advantage in the typical section of Bisher's dam, where it forms the 
first line of cliffs in ascending the hill. At this point, it measures 45 
feet. To the southward, it is reinforced. It is- Dr. Locke's " Cliff lime- 
stone " of Adams county — to which he assigns a thickness of 89 feet at 
West Union. 

Near Hillsboro, and indeed in most localities, it consists of a yellowish, 
impure magnesian limestone. An analysis by Dr. Wormley, of a typical 
specimen taken from the vicinity of Hillsboro gives the following results : 



Siliaous matter 2.60 

Alumina and iron ^ 3.20 

Lime — carbonate 62.60 

Magnesia — carbona'te 31.32 

Total 99.72 



The stone is rather massive than even-bedded in its appearance, 
though in quarrying it can be generally raised in rough courses of 6, 8 
or 10 inches. Where other building rock is wanting, it is turned to 
some economical ' account, as it is quite durable and almost always easy 
of access. It weathers easily, and gives rise to most of the native soils 
of the county, that have been already described. It abounds in fossils, 
but generally they are poorly preserved, as internal casts. The forms 
most frequently met are bivalve shells of the genera Atrypa, Merista and 
Spirifera. A variety of the Lower Cliff, however, is found in New Market 
township, along its western outcrop, that differs from the common expos- 
ures of the rock in several particulars. It is darker colored, and obviously 
contains a larger proportion of carbonate of lime. It is charged also with 
admirably preserved fossils. The best point at which to examine it is at 
the quarries of James Sanderson, on the Danville pike. A beautiful 
species of Merista is abundant here. Spirifera Niagarensis and Stropho- 
mena depressas — both fossils of the Niagara at the east — also occur, and 
fragments of a Niagara genus of trilobites — Dalmania. 

4. The Lower Cliff is succeeded by the "Blue Cliff," or Springfield 
stone, a persistent and well marked member of the series in this region. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 275 

The best exposures of it near Hillsboro are along the abandoned line 
of the Hillsboro and Cincinnati Bailroad. The cats at Academy Hill 
and on Col. Trimble's land give sections of 20 to 30 feet, in which all the 
details of stratification can be studied. The quarry of Col. Collins, the 
section on Ambrose's Hill, along the recently constructed Danville pike, 
the quarries just south of the Oakland Seminary, afford almost equally 
favorable opportunities for its examination. It constitutes a natural 
pavement for portions of several streets in Hillsboro, and is met with 
abundantly throughout the central and eastern districts of the county. 
Its usual thickness is 45 feet. Indeed, no marked deviation from this 
thickness has been definitely noted. In the bed of Lea r s creek, near 
Leasburgh, and at one or two other points in that vicinity, there are some 
indications that the whole series is contracted, and this member, prob- 
ably, with the rest; but repeated measarements near Hillsboro, where the 
clearest sections can be obtained, substantially agree in the figures already 
given. 

The chemical composition of a considerable part of the rock in the 
neighborhood of Hillsboro, is expressed in the following analysis by Prof. 
Wormley: 

Silica 13.30 

Iron — sesqnioxide and alumina, chiefly former 2.00 

Lime — carbonate 3557 

Magnesia " 49.00 

Total 99 87 

At other points it quite likely has a larger proportion of lime, with a 
diminution of magnesia. The quantity of silica revealed in the limestone 
suggests the probability of the occurrence of hydraulic cement or water 
lime in this horizon. Neither this nor the lower cliff is ever burned into 
lime. Its prevailing color is blue, a shade lighter than that of the Cin- 
cinnati limestone. It may well enough be designated the blue cliff; and 
the division below it can, on the same principle, be known as the yellow 
cliff. The blue rock frequently weathers into various shades of drab and 
buff, and some portions of the series have, these colors naturally. The 
details of the stratification do not always agree in the sections exam- 
ined, but the existence of from 5 to 15 feet of blue shale at the bottom of 
the upper cliff can be regarded as nearly constant. This shale, as might 
be expected, constitutes another horizon of springs, but not of as marked 
strength as those that flow out over the great shale. A dozen can be 
counted in a mile of outcrop, sometimes, every one of which serves to 
mark quite accurately the position of the shale. This shale is frequently 
struck in digging wells at the lowest levels of the village of Hillsboro. 



276 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

The shale is popularly called soapstone or blue clay. Thin deposits of 
the shale, interstratified with the other beds, frequently occur through 
the whole extent of the division. 

Immediately above the principal bed of shale, quite massive courses of 
limestone are generally found. These are, for the most part, crinoidal or 
coralline limestones. The first of these characteristics is, indeed, quite 
distinctive of the formation. Another name by which it might appropri- 
ately be designated would be the crinoidal cliff. The rock frequently 
consists of encrinite stems to the exclusion of everything else, the stems 
varying in size from a half-inch in diameter downwards. 

The analysis already given shows the presence of a notable quantity 
of silica in the limestone, but it does not express the full value of this 
substance, as silica, in the form of nodules, spherical concretions, layers 
of chert, and in replaced fossils, makes a conspicuous feature in the 
beds o. this age. The layers of chert can bo very distinctly seen 
at Ambrose's Hill, just west of Hillsboro. The spheroidal concretions, 
in which silica is often a- principal constituent, occur abundantly at 
the quarries of Col. Collins. These concretions are generally crystal- 
line at the center, and not infrequently consist of silicified corals 
of the favorite group. They are found in the greatest numbers, however, 
on the eastern side of the county, as in Marshall township, where the 
blue cliff forms the surface rock for a considerable area. The weathering 
of this rock has left the fac of the country strewed with these concre- 
tions as bowlders are scattered over a drift bed. Just south of the resi- 
dence of Peter Hatcber, Esq., they can be seen in great profusion. The 
name " Flinty Limestone " could be applied to the blue cliff quite as ap- 
propriately as to the Clinton limestone of Adams county. Much of the 
chert that is found in the gravel of this region can be readily referred to 
the deposits now described. As has already been said, silica frequently 
replaces lime in the fossils that this rock contains, and the forms thus 
show white on blue ground. 

The blue cliff gives, in its appearance, good promise as a building stone. 
It is raised in massive and quite even courses. The silicious constitution 
just noted, gives to the rock Very frequently an extreme degree of hard- 
ness. In spite, however, of these indications of durability, a consider- 
able portion of the series proves treacherous, tl e heaviest blocks melting 
away in a few seasons if left exposed to the weather. A good deal of 
loss has been entailed upon the' county, first and last, from this source. 
There are, however, many portions of the series that prove reliable. The 
buff and drab colored varieties are more generally so. The quarries in 
and around Hillsboro, as those of Collins, Trimble, Bowler, Williams, 



GEOLOGICAL STTRVEY OF OHIO. 277 

are principally of these varieties, and supply an excellent building stone, 
at once easy to shape and dress, and quite durable. The quarries of this 
formation ought, however, in all cases to be carefully tested, before their 
products are wrought into structures designed for permanence. 

The two defective building stones of the county, to which attention has 
now been called, viz., the Medina Shale in its massive forms and the blue 
cliff of the Academy Hill series, have within the last twenty years cost 
the county many hundreds of dollars. The information here given will, 
if used, prevent such losses in time to come. 

The application of the different belts of rock of the county to turnpike 
construction within the last two or three years, has tested their qualities 
quite thoroughly. The lower cliff has thus far furnished the best material 
for this purpose, and the blue cliff, the least desirable, as the rock from 
this horizon grinds into a blue clay, which, under heavy travel, leaves the 
track full of ruts and holes. An example of it may be seen on the Belfast 
pike, on the 4th mile from Hillsboro. The cherty layers, however, liave 
no such disadvantage and constitute an excellent road-bed. 

The fossils of the blue cliff have been already alluded to incidentally. 
It has been remarked that large portions of the rock are altogether 
crinoidal in constitution. Good exhibitions of this variety are found in 
the cliffs of Lea's Creek, below Leasbnrg, and at various points along the 
course of Rattlesnake Creek, in the northeastern portions of the county. 
The variety that is found in the vicinity of Hillsboro contains fossils in 
abundance, but it is not an encrinal limestone. Its forms are mostly coral- 
line. The chain coral, Halysites, is shown in great perfection and 
beauty. Quite frequently the silicified plates of the coral are set 
free by the decomposition of the rock. The genus Favosites is also 
well represented in the upper cliff. It is often called the honey-comb 
coral. Certain forms of the bull's horn coral, of the genus Strep- 
telasma, are found through the whole series. The same varieties of 
fossils found at the Academy Hill section, are also met with in the bed 
and cuffs of Eocky Pork, at Barrett's Mills, and from thence along the 
hanks of the stream to within a half-mile of the Caves. An example of this 
rock — that also shows its defective character as a building stone — can be 
seen in the walls of the bridge that is thrown across Rocky Fork, on the 
Hillsboro & Bainbridge pike, near Hope's store. ~No locality has yet been 
found in which bivalve or chambered shells are abundant in this division. 

Enough has now been given to identify the 4th member of the cliff 
limestone in the county — on the whole — the most uniform element of this 
very varied series. 

5. It is overlain by what has been styled in the schedule of the rocks 
of the county (Fig. 1st) the Guelph or Cedarville limestone. It can also 



278 GEOLOGICAL SUEVEY OP OHIO. 

receive the local designation of Pentamerus limestone — a name derived 
from the occurrence of a large bivalve shell — Pentamerus oblongas — 
which makes up, in many places, the very substance of the rock. 

The 5th division is a massive magnesian limestone, varying in thickness 
from 20 to 90 feet. Except upon the eastern border of the county, it 
is not found more than two or three miles south of Hillsboro. At the 
last named point and in its immediate vicinity, it caps most of the 
high ground. The Court-house Hill, College Hill, Ambrose's Hill, Col- 
lins' Hill, Trimble's Hill and Lilley's Hill, all hold the Pentamerus 
limestone. 

It is covered, however, in the last named summit by a still higher for- 
mation. 

In consequence of the dip of the strata, it is found at lower levels to the 
north and east, and, consequently, becomes more abundant there. It- 
constitutes the surface rock for a considerable area in these districts, as 
has been before stated. It makes either the bed or cliffs, or both, of all 
the principal streams that cross these parts of the county. 

The thickness of this limestone varies, as has already been said, between 
20 and 90 feet. At many of those points at which it forms the highest 
rock of the scale, it does not attain to even the lesser of these measure- 
ments, as its uppermost portions have been removed by denuding agen- 
cies. In most of the Hillsboro hills, its thickness will be found below 20 
feet. But even where the whole of the original deposit is present, as in 
sections where it is found included between higher and lower formations, 
it has the wide limits already given. Lilley's Hill gives one of these cases 
of inclusion, and there the thickness does not much exceed the lower limit, 
20 leet. At the caves of Rocky Fork, the maximum of 90 feet is reached. 
At Grady's Hill, north of Hillsboro, on the Lexington pike, it has a thick- 
ness — in a somewhat ambiguous section — of 50 feet. In Paint Creek and 
its tributaries, a great exposure of the Pentamerus limestone is shown, 
but good sections from bottom to top of the formation are rarely found. 

It has been already incidentally remarked that in composition it is a 
magnesian limestone. It constitutes, in fact, almost a typical dolomite, 
or double carbonate of lime and magnesia. A single analysis of it, as it 
is found iu .the quarries of Col. Trimble, near Hillsboro, is repeated from 
last year's report : 

Carbonate of lime a 54.25 

Carbonate of magnesia 43.23 

Silica 0.40 

Alumina and iron (trace of latter).. 1.80 

99.68 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 279 

This specimen is typical of the rock in its best estate, and the chief 
variations to be noted between this and other analyses, would be confined 
to a small increase or decrease in the percentage of the carbonates of lime 
and magnesia, respectively. 

The limestone is frequently discolored by minute particles of bituminous 
matter, distributed through its substance. This characteristic it shares 
with the upper cliff, in some portions of its extent. The bitumen is un- 
doubtedly of animal origin, a part of the living substance from which the 
limestones themselves were built up. It is interesting to note that the 
oil-bearing limestones of Chicago belong to this very horizon. 

Like some portions of the lower cliff, this formation is often destitute of 
distinct bed lines in its structure. It seems a solid, homogeneous mass 
for six or eight feet in thickness at least, and is often spoken of as the 
" unstratified shell formation." It can be raised only by blasting, and 
comes up in shapeless fragments, which it is very hard to adapt to build- 
ing purposes. The limestone cliffs near the mouth of Rocky Fork are 100 
feet in height, but all the building stone used in the vicinity is brought, 
with great labor, from the sandstone summits of the mountains near by, 
or from the nearest outcrop of the blue cliff. 

It is acted on quite easily by atmospheric agencies and by its unequal 
weathering, the faces of the cliffs that it forms are rough and irregular. 

One or two equivalents of this limestone must be alluded to, before 
leaving this division of the subject. In the quarries of College Hill in 
Hillsboro, a yellow, crinoidal limestone takes its place. Except in color, 
this substitute resembles the crinoidal portions of the fourth division 
already described. The same variety is found on the Patterson and Smith 
farms, south of Hillsboro. An occasional specimen of Pentamerus is 
found in these beds to identify their position in the scale. 

On the eastern side of the county, and occasionally elsewhere, a second 
equivalent is found, in certain soft limestones that weather very rapidly 
into, not shale or clay or soil, but crumbling fragments that pass under 
the name of marl in the localities where they occur. Examples can be 
seen at many points near Sinking Spring and also in Lilley's hill, beneath 
the Hillsboro sandstone. 

The fossil contents of the Pentamerus limestone are of remarkable in- 
terest. The great bivalve, Pentamerus oblongus, which gives to the for- 
mation its name in Ohio, is one of the widely spread forms that charac- 
terize the limestones of this general period in both the old and new 
world. It is found in Russia, Prussia, Norway, Great Britain, Canada, 
New York, and thence westward to Wisconsin and Iowa, and southward 
as far as Tennessee at least. On the eastern border of North America, 



280 GEOLOGICAL SUKVEY OP OHIO. 

viz. : in Canada and New York, it is characteristic of the Clinton group, 
and never reaches the overlying Niagara. In Ohio, however, not a single 
occurrence of it has been noted in the Clinton limestone, but it makes up 
the very substance of the rocks *cf a certain horizon of the Niagara 
group. As can be learned from preceding statements, the Pentamerus 
belt of Highland county, comes in at 150 or 200 feet above the base of 
the series. In the districts northward, it is only 40 or 50 feet above the 
base. Now and then a single specimen of tbe shell is met with at some 
lower point in the scale. Col. James Greer, of Dayton, has in his cabinet 
a specimen obtained from the Dayton stone, the lowest member of the 
Niagara series, which is probably Pentamerus oblongus, in somewhat 
abnormal form. It may also be added that in the Greene county series, at 
some distance below the true Pentamerus horizon, occasional specimens 
of the shell are met with. 

From these facts, we learn that the mollusk originated at the eastward, 
extended itself slowly to the westward with the lapse of ages and main^ 
tained itself in unexampled force in the interior seas, long after its day 
had passed upon the border. The associated fossils presently to be re- 
ferred to, give reason, also, for believing that it had a longer duration in 
the Niagara series of Highland county than elsewhere in Ohio. 

The Pentamerus of Highland county differs considerably in form from 
the specimens obtained further northwards. The shell has a greater di- 
ameter or vertical distance between the valves, especially towards the 
beak. The distinctions on which species are established are frequently 
less marked than those now referred to, and it is quite possible that those 
forms will, when carefully studied, be recognized as distinct varieties. 
The Pentamerus is known in Hillsboro and vicinity, quite familiarly, as 
the deer's foot shell. In using the word, shell, however, it must be observed 
that the shell proper, or outer covering of the mollusk, has, in almost every 
instance disappeared in the changes through which the rock has passed. 
The fossils of this limestone, as of magnesian limestones generally, are in 
almost all cases, internal casts, formed from the hardening of the calcare- 
ous mud that filled the interior chamber of the dead shells. 

The localities at which the Pentamerus beds can be seen to good advan- 
tage, are very numerous. At Col. Trimble's lime-kilns, in all the summits 
of Hillsboro, except College Hill, at Lexington, at Leasburg, all the char- 
acteristics of the formation appear. 

Another fossil of this division, exceeding the Pentamerus in size 
equaling it in number of individuals, and rivaling it in geological interest) 
is the bivalve shell, Megalomus Canadensis. It belongs to a different 
group of bivalves from the Pentamerus and cannot, like it, claim a world- 



GEOLOGICAL SUEVEY OP OHIO. 281 

wide distribution, but still it was confined to no narrow limits in the seas 
that covered North America at this period of its history. It was first 
described from the Gait and Guelph limestone of Canada West, a formation 
that was originally referred to the Onondaga Salt Group, but which later 
investigations have shown to be the summit of the Niagara series. If any 
doubts remained upon this point they could be removed by the facts that 
the Hillsboro section presents. In Obi. Trimble's quarries, 5 or 6 feet of 
rock heavily charged with Megalomus, occur, in which there is also a 
sparing distribution of Pentamerns. These beds are overlain by as many 
feet of which the last named fossil is the principal constituent and the 
first but rarely met with. On the eastern side of the county, the Pen- 
tamerus is but rarely seen, while the Megalomus is found iu very great 
force. The remarkable fact has already been given that at the caves of 
Bocky Fork, this member of the series is built up to a hundred feet in 
thickness. In a single section, near the house of James Plummer, 90 feet 
were measured, which held Megalomus from bottom to top. Not a speci- 
men of Pentamerus has yet been noticed in this locality. Wherever the 
Cliff rock is opened for lime burning or other purposes, large and excel- 
lent casts of Megalomus can be obtained. 

A third bivalve shell of large size, and very : oticeable form, occurs in 
the southern portions of the county. It is indentical with, or closely 
allied to, the form described from the Guelph beds of Canada and named 
by Billings, Trimerella. It occurs but sparingly in Highland county, in 
the locations so far examined, but on the Cedar Fork of Scioto Brush 
Creek, iu Adams county, it forms a notable portion of the substance of 
the limestone. Perfect casts can be abundantly obtained there. Three 
species have already been found at this point, viz., Trimerella grandis and 
T. acuminata of Billings, and T. Ohioensis of Meek. A single perfect cast 
was found on the farm of George Rhodes, three miles west of Sinking 
Spring. 

Univalve shells of large size also abound in the rocks of this age. 
Among other forms, several from the genera Murchisonia and Pleuroto- 
maria, are met with. At the caves of Bocky Fork, they are associated 
with Megalomus, but they outlast it in the seiies and are found in the 
strata that immediately underlie the slate. The same facts can be ob- 
served at many points on the eastern side of the county. Localities can 
be named at which they are especially noticeable, as at the school house 
on Head's Branch, at Easton's tannery near Sinking Springs and through- 
out this district generally. The univalves are also found at the Hillsboro 
quarries, at Grady's Hill and at Lexington, but not in as great numbers 
as at the points first named. The same group of shells is found associa- 
ted with Megalomus at Guelph. 



282 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 

Chambered shells of the orthoceras group are not uncommon in the 
Pentamerus limestone, but they are no where abundant fossils in these 
rocks. 

In some portions of the formation, many corals are to be found also. 
They are quite abundant at Hillsboro. The genera already named as oc- 
curring in the upper cliff, continues in. this overlying group. Pavosites 
or honeycomb corals, and Halysites or chain-corals, are especially prom- 
inent. An undetermined form of the cyathophylloid group is a very char- 
acteristic fossil in the upper beds of the Niagara. 

In speaking of the great expansion of the Niagara series in the county, 
it was remarked that all the divisions of this series in the State are rep- 
resented here, save one, while that one has an ample equivalent. The 
missing member is the Oedarville limestone ; its equivalent is the upper 
portion of the Pentamerus limestone, or the Megalomus beds. The fossils 
especially characteristic of the Oedarville limestone are crinoids, cystide- 
ans, chambered shells and trilobites. Among crinoids, the genera Euca- 
lyptocriuus, Saccocrinus and Caryocrinus are abundantly represented. 
The cystidean genera, Holocystites and Gomphocystites, are found here. 
The Orthoceras family is represented by forms of large size, the living- 
chambers of which often exceed 6 inches in diameter. At least two spe- 
cies of Illaenus are found among the Trilobites of this horizon. 

These forms characterize the imestones of Milwaukee, Eacine and 
Bridgeport, near Chicago, which are now referred to the same age with 
the Gait and Guelph formation already noticed. Quite a number of the 
Oedarville fossils are identical in species with those described from the 
Eacine beds. Belated individuals of the Pentamerus are occasionally 
found in the Oedarville limestone, and now and then a dwarfed specimen 
can be seen in certain quarries of Darke county, which seem to belong to 
the Oedarville horizon. Hillsboro and its immediate vicinity are the only 
points at which it has been found in conjunction with Megalomus. 

The Pentamerus limestone furnishes but an indifferent quality of build- 
ing-stone from the peculiarities of structure already noted, but it yields 
in very many localities a lime of remarkable excellence. This rock, in 
Highland county, is almost identical in composition with the same forma- 
tion to the northward from which nearly all the lime of South-western 
Ohio is derived. The quarries of Springfield are especially famous for 
the excellence of their products, but chemical analysis shows no reason 
why the Hillsboro lime should be in any way inferior to the Springfield 
lime, and the concurrent testimony of the practical men who use the for- 
mer variety is that it is unsurpassed in mildness, whiteness and strength. 
The supply in the vicinity of Hillsboro is ample for centuries to come. 



GEOLOGICAL STJBVEY OP OHIO. 283 

6. The only remaining division of this extensive series of rocks is the 
Hillsboro sandstone, the 6th member of the Niagara group in Highland 
county. It is represented in the tabular view given in Fig. 1st, and also 
in the section terminating in Lilley's Hill, Fig. 6th. It is a unique 
and original contribution of Highland county to the general geological 
scale. Limestones and calcareous shales constitute the only kinds 
of rocks that have been referred to this period hitherto, in the Mississippi 
Valley ; but at Hillsboro, and on the eastern border of the county gener- 
ally, a silicious sandstone of a good degree of purity is found terminating 
the series. Its composition is shown in the following analysis by Dr. 
Wormley : 

Silica 94.10 

Iron and alumina 3.60 

Lime — carbonate 1.30 

Magnesia — carbonate - 0.39 

The thickness of this sandstone in Lilley'e Hill is 30 feet, and no greater 
thickness has been elsewhere observed. The sand that makes up the 
rock is fine-grained and but slightly cemented, crumbling easily from 
exposure to the weather or from mechanical abrasion. In color, it varies 
from white to deep yellow. There is always a glis tening appearance 
about it which is a distinguishing characteristic of the rock. 2s o fossils 
but a poorly preserved Halysites or chain-coral, have been discovered in 
the sandstone. The section at Lilley's Hill shows it in its proper place as 
crowning the Xiagara series, but as it is not covered here by any later 
formation, the section is not as definite and satisfactory as the section of 
Grady's Hill, or better still, of the Barying Ground Hill, near Samantha. 
In the first of these instances, the sandstone is interstratined with the 
Pentamerus and Megalomus beds. In the second, it is directly overlain 
by 15 feet of Helderberg limestone, proved to be so by its most charac- 
teristic fossil. The Helderberg limestone is the next higher member of 
the series in geological order, and it, in turn, is capped by 20 feet of Black 
slate, as already shown in the description of the north and south section 
of the county. Other localities at which it occurs are principally to be 
found at the foot of the slate hills on the eastern side of the county. 
The following named points give good exposures: The Marshall and 
Sinking Spring road near the house of John Bell, Esq.; the farm of Hon. 
J. L. Hughes; the foot of Stults's Mountain; the Caves of Bocky Fork. 
It will thus be seen to stretch through almost the entire extent of the 
county from north to south. 

An interesting fact in this connection is that the sandstone frequently 



384 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

contains thin seams of slate, not to be distinguished in any way by its 
appearance from the great deposit that is shown in such force in the east- 
ern hills of the county. These slate seams can be found on the eastern 
slope of Lilley's Hill, and also in the exposure just mentioned near the 
house of John Bell, Esq. The , Samantha Hill also shows them in small 
extent. 

The Grady's Hill section has been already referred to, as containing 
the sandstone interstratified with the Pentamerus beds. This is a very 
instructive fact. To state it in other words, the deposition of the sand- 
stone had begun in certain portions of the seas, while limestones were 
forming in closely contiguous localities — the limestones returning occa- 
sionally to renew their growths in the areas from which they had been 
displaced. It is quite probable that the uppermost beds of the Penta- 
merus series— 10 to 25 feet of limestone which contain neither of the two 
great shells of the division, but only the large univalves that are asso- 
ciated with them at the lower level — constitute a real equivalent of the 
Hillsboro sandstone, and alternate with it in furnishing a floor for the 
Black slate, on the eastern side of the county. 

Whether this sandstone will furnish a good material for glassrinaking, 
has not yet been experimentally determined, some beds being purer than 
that from which the sample for analysis was taken. It can be easily 
obtained, and in unlimited quantity, at Hillsboro and elsewhere. 

The occurrence of sandstone and black slate in the Niagara series, 
marks the beginning of a great change in the condition of the seas that 
prevailed here. Solid or shaly limestones had been forming in these re- 
gions through periods of vast duration, but their day has now passed, 
and through other periods, perhaps equally extended, shales and sand- 
stones are to be built up, upon the floors of the adjacent seas. A long 
interval, however, separates the growth of the limestones from the depo- 
sition of the slates and sandstones. A gradual elevation of the Silurian' 
island to the westward, was going on during the latter stages of the 
Niagara period. It was in a shallowing sea that the Hillsboro sandstone 
was formed. Considerable portions of the county— its central and eastern 
districts, especially, were raised above the sea after the deposition of the 
sandstone, and were held there for the protracted ages in which the 
Helderberg, Oorniferous and Hamilton limestones of the regions north- 
ward were in process of growth. 

The proof of these statements is found in the comparison of some 
of the sections already given, with the general geological scale of the 
oounty or State. In Fig. 5th, for example, we see Megalomus beds of 
the Magara to be overlain by the Hillsboro sandstone of the same series. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



285 



The sandstone is, in torn, covered by 250 feet of Black slate, and the 
mountain is capped by a hundred feet of "Waverly sandstone. A section 
at Stnlts's Mountain would give precisely similar results. The Samantha 
section varies only in this respect — that between the Hillsboro sandstone 
and the slate, 15 feet of Helderberg limestone are interpolated. One 
hundred feet of this limestone intervenes, however, between the JSiagara 
rocks and the slate, at Greenfield, and in Boss and Fayette counties. At 
Columbus, the Helderberg limestone is snrmoanted by heavy beds of the 
great Comiferous series, and still further north — as at Delaware — the 
Hamilton shales take their place in the scale, above the Corniferons 
limestone. 

These facts can be advantageously represented iu a tabular form. 

The Highland county section, in its most characteristic exhibitions, as 
seen in Mg. 5th, shows the following order : 



SLATES. 



KIASABA. 



The Greenfield section, or as it may well enongh be styled — the Boss 
county section — shows the interposition of the Helderberg limestone, thus : 



SLATES. 



HEUDERBERO. 



NIAGARA. 



286 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

Franklin county shows the presence of still another element : 



SLATES. 



CORNIFEROUS. 



HBI.DERBERG. 



NIAGARA. 



At Delaware and northward, a thin belt of Hamilton shales overlies 
the Oorniferons limestone : 



HAMILTON. 



COHNIFEROUS. 



HELDERBERG. 



NIAGARA. 



It is to be observed, however, that the two lowest formations here 
named do not occur in the surface rocks of Franklin and Delaware coun- 
ties, and, furthermore, that the Columbus and Delaware sections may 
agree in containing the Hamilton shales. This member of the series has 
been certainly identified at Delaware. 

To recapitulate the points now brought forward, the black slate (the 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



287 



Huron shale of the geological chart of the State) overlies, within the 
limits of Highland county, two distinct formations, the Niagara and 
Helderberg limestones. A satisfactory and probable explanation of this 
fact is, that the district in which the latter limestone is not found was dry 
land when this limestone was forming in the seas, and that a subsequent 
widely- extended depression of the surface, involving both of the forma- 
tions just named, brought in upon them the sea from which the black 
slate was to be deposited. 

These facts serve also to show us some of the boundary lines of the 
Silurian island as it existed at the close of the Niagara period. The 
eastern border of the county, from the mouth of Rocky Fork southwards; 
marks the eastern border of this ancient land. An east and west line 
throngh the county, just north of Hillsboro. can not be far from the 
northern boundary. The work of elevation was still in progress, as is 
shown by the fact that the deposits of the next period are in all cases 
shallow along the borders of the land, and increase rapidly in thickness 
to the northward and eastward. 

IV. Leaving now the Magara series, we come to the Helderberg 
limestone. In the general geological scale, a very important division 
separates these two formations, viz.: the Onondaga Salt Group. It is 
represented in the northern parts of the State by the plaster beds of 
Sandusky and Sylvania, but at the southward there is nothing to mark 
its separate existence. 

The Helderberg limestone is an important and wide-spread formation. 
It is often styled the water -lime group, as some of the best varieties of 
this valuable mineral are derived from strata of this age. In Highland 
county it is a magnesian limestone that does not differ in composition 
from the underlying Niagara. A few analyses are appended. They are 
analyses of the varieties burned for lime, but in the case of the first three 
specimens they represent as well the best building-stones of the country. 

No. 1. Backer's quarries, Greenfield. 

Xo. 2. Wright's quarries, near Greenfield. 

No. 3. Wright's quarries, near Lexington. 

No. 4. Pope's quarries, Leesburg. 







1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


Carbonate of lime . 


53.67 

42.42 

1.30 

1.44 

1.00 


49.70 

44.87 

1.00 

2.98 

1.45 


54.10 

41.77 

2.20 

1.60 


49.76 


Carbonate of magnesia 


45.77 




0.90 


Silicates of lime and magnesia 


2.88 
0.69 


Total 


99.83 


100.00 


99.67 


100.00 



288 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

Reference. will again be made to this table when the lime of this forma- 
tion is described. 

As will be seen by the map, the Helderberg limestone is confined to 
the north-eastern section of the county. There are several insulated 
areas of it, as at Lexington and Leasburg. The Greenfield area belongs 
to the main body of the rock, which stretches southward from the shores 
of Lake Erie with wide boundaries, occupying more of the surface of the 
State than any other limestone within its limits. 

The thickness of this formation varies iu the county between 15 feet 
and 100 feet. The maximum given has not been definitely measured, it 
is true ; but a section obtained at Mullein Hill, near Lexington, gave 75 
feet of this series without seeming to exhaust it. At Greenfield, 40 feet 
are exposed in the quarries of Paint creek, while at Rockville, 6 miles 
higher up the stream, an addition of 40 feet seems to be made, and these 
exposures do not reach either the lower or the upper limit of the forma- 
tion. The minimum thickness can be observed at Samantha, immediately 
underneath the outcrop of the slates in Burying Ground Hill. It can also 
be seen in the vicinity of Sinking Spring, in numberless sections. 

The rocks that belong to this division differ greatly from each other in 
lithological characters. The 15 feet of Helderberg limestone, just noted, 
as occurring at Sinking Spring, consist of a friable, crumbling limestone, 
entirely similar to a sub-division of the Pentamerus limestone, already 
described. It is locally called marl, and it has been ascertained by ex- 
periment that it makes a very valuable addition to the adjacent farming 
lands. The accompanying analysis, by Dr. Wormley, shows its compo- 
sition and justifies the estimate placed upon it as a source of fertility. 
The lime that is found in it as a carbonate, is readily disintegrated and 
incorporated with the soil, while phosphate of lime, the mineral substance 
of bones and one of the most valuable elements of all ordinary fertilizers, 
is seen to be present in unusual proportions. The analysis gives — 

Carbonate of lime , 52.87 

Carbonate of magnesia., ■* 42.94 

Phosphate of lime 1.39 

Alumina and iron 1.50 

Silica - 0.70 

99.40 

The marl, strange as it may seem, furnishes an excellent material for 
road making. It does not weather into clay, but into fine sand-like grains, 
which, when compacted and cemented, make a floor-like surface. The 
(Jynthiann and Sinking Spring pike, one mile north of the latter place, 
shows the application of this marl to excellent advantage. The same 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 289 

locality gives one of the best junctions of the slates and limestones to be 
found in the county. In fact, the whole district to -which Sinking Spring 
belongs, is exceedingly interesting in its geology. Dr. Locke called atten- 
tion in his report on Adams county, to a region of great disturbance upon 
the boundary of Highland and Adams. Faults occur in the immediate 
neighborhood of Sinking Spring of considerable extent, the "Waverly 
sandstone walling against the Pentamerns division of the Niagara group. 
The disturbed area extends for six or eight miles in each direction. There 
is nothing like uniformity of dip throughout the region. Waverly sand- 
stone, slates, the various limestones of the county, are involved in inex- 
tricable confusion. Owing to lack of time, however, no detailed study 
was made of this most interesting region. 

The Helderberg limestone of this part of the county is, at some points, 
fall of fragments of corals that agree generically, at least, with the Magara 
forms already referred to. At other points it holds only the most charac- 
teristic fossil of the formation, viz : the bivalve crustacean, Leperditia 
alta, and, at still others, it is entirely destitute of organic remains. 

The 15 feet of the Samantha section, which have been identified as 
belonging to this division by the presence of the fossil just named, are 
composed of a rough, ungainly rock of which no useful application can be 
made. 

At Greenfield, however, and in the Helderberg area, just south of Lex- 
ington, the formation yields a building-stone of the very highest excel- 
lence. It is probably the most even-bedded building-stone of the State. 
Its courses are never heavy, seldom exceeding 14 inches in thickness, and 
the most of them ranging between 4 inches and 8 inches in thickness. It 
is often raised in tables of 150 square feet, the surfaces of which are so 
smooth that they can be used for door-steps, and similar purposes, with- 
out dressing. This stone is so well adapted for curb-stones and street 
crossings, that it has displaced every competitor in the Cincinnati 
market. 

Its color is drab when first raised, but upon exposure, it generally 
acquires a yellowish brown shade. By proper selection and skillful dress- 
ing, stone can be obtained from the quarries that produces good architec- 
tural effects, as is shown in the house of G. I. Eucker, Esq., of Greenfield ; 
but as it is generally used, there is a monotony of courses and color, the 
latter contrasting somewhat unpleasantly with the white mortar lines, 
that Mis to please the eye. For all ordinary purposes, however, of gen- 
eral masonry, it is unsurpassed, both as to the ease with which it can be 
worked and the economy and facility with which it can be laid. 

Another point of great importance in the economical handling of the 
19 



290 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

stoue is that all of the spalls or waste of the quarries can be turned to 
account for lime burning. Lime, certainly of fair quality, is obtained from 
these quarries. They are the only quarries of southwestern Ohio that 
have this double function of furnishing, from the same beds, these two 
products — building-stone and lime. Springfield, Yellow Springs and 
other localities furnish both articles, it is true, but from different horizons. 
The upper beds of the Springfield quarries, from which the lime is burned, 
are comparatively worthless for building-stone, while the lower courses, 
that supply the building-stone, do not burn into a good quality of lime. 
The profits of quarrying in the Greenfield rock are largely enhanced by 
this fact. Lime-kiins are connected with all of the leading quarries 

This rock has been quarried at Greenfield since the first settlement of 
the country, but within the last few years the business has been greatly 
enlarged by the opening of foreign markets along the line of the railroad, 
and especially by the Cincinnati demand. The Greenfield quarries are 
located on the banks of Paint Creek, and some of them are embraced 
within the village limits. The most extensive business in this line, at 
present, is carried on by the firm of G. I. Eucker & Co. All of the char- 
acteristics of the formation in this, its best estate, can be observed iu 
their quarries. The vertical range of these quarries is not less than 40 
feet. The descending limit is reached — not by the failure of the rock — as 
the heaviest and most valuable courses lie lowest, but by the want of 
natural drainage, these lowest courses of the quarry being at the level of 
low water-mark in the stream. 

A considerable portion of the series at Greenfield, however, is not 
available for quarrying purposes, by reason of the occurrence of folds iu 
its structure. The bedding of the rock at such places has been greatly 
disturbed and a shattered and chaotic mass remains, which gradually 
passes into the even beds upon either side. These folds are utterly worth- 
less for building-stone, and it is also affirmed that the folded beds cannot 
be burned into lime as easily as the building-stone. Why there should be 
a difference in this respect it is not easy to see. 

The presence of a layer of concretions, from one to three inches in 
diameter, near the upper part of the section deserves to be remarked, as 
does also the occurrence through the series in considerable numbers, of 
short cylindrical columns, extending through the single layers of rock. 
W.hen the layers are raised from the quarry bed, these columns sometimes 
fall out, leaving cylindrical cavities in the stone three or four inches in 
diameter. These columns often have some organic centre. They are sup- 
posed to be due to the effects of pressure in the earlier stages of the rock, 
and are but one out of many phenomena that are referred to the same 
origin. 



GEOLOGICAL SUitVET OF OHIO. 291 

Nodules of zinc-blende, or sulpharet of zinc, sometimes weighing sev- 
eral pounds, are quite common in the Greenfield stone. They contain 
two-thirds of their weight of metallic zinc. This zinc-blende seems finite 
frequently to have replaced spherical favosite corals. The same mineral 
abounds in the Niagara limestone further south, and in company with the 
iron-pyrites of the Black Slates, has inspired many dreams of mineral 
treasure that will never be realized. There are hundreds of localities in 
South western Ohio to which tradition assigns the possession of mineral 
wealth, in lead or silver mines. These traditions generally go bact to 
the days of Indian occupation, and are, in fact, generally of Indian origin. 
If the red man owes any malice to the race that has dispossessed him of 
his hunting-grounds, he may take a grim satisfaction in contemplating 
the arduous and unrequited toil to which his idle tales have doomed the 
laziest of his oppressors. The fragments of galena that are scattered 
over the face of the country are none of them " to the manor born." 
They are all of northern origin, and have been transported here, some 
perhaps by the floods, but the most by that industrious and semi-civilized 
race which opened the mines along the shores of the great lakes and cov- 
ered the fairest portions of the Mississippi Valley with the traces of their 
long-continued occupation, in countless mounds of burial or sacrifice, and 
in the long lines of defensive earth- works which the storms of a thousand 
years have not destroyed. 

Silica is distributed through the Greenfield stone in considerable quan- 
tity. It occurs in replaced corals of spherical form, in minute but perfect 
crystals of quartz, and in fossiliferous bands that separate the layers of 
the rock. 

A.8phaltum, or mineral pitch, is often met with in shot-like grains, in 
the cavities of fossils. 

There are several quarries to the westward that are now producing 
large quantities of stone and lime, in no way inferior to the products of 
the Greenfield quarries. 

The quarries of J. V. Wright & Oo., 3 miles west of Greenfield, have 
been but recently opened in a large way, but the location seems advan- 
tageous, and excellent results are already attained. 

Near Lexington, the quarries of L. B. Wright, of Hickson, Beeson and 
others, all contain the Greenfield stone in typical excellence. 

The supply is immense. When it is considered that in no case do the 
quarries have a working depth of less than 15 feet, and that some of 
them have twice this depth of available quarry stone, it will be seen that a 
few acres would suffice for a long lease ; but when, instead of acres, we 
are warranted in computing its area by square miles, the date of its ex- 
haustion seems to be removed from our day not only by centuries, but 



292 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

even by tens of centuries. An insulated area of this rock is also found at 
Leesburg, but so far, no building-stone of the best quality has been met 
with. The quarries that supply the lime-kilns of W. S. Pope lie near the 
base of the Helderberg system at this point. 

Passing up the valley of Paint Creek for 6 or 8 miles above Greenfield, 
we find the higher beds of Helderberg limestone. At Eockville, where 
the best exposure occurs, 40 feet can be measured in a compact section, 
and it seems probable that the whole of this overlies the Greenfield stone 
proper. The lower portion of the Eockville section is highly fossiliferous, 
and very different forms are found here from those which the Greenfield 
courses contain. It seems altogether likely that this stratum represents 
some higher portion of the Helderberg series. One of the chambered 
shells that is found here is quite similar to a form that occurs in the 
Delthyris shaly limestone of Eastern New York, the third division in 
ascending order of the Helderberg limestone. Above this fossiliferous 
stratum come in 20 feet of very thin, very even-bedded limestone, that 
rings like pot-metal under the blow of a hammer. The separate courses 
are not more than 3 or 4 inches in thickness, and their surfaces are cov- 
ered with sun-cracks and ripple-marks. These beds are almost entirely 
destitute of fossils. The indication of shore-marks or shallow water, 
just' noted, are not confined to one locality, but extend quite widely 
through the series. They are found in it certainly in Champaign county, 
in Fayette, in Highland,. Pike and Adams. It can therefore be confi- 
dently asserted that much of the Helderberg limestone grew in water so 
shallow that portions of its surface were from time to time left bare by 
the retreating tide. 

The fossils of the Helderberg limestone have been occasionally referred 
to in the progress of this description, and but little needs to be added 
now. The number of species in the lower beds or Water Lime horizon, 
is not large. Several bivalve shells occur, of the genera Atrypa, Centro- 
nella, etc, Internal casts of them abound in some portions of the rock, 
as, for instance, on Opossum run, and on the Moon farm 1 or 2 miles be- 
low Greenfield. The crustacean already named — Leperditia alta — is at 
once the most numerous and important of all these relics of ancient life. 
It constitutes what is called a characteristic fossil, that is, one that is 
found at a particular geological horizon, not below and not above. The 
life of the species is included in the series of beds which we recognize as 
one group. The Leperditia alta is found through at least 40 feet of 
the Greenfield stone, covering wide layers with its well-grown valves. 
The quarry-men recognize the layers that are thus covered, as the coffee- 
grain seam. When to the forms already given, several varieties of corals 
are added, the list will be substantially complete. 



GEOLOGICAL SUitVKT OF OHIO. 



293 



The fact has been already stated that the best natural supplies of water- 
lime or hydraulic cement of the country are obtained from the strata of 
this age. But the analyses of the Helderberg limestone of Highland 
county already given, show that it is a true magnesian limestone, almost' 
identical in composition with those that lie above it and below it in the 
scale. Mention has also been repeatedly made of the lime derived from 
this source. The judgments of masons in regard to the qualities of lime 
are very various and conflicting, and it can hardly be doubted that one 
variety is taken and another left, by a sort of arbitrary decree, rather 
than on the ground of intrinsic excellence. There is every reason, how- 
ever, to believe that the lime derived from this belt — Greenfield, Lexing- 
ton and Leesburg — are all cool, slow- setting and durable cements ; that 
in fact they possess the highest kinds, if not the very highest degrees, of. 
excellence. Still it is natural to expect to find some deposit of this age 
that shall possess the typical property of the group, as it is exhibited at 
various places in Xew York, and also at Louisville, Kentucky. Two local- 
ities have been found — both of them, however, in Fayette county — that 
promise well in this respect. They are the Rittenhouse quarry, in Wayne 
township, on the Frankfort and Washington turnpike, and the Doster 
quarry, in Green township, on the Monroe and Washington turnpike. 

The analyses of these beds by Dr. Wormley show the following com- 
position. Xo. 1 is the Doster limestone ; Xos. 2, 3 and 4 are from the 
Rittenhouse quarry. 





!. ! 2. 

i 


3. 


4. 


Carbonate of lime 


52.40 53.69 


54.00 

39.50 

2.20 

3.60 


53.60 




38.73 
2.30 
6.00 


38.30 
2.60 
4.60 


40.28 




2.90 


Silica 


2.80 






Total 


99.43 


99.30 


99.30 


99.38 







These analyses warrant the expectation that both quarries will yield a 
lime that will set under water. Rocks of this composition slake after 
burning, but a high measure of hjdraulic energy is often found in them. 
Xor are we left to theory alone in this matter. The Rittenhouse quarry 
has been put to the test of an extended and successful experience within 
the last 20 years, and the testimony in the vicinity is ample that when 
skillfully handled it gives good results. The Doster quarry has not yet 
been practically tested, but its constitution promises e\ T eu more than the 
former. 



294 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

As limes that vary very widely in composition and character become 
equally esteemed by those who learn to use them, so, very different qual- 
ities of water-lime can be used with equally satisfactory results if they 
are treated according to their various natures. The masons of the coun- 
try have become accustomed to the Louisville cement, and are unwilling 
to adopt new methods in the use of a new article ; but whenever the 
people of this section of the State get tired of paying for the transporta- 
tion of cement from Louisville or Lake Erie, they will find quarries at 
their own doors that will furnish an equally reliable article. 

It may be added that the carbonic acid is expelled from both of these 
rocks with considerable difficulty. The latter has-thus acquired a reputa- 
tion as a fire-stone, and instances are given in which excellent qualities 
in this respect have been shown. The two quarries are at the same hori- 
zon of the Helderberg formation, the Bittenhouse beds being in contact 
with the slate, and the Doster quarry not far below. 

The most characteristic portion of the Highland county series, viz., its 
central portion, has now been briefly characterized. UsTo detailed account 
has been given of its lower limit, the Blue limestone, or of the Huron 
shale and Waverly sandstone upon its upper limit. Each of these forma- 
tions can be studied to better advantage in counties where more ample 
exposures are afforded. The Waverly sandstone, in fact, occurs only in 
outliers that cap the slate hills of Brush Creek township, being many 
miles removed from the main outcrop of the formation. It is represented 
in the map by insulated patches upon the black slate. Only a portion of 
these outliers — not all, in fact, that occur upon the western border of the 
slates — are represented here. The formation shows, however, its valuable 
characteristics in Highland county, furnishing a local supply of building 
stone of excellent quality. 

The survey of Highland county has developed no unknown stores of 
mineral wealth, but has made it possible for all who wish, to gain a clear 
view of its most interesting geological structure and history. 



THE CLIFF LIMESTONE OF HIGHLAND AND ADAMS 

COUNTIES. 



The line of junction of the Lower and Upper Silurian rocks of Ohio 
was treated of in the Eeport of Progress of 1869, for the counties of 
Preble, Montgomery, Miami, Clarke, Greene and Clinton, under the head 
of the Geology of Montgomery County. In the same report, the Cliff 
Limestone of these counties was resolved into its constituent elements, 
viz., the Clinton and Magara Limestones, and a brief account was given 
of the distinguishing characteristics of these formations. 

This same line of junction passes also through the counties of Highland 
and Adams, as is indicated on the map that accompanies the above 
named report, but the rocks which compose the Tipper Silurian series in 
these counties differ, in a very marked degree, from those which have 
been described as constituting the series in Montgomery county. The 
history of the Lower Silurian rocks of Ohio — the Blue Limestone, or 
Cincinnati Group — seems to have been uniform through all the region 
which it occupies. The same general conditions appear to have every- 
where prevailed during their formation. At one point, it is true, a larger 
proportion of limestone was formed, and at another a greater thickness 
of shale, but the variation ceases with this fact. The same species of 
fossils are found at the same horizons, in about the same proportions, 
through all the Blue Limestone lands of Southwestern Ohio. An ac- 
quaintance with any one extended section of Blue Limestone, would 
render it impossible to mistake any other exposure of the formation 
throughout its entire extent. 

The series everywhere terminates in the same way. The Medina Shales, 
comprising from ten to thirty feet of red, blue or yellow clays, destitute 
of fossils, constitute the uppermost beds of the formation around its 
whole boundary — to be seen with the same distinctness in Highland and 
Adams counties as in Preble and Montgomery. 

There is no such uniformity, however, in the formations that imme- 
diately follow. An uplift of the ancient sea-bottom, which occurred near 
the close of Lower Silurian time, and which resulted in the formation of a 
Silurian island, stretching from Cincinnati to jSashville, brought an 



296 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

element of disturbance and irregularity into the growths of succeeding 
time. By the existence of this island, currents of transfer must have 
been greatly modified, and the waste of shores, comparatively near at 
hand, must have supplied to different • portions of the adjacent seas dif- 
ferent quantities and different kinds of material, to be re-deposited upon 
their floors. Even in the counties that were embraced in last year's 
report, there is no such uniformity to be found in the Upper Silurian as 
in the Lower Silurian system, but the comparatively small difference in 
different portions of the series in this region is magnified and increased 
in Highland and Adams counties, until the formations are so masked as 
to be beyond ready recognition. 

The geology of Adams county was examined and reported upon by 
Dr. John Locke, in the Geological Survey of 1838. Dr. Locke's report 
furnishes an exceedingly faithful and interesting account of the forma- 
tions of Adams county, but it fails to correlate the members of the series 
which were found there, with the members of the same series in other 
parts of the State and elsewhere. The. few attempts that are made in 
the report to do this work are unsuccessful. Nor have those geologists 
been more successful who, since its publication, have endeavored to com- 
prehend, by its aid, the divisions and equivalents of the Cliff Limestone 
of Southwestern Ohio. The cause of this failure lay in the want of 
opportunity to follow, connectedly, from the northward, the line of outcrop 
of the Upper Silurian formation, and especially in neglecting to compare 
the series of Adams and Highland counties. The key to the solution of 
the problem, is found in Highland county. It is there that the change 
occurs by which the compact series of Greene and Montgomery counties 
is expanded into the ample formation, the two lower members of which 
Dr. Locke describes as the Cliff Limestone of West Union. 

Before proceeding to describe the component parts of the more south- 
erly members of this group, a brief review of the Cliff Limestone of 
Montgomery and Greene counties is introduced, in order to facilitate a 
comparison between the two localities. 

The Cliff Limestone of the northern series eonsists of two well marked 
formations — named in ascending order, the Clinton and Niagara Limestones 
the former of which has an average thickness of 20 feet, the latter a max- 
imum of 100 feet. 

The Clinton formation consists in the main of a semi-crystalline, crinoidal 
limestone, very unevenly bedded, and containing about 84 per cent of car- 
bonate of lime in its compostion. Its uppermost layer almost always con- 
sists of a few inches of very fine-grained, blue clays, abounding in charac- 
teristic fossils and especially in the large disc like joints of crinoidal stems. 

The Niagara formation immediately covers these Clinton clays. Its 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 297 

lowest member constitutes in the vicinity of Dayton and at many other 
points, the celebrated Dayton stone, a very even-bedded, massive lime- 
stone, sparingly charged with fossils and containing at least 90 per cent, of 
carbonate of lime in its constitution. In very many localities however, 
this lowermost horizon of the Niagara holds a rock that resembles in 
bedding and in durability the Dayton stone, but that differs from it in 
color, hardness and composition, being a magnesian limestone instead of 
a true limestone. These firm and heavy courses are seldom more than 10 
feet in thickness and frequently not more than 5 feet. 

They are regularly succeeded by light blue shales which weather into 
whitish clays, or by shaly limestones, yellowish in color, magnesian in 
composition, and very poor in fossil remains. These shales and limestones 
build up the series by an addition of from o to 50 feet. It should, how- 
ever, be observed that in some places neither the Dayton stone nor its 
magnesian equivalent was deposited at the beginning of the Niagara 
period, but the shales of which mention is now made began the series, and 
were continued until, in some instances, 50 feet were deposited. 

Following the shales is found another series of even-bedded and mass- 
ive magnesian limestones, blue or drab in color, sometimes yielding an 
excellent hydraulic lime. The building stone of Springfield, Yellow 
Springs, and many other localities belongs to this division. Of the few 
fossils that are found in these rocks, those most commonly recognized are 
Atrypa reticularis, Strophomena rhojnboidelis, Halysites, and the most com- 
mon of the Niagara trilobites, Calymene Blumeribachii, and none of them 
are confined to this horizon. The aggregate thickness of these beds does 
not exceed 20 feet. 

They are followed by the Cedarville Limestone, a series from 10 to 50 feet 
in thickness, the lower portion of which is everywhere charged with the 
internal casts of a very large and conspicuous bivalve shell, Pentamerus 
oblongus; and which contains also a large number of very interesting 
fossils that are never found in the lower beds. Casts of crinoidal heads are 
abundant, among which may be recognized Caryocrinun ornatus,&nd several 
species of Eucalyptocrinus and Saccocrinus. The bed lines are indistinct in 
this part of the series, and from its massive appearance, it is often spoken ot 
as unstratified. In composition, this Limestone is almost a typical dolomite, 
always containing more than 40 per cent, of carbonate of magnesia, the 
amount sometimes even exceeding 50 per cent. 

To the Cedarville limestone also belongs a series of very thin-bedded and 
fragile limestones, in which the Pentamerus but very rarely occurs, but 
which are largely composed of the fossil remains of other shells and of the 
radiates already named. This horizon proves to be the same in fossil 



298 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

character with the well known beds of Leclaire, Milwaukee, Bacine, and 
Bridgeport, near Chicago. Among the fossils that it holds in common with 
the last named localities may be mentioned Huoalyjplocrinus cormttus, 
Trochoceras Desplainense, Orthoceras dbnorme, cystideans of the genera 
Holocystites and Gomphocystites, and trilobites of the genus Illaenus. 

The rocks of the last two series are very extensively burned for lime 
throughout south-western Ohio, and afford the most valued source of this 
important substance fof all this portion of the State. 

The best point for the study of this division of the Niagara rocks is at 
Cedarville, Greene county. It can be observed also at Dean's quarrries 
Brant, Miami county, at Wilson's quarries 8 miles north of Dayton, at 
01 ben's quarry, near the Ebenezer church, on the the line of the L. M. E. 
K. in Clarke county, in all the quarries on Greenville creek in Darke 
county and in the quarries one mile south of Sidney, Shelby county. 

Passing now to the counties of Highland and Adams, we find that the 
Clinton limestone holds quite persistently the characteristics which it was 
found to possess in the northern counties. It is quite constant in its com- 
position, never passing into the magnesian series; it is almost always un- 
even in its bedding and while its substance is not so generally made up 
of crinoidal fragments there are portions throughout the whole region 
which cannot be distinguished in hand specimens from the Clinton of 
Montgomery county, or indeed from the Clinton formation of western 
New York. Its average thickness is somewhat increased, but probably 
never exceeds 40 feet, and this thickness is sometimes attained in the 
northern district as a maximum, as for instance at Yellow Springs, in 
Greene county. It constitutes in Adams county the flinty limestone of 
Locke, so named by him from the presence of nodules of chert in its 
lower beds. This, however, is no distinctive characteristic, as similar 
cherty concretions abound in various portions of the Niagara series, and 
even furnish to the great Corniferous limestone the name by which it is 
known. Although the Clinton does not always terminate in the blue clays 
of the northern series, but more frequently passes without their interposi- 
tion into the solid limestones that make the floor of the Niagara series, 
still the same disc-like, crinoidal joints are found abundantly in the solid 
limestone at the same horizon to the southward. The Clinton formation 
then can be recognized unmistakeably in these counties. It is well known 
that this formation yields in many portions of the country, beds of valua- 
ble iron-ore, sometimes called "fossil ore" from the fact that it is largely com- 
posed of animal remains converted into sesquioxide of iron. This char- 
acteristic ore occurs along the line of Highland and Adams counties, and 
quite possibly will justify working. 



GEOLOGICAL STJEVET OF OHIO. 299 

A very interesting fact which ocer.rs in this formation in the southern 
part of Highland county, deserves to be noted here. 

One mile west of Belfast, on the Fairfax road, a bed of conglomerate 
is met with, at aboat the middle of the Clinton formation in this region. 
It contains, in addition to the rounded limestone pebbles that mainly 
compose it, many fossil corals and shells. Some of the latter are worn 
and roonded like the pebbles with which they are associated, while others 
exhibit no marks of abrasion. The fossils agree specifically with those 
that are usually found in this portion of the Clinton formation, while the 
pebbles might well enough be derived from the Blue limestone series. 

The significance of this Clinton conglomerate lies in the fact that it 
establishes the existence of shore lines near the loc; tion in which it is 
found, at the time when its strata were in process of formation, and also 
that it serves to determine not alone the fact of the Silurian uplift, to 
which reference has already been made, but also to fix approximately its 
date. 

In determining the limits and characteristics of the Niagara Group, we 
can follow with great profit the line of outcrop of the Dayton stone, east- 
ward and southward from 3Iontgomery county, for in this well-marked 
deposit we find a sure guide to the bottom courses of the great series to 
which it belongs. 

Eastward from the Dayton beds occur the quarries of Shoup, Huston 
and Puterbaugh, 3 miles south-west from Harbrne's Station, on the Day- 
ton and Xenia Eailroad. These, like the Dayton quarries, exist as out- 
liers or insulated masses, widely removed from the main outcrop of the 
formation. The next quarry that occurs, however, in passing southward. 
viz. : McDonald's quarry. 3 miles south of Xenia, holds to the main line. 
It is one of the most widely known and extensively worked of all the 
quarries that belong to this valuable series, constituting, in fact, one of 
the three localities to which contracts for foundations of public works in 
Cincinnati were formerly confined, the specifications calling for Dayton, 
Xenia or Centerville stone. The nest outcrop of this Xiagara base is 
found on Anderson's Fork, on the south line of Greene county, and still 
another is found on Todd's Fork, 3 miles north of Wilmington, in Clinton 
county. From this point onwards for many miles the surface of the 
conntry is obscured with heavy Drift deposits, and but few indications of 
bedded rock of any kind occur before the south line of Clinton county is 
reached. Passing from thence to Hillsboro, an extensive series of Xiag- 
ara rocks is traversed, but the base of the series and the underlying 
Clinton limestone are wholly concealed. The rocks are destitute of fos- 
sils, and differ in some respects from the portions of the series heretofore 



300 GEOLOGICAX, SURVEY OF OHIO. 

described. In fact, the great change in character and extent which we 
find between the northern and southern series Las already been accom- 
plished, and from this point southwards we meet with constant exposures 
of rock in hills that range from 200 feet to 250 feet in height, the whole of 
which, as will presently be shown, belonging to the Magara formation. 

The Dayton base is, however, recovered at least once more, and most 
opportunely for the identification and disentangling of this complex 
series. One mile south-east of Hillsboro, where the Belfast pike crosses 
Kocky Fork — at Bisher's dam — a true exposure of the Dayton stone oc- 
curs, the southernmost exposure thus far recognized. The bed of the 
stream for 2 miles above this point is in the Clinton formation ; but as 
the strata are here dipping to the eastward more rapidly than the stream 
descends, it follows that higher and higher courses of the rocks become 
successively its bed ; and thus we find at the point above named the even 
beds of the Dayton horizon, true to the original in color, hardness and 
composition, in every particular save one, viz. : the thickness of their 
courses, overlying a most characteristic exposure of the Clinton lime- 
stone. Proceeding due northward from this point for one mile, to the 
summit of Lilley's Hill, on the Marshall road, we rise by a series of steep 
escarpments through the whole range of the Magara formation in south- 
western Ohio. As this section is not surpassed in clearness and concise- 
ness, a somewhat detailed account of it is added. It may be assumed as 
a typical section of the Magara formation in the two counties now under 
consideration. 

The section consists of 6 well-marked sub-divisions, 4 of which are 
widespread and which make up the bulk of the formation, while the low- 
ermost, the Dayton stone, and the uppermost, the Hillsboro sandstone, 
are more local in their appearance. The accompanying diagram repre- 
sents the order, the relative thickness, and the names of the divisions 
that are here met with : 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



301 



DIAGRAM REPRESENTING THE ORDER, THE RELATIVE THICKNESS, AND 
THE NAMES OF THE- DIVISIONS. 





6 Hillsboro Sandstone — 
30 ft. 




Gnelph, Cedarville or 
5 Pentamems Limestone — 
20 ft. 


A Vertical 

Section of 

the 

Niagara Rocks 


4 Blue Cliff and Shales— 
45 ft. 

Springfield Stone. 


at 

HUlsboro, 

From the summit of 

Lilley's Hill 
To the level of Rocky 
Fork — at Bisher's Dam. 


3 Lower or West Union Cliff — 
45 ft. 




2 Niagara Shales — 
60 ft. 




1 Dayton Limestone — 
5 ft. 



302 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO, 

1. The section gives us then as its lowest member 5 feet of Dayton 
limestone, which occurs in courses of 3 or 4 inches in thickness. On 
account of the last mentioned fact, no great value is attached to it in the 
neighborhood where it is found, as an abundant supply of heavy-bedded 
building-rock is everywhere at hand. 

2. The Dayton Stone is followed by the Niagara shales, which are at 
the point named 60 feet in thickness. These beds consist of a light blue 
clay which weathers white, with occasional courses of impure, shaly 
limestone. They constitute the " Great Marie " of Locke, described by 
him as having a thickness of 1Q6 feet immediately underneath the village 
of West Union, Adams county. The beds hold comparatively few fossils, 
and the few they retain are but indifferently preserved. Free corals and 
brachiopod shells are the forms most commonly recognized. 

The shales are not perfectly constant in their occurrence, but sometimes 
yellowish, shaly limestones are found to take their place. Between these 
indurated strata and beds of clay as soft as those of the Blue Limestone 
series, all gradations occur. As a representative of the consolidated va- 
riety of the Niagara shales, we may instance the belt of> rocks first met 
with in passing from Wilmington to Hillsboro, to which reference has 
already been made. The Niagara shales are of great interest in many 
ways in the Geography and Geology of this whole region. 

In whatever district the shales are exposed they constitute its water- 
bearers, strong and numerous springs marking their upper boundary. 
Then, too, wherever the streams have wrought their way in this forma- 
tion they have made much wider valleys than they have been able to do 
when confined to the firm limestone courses that occar higher in the geo- 
logical scale. The ample bottom-lands of Eocky Pork and one of its 
main tributaries, Clear Creek, within five miles of Hillsboro, are in strik- 
ing contrast with the deep and narrow gorge which the same stream has 
worn a dozen miles nearer its mouth and after it has been reinforced by 
numerous branches. The explanation is that the wide valleys were exca- 
vated in the Niagara shales, while the strong, eastward dip of the strata 
is so great, that at the mouth of Eocky Fork the stream is obliged to cut 
its way through the solid limestones that cap the Hillsboro hills to a 
thickness of more than one hundred feet. And thus we find the gorge 
100 feet in depth and not more than two or three times as wide. 

It will be remembered that in Greene and Montgomery counties also 
beds of shale very frequently immediately overlie the Dayton stone, so 
that this great deposit 60 to 100 feet in thickness is no new element in 
the scale, but is only a marked expansion of a term already recognized. 
Indeed, it is the precise stratigraphical equivalent of the Niagara shales 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 303 

of Western lifew York, to the existence of which and its collocation with 
an overlying cliff, the great cataract which has given its name to this 
whole formation, owes its origin. 

3. The next member of the series is a yellowish, arenaceous limestone, 
45 feet in thickness in the section under review. The following analysis, 
obtained from a sample of the rock at West Union, Adams county, shows 
its composition there : 

Carbonate of lime - 42.60 

Carbonate of magnesia 34.79 

Silica and sand - 18.80 

Alumina and iron 2.20 

Total 93.57 

The limestone constitutes the lower line of cliffs that is to be recog- 
nized at the point named in the section, and at various localities along 
Rocky Fork and Clear Creek. It may therefore be designated as the 
Lower Cliff. It abounds in fossils, which in this particular section are 
not very well preserved ; but shells of the genera Spirifera, Atrypa and 
Merista can be recognized, together with univalves of .the Pleurotomaria 
group — all being internal easts. At other points in the vicinity this same 
belt yields beautiful fossils of the genera already noted. Fragments of 
trilobites of the genera Dalmania are also of frequent occurrence. The 
quarries of James Sanderson, on the Hillsboro and Danville pike, are 
especially to be noted in this connection. 

There are very many localities in the two counties waere this rock con- 
stitutes the surface, or in other words, where no higher members of the 
group overlie it. Indeed, the Cliff Limestone of Adams county very 
seldom holds any higher member than this. It nowhere attains in High- 
land county tbe thickness that Dr. Locke assigns to it in West Union, 
viz., 89 feet ; but in traveling southward from Hillsboro it can readily be 
seen that both lumbers 2 and 3 are heavier formations than at this place. 
In the. vicinity of Belfast, on the south line of Highland county, the 
Lower Cliff is found to be 60 feet thick. 

The soil formed from its decomposition is veiy productive. It was 
originally covered with a varied and abundant forest growth, and since it 
has been subdued by the hand of man, though not inferior to any soils 
around it in the yield of ordinary farm products, it shows itself especially 
adapted to fruit raising. The best example of it in the vicinity of Hills- 
boro is at Chapman's Hill, on the road from Ifew Market to Dansville. 
Sugar Tree Ridge furnishes another example of the same sort. 

4. The fourth member of the series may be designated as the Blue 
Cliff. It has in the section under review a thickness of 45 feet. Blue 



304 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

shales, alternating with beds of an argillaceous limestone, constitute its 
lower portions — its upper are heavy-bedded limestones, blue in color, semi- 
crystalline in structure, and charged with fossil corals. The genera 
Halysites (the chain coral), Streptelasma (the free or bull's horn coral), 
and Favosites (the honey-comb coral), are especially abundant. .The last 
named fossil very frequently occurs in concretions, lenticular or spheroidal 
in shape. These concretions are abundant in the quarries of Col. Collins, 
on the north side of Hillsboro, and on the eastern side of the county. In 
Marshall and Jackson townships, where the upper cliff makes an impor- 
tant part of the surface, they are strewn like drift bowlders, far and wide. 
They are both silicious and calcareous, mainly the former. Beautiful 
crystals are found in them, making them objects of interest to collectors. 

The rocks of the upper cliff are frequently used as building stones, the 
higher beds occurring in massive courses, which are well adapted to the 
purposes of masotiry. Great care, however, is necessary in selecting 
building stone from this series, as a considerable portion of it does not 
withstand Jhe weather, but crumbles away under the action of frost. Fine 
exposures of the upper cliff are found within the limits of Hillsboro, as, 
for example, at Col. Collins' quarry, at Williams' quarry, on the Marshall 
road, and in the cut on the abandoned line of the Hillsboro & Cincin'i Bail- 
road, at Academy Hill; but the best opportunity to study the order and 
sequence of this and the succeeding' formation occurs on the laud of Col. 
Trimble, just beyond the corporation line. The excavations, that were 
made on the old railroad line already named, give facilities for studying 
minutely a large portion of these beds. 

It will be remembered that shales constitute the lower beds of the series. 
These shales constitute a source of springs along their outcrop, as could 
be readily foreseen, but the springs are generally weaker than those 
derived from the more porous lower cliff, which flow out over the great 
shales. 

The upper beds are, in some instances, quite abundantly supplied with 
finely distributed bituminous matter, but this cannot be named as a dis- 
tinctive mark, for all the limestones of the region exhibit these bitumin- 
ous belts. 

5. The next element in the Niagara Group of Highland county is the 
series of magesian limestones, which constitute, with few exceptions, the 
highest lands in the vicinity of Hillsboro. They have a maximum thick- 
ness of 90 feet, but this maximum seems altogether exceptional in its 
occurrence. The average thickness does not exceed 20 feet. They are 
characterized by an abundance of large and noticable fossils. Most promi- 
nent among t'jem are the well-known bivalve shells, Pentamerus oblongus, 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



305 



sometimes called the deer's-foot shell, and Megalomus Canadensis, which 
resembles a large clam-shell. The scientific interest of both these forms 
is very considerable, as they mark quite definitely the geological horizons 
to which they belong. Chambered shells of the Orthoceras family and 
large univalves of the genera Hurchisonia and Plenrotomaria are also 
abundant, and corals also occur in great profusion and in considerable 
variety. As is generally true in magnesian limestones, these fossils all 
occur as internal casts. They often constitute the entire mass of the lime- 
stone, but good cabinet specimens are, after all, difficult to find. This 
Pentamerus Limestone, as the series under discussion may be designated, 
furnishes here, as at many other points in southwestern Ohio, excellent 
lime, which unites the qualities of being easily burned, of whiteness, of 
durability, and of being worked with ease and economy. It is certain also 
that it sometimes possesses a measure of hydraulic energy. 

This limestone constitutes the caps of the highest hills in, and immedi- 
ately around, Hillsboro, with one exception, which is presently to be 
noted. In the section under discussion, although the place of this element 
is shown with perfect distinctness, there does not chance to occur any 
quarry in the immediate line of ascent ; but Col. Trimble's lime kiln quarries, 
a half mile to the northward, furnish every opportunity needed for under- 
standing the structure of the series. A similar statement might be made 
in the case of the Upper Cliff. 

The points at which the Pentamerus Limestone occurs to the south of 
Hillsboro are very few in number, and can probably all be embraced 
within a radius of four miles from the court-house. 

The highest formation thus far found in Adams county is the Lower 
Cliff, as has been already stated. In passing northward from the Adams 
county line by the Belfast pike, the Upper Cliff is first met with on or 
near the farm of Henry Storer, on the highest land between Belfast and 
Berryville, and the Pentamerus beds are found on the high lands of the 
Smith farm, within three miles of Hillsboro. 

The dip being uniformly to the north and east, it follows that the fur- 
ther we trace these formations to the northward and eastward, the lower 
will be the level where they are found. And thus the same Pentamerus 
Limestone that immediately underlies the village of Hillsboro is found at 
Lexington, ten miles to the northward, in the bed of Lee's Creek, 125 to 
150 feet below the Hillsboro level. The Upper Cliff forms the bed of 
Paint Creek above the mouth of Boeky Fork, showing a depression of the 
strata amounting to 350 feet in a distance of sixteen miles. The cliffs at 
the mouth of Bocky Fork and for two miles above, are composed of the 
Pentamerus Limestone, but no shells of Pentamerus have been observed 
20 



306 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

there, the equally conspicuous Megalomus Canadensis occupying almost 
all the ground. Mention has already been made of the exceptional thick- 
ness of this member of the series in this portion of the county. A section 
was measured in an almost vertical cliff near the Caves of Eocky Fork, 
which gave 85 feet of limestone, with Megalomus at top and bottom alike- 
There is a single section at Hillsboro in which the Megalomus underlies 
the Pentamerus, a fact not elsewhere observed. 

Although the shells already named constitute the most important part 
of the contents of tbis highly fossiliferous limestone ; yet there are areas 
in which the mass of the rock is mainly composed of coarse crinoidal 
stems. This variety can be seen in the College Hill quarries at Hillsboro, 
and also iu the quarries on the same farm south of the town. 

Like the Upper Cliff, this rock is often highly bituminous, the bitumen 
being sometimes disseminated iu fine grains through the whole mass, 
and sometimes being condensed in the cavities of fossils. 

6. It remains but to describe the 6th member of the Niagara Series in 
South-western Ohio. It is found, so far as known, only in Highland 
county, and here in but comparatively few locations ; but from the posi- 
tions which it now holds,, it is safe to predicate for it a former extension 
over a considerable area. 

The section now under review, starting from Bisher's Dam on Eocky 
Fork, terminates in Lilley's Hill, the highest point of land in, or immedi- 
ately around, Hillsboro, overcapping all the other summits there by -20 or 
30 feet. It has been noticed from the first settlement of the county that 
the summit of this hill is sandstone, or freestone, as it is more commonly 
designated. Examination shows that a very fine-grained, purely silicious 
sandstone, about 30 feet thick, directly overlies the Pentamerus beds at' 
this point. The color of the rock varies from white to yellowish or 
brown, a small but varying proportion of iron seeming to account for the 
changes. There is a peculiar glistening appearance to the sandstone 
which makes it impossible to confound it with any other formation found 
in this part of the State. As a typical example of it occurs so near Hills- 
boro, it may be appropriately designated the Hillsboro Sandstone. 

The occurrence of this sandstone betokens the. beginning of a very 
marked change in the condition of the ancient seas that covered this re- 
gion. A shaft sunk vertically from Hillsboro Court House would traverse 
not less than 1500 feet of limestones and calcareous shales before any 
other formation would be met, but from this level upward argillaceous 
shales and sandstones prevail, and the Hillsboro sandstone is their fore- 
runner. 

To meet with a sandstone in the Niagara series is so anomalous a fact 
hat it may naturally be asked whether the rock in question can not be 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 307 

referred to some other and higher series. The answer is, that there are 
several points in the county in which the sandstone is fonnd included be- 
tween the Pentamerus beds below and the Helderberg limestone above, 
and still others in which it is found to be directly overlaid by the Black 
Slates, without the interposition of the Helderberg series. 

The most satisfactory example of the first sort thus far observed is 
found in the section disclosed in the Meeting House Hill at Samantha. 
This hill is capped with an acre or two of " Black Slate," the most west- 
erly outlier of this great formation. Immediately underlying the 20 feet 
of Black Slate, 15 feet of Helderberg limestone are met with, and under 
this is found the Hillsboro sandstone. 

In Grady's Hill, also, four miles north of Hillsboro, on the Lexington 
pike, the sandstone occurs interstratified to some degree with the fossil- 
iferous beds of the Pentamerus limestone. 

To render more complete the prophecy of the changes that were to fol- 
low, the sandstone frequently contains thin courses of black shale, not to 
be distinguished in mineral characteristics from the heavy formation that 
lies a little higher in the geological scale. Examples of this shale may be 
noted in the Lilley's Hill section, in the Meeting House Hill at Saman- 
tha, in Grady's Hill, and in an admirable exposure of the limestone and 
sandstone near the house of John Bell, Esq., on the old road from Mar- 
shall to "Sinking Spring. 

In the Eeport on the Geology of Highland county will be found a much 
more detailed account of the points here brought forward than would be 
appropriate in this general review, but enough has been given to indicate 
the character and relations of the leading components of the Cliff lime- 
stone in the two counties already named. 

One more element might be added, it is true, viz., the Helderberg Lime- 
stone, which occurs in considerable force on the northern line of Highland 
county, at Greenfield and in its vicinity, but which is insignificant in 
amount, and often altogether wanting as we go southward. There is 
good reason to believe that this formation was deposited, in the main, in 
a shallow sea, for its successive courses are often ripple-marked and sun- 
cracked, through many feet of their thickness. The thinning out and 
complete disappearance of this limestone to the southward and westward 
furnishes conclusive proof of the existence of dry land to the westward 
at this early date. We recognize in this land the Silurian island to which 
reference has before been made, the existence of which is attested with 
equal distinctness by the Clinton Conglomerate and the thinning edges of 
the Helderberg Limestone. The eastern shore of this island at least was 
again submerged in the period in which the Black Slates were deposited, 
and thus we and the Niagara Limestones in some portions of Highland 



308 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

county, in immediate contact with this formation, while a little to the 
northward the Helderberg Limstone is interposed, and still farther north, 
as at Columbus, both the Helderberg and Corniferous Limestones are 
interposed. In other words, the Black Slates overlie, at Columbus, the 
Corniferous Limestone ; at Greenfield, the Helderberg Limestone, and at 
Marshall, the Niagara Limestone. 

This account of the Cliff Limestone of Highland and Adams counties 
will be concluded with a comparison between the Niagara Formation, in 
its typical exposures in Western New York, and the same formation in 
Southern Ohio. 

At Lockport, New Tork, and in its immediate vicinity, the Niagara 
series is represented by 85 feet of Niagara shales, overlaid by 165 feet of 
Niagara Limestone, according to Prof. James Hall, of the New Tork 
Geological Survey. This series is represented in the accompanying dia- 
gram, No. 1. 

No. 2 represents the Highland county section of the same formation, 
and No. 3 the Adams county series. The aggregate thickness of the 
Highland county group is considerably greater than is represented in the 
Bisher's Dam section, embracing not less than 275 feet of shales and 
limestones. 

For the Adams county section, the measurements of Dr. Locke, at West 
Union, are retained, viz.: 100 feet of shales and 90 feet of limestone. 



GEOLOGICAL STJBVEY OP OHIO. 



309 



No. 2. 
Highland County. 



No. 1. 
Loekport, N. Y. 



Niagara 

Limestone, 

165 ft. 



Niagara Shales, 
85 ft. 



BUlshoro 

Sandstone, 

30 ft. 



Niagara 

Limestone, 

180 ft. 



Niagara Shales, 
60 ft. 



Dayton Stone, 
5 ft. 



No. 3. 
Adams County. 




Total, 250 ft. 



275 ft. 



190 ft. 



GEOLOGICAL SERIES „ F HIGHLAND COUNTY. 



j'-t 



/*t. 




"ffbrktffCil.O. 



j*g,And. SECTION r„o M LYNCHBURG,ToMARSHALL. 



JsuncA, Ttwrg 
■ ttbaYeJSeu. 



JS^eotltryel 



/ (iAt^ Col.O. 




J\/T dr shall St&tCon 
to/iff, tnhoYe Sea. 

NIAGARA GROUR 



CLINTON GROUP. 



BLUE 

LIMESTONE. 



OR 



CINCINNATI 
GROUP. 



IZg.fra. SECTION of HIGHLAND COUNTY, through HILLSBORO. wast.tavest. 



K> 












Jq._ 



No 



15 * 




tch tt,ctfc:Xi)L>*tnt. M. 



M'g^tA. SECTION through HILLSBORO JTbrth & South. 
JCoTizorrtal scale £& miles to 4 inch. 

~V^J*-if?-w'r*sr7. ii <%*\t\-Fl: » w ir 



v u ir 




W^w^pft Col.O. 



SECTION 

JtAPIDS FOR GE 

MOUNTAIN. 

Wccverlw $andston< 
loop 



SllXs'baro 
Rochjlk, 




£Tutoji Sh ales. 



~J(iehe^ 



BiSR CbLO. 



SECTION 
LILLY'S HILL 

HIGHLAND, Co. 
Fig, 6* 



ffillsboro Sandstone. 

30 
Tentamerws, or Guelph hedf. 

Kf (J 




K ^cJie^ ETiG^CoL^Q, 



PAET IY. 

AGRICULTURAL SURVEY, 

By JOH^ H. KLIPPAET, 



ASSISTANT GEOLOGIST. 



AGRICULTURAL SURVEY, 



BY JOHN H. KLIPPABT. 



Prof. J. S. Newberry, Chief Geologist : 

Dear Sir : In accordance with your request I give below a brief sketch of 
the plan adopted, and of the work done under that plan, in the perform- 
ance of the duty assigned me as Agriculturist of the Geological Survey. I 
should say however before commencing this sketch, that the definition of 
my duty contained in the 1st section of the law providing for a Geological 
Survey, viz : " To make a complete and thorough Agricultural Survey 
of each and every county in the State," if literally construed would impose 
upon me an amount of labor only to be performed in years of active in- 
dustry, and of which the result, if fully recorded, would fill many portly 
volumes. Such a task, however, it was not the intention of the framers of 
the law to provide for any one, in as much as the greater part of the duty 
has been accomplished or is sure to be done by another organization, 
namely the State Agricultural Society. Already the records of this society 
form large 8vo volumes, one of which is published every year, and most of 
them contain each, one or more county agricultural reports, prize essays 
chosen from a number and written by intelligent agriculturist, who give in 
their essays exhaustive and accurate expositions of the districts they in- 
habit and know so well. I shall therefore take the liberty of departing in 
some measure, from the strict letter of my instructions, and, leaving the 
preparation of elaborate and voluminous diseriptions of local features, and 
locate Agricultural system to those who will prepare them for reports of 
the Agricultural Society, shall restrict myself to a more general and com- 
prehensive view of the field before me, and direct my attention in my in- 
vestigations and in my reports of them to such practical questions, relating 
to Agriculture in Ohio, as have not had and are not likely to have full ex- 
position through other agencies than the Geological Survey, and yet such 
as the best interests of our State require should be investigated. 

The plan which I have proposed to myself has been to consider the state 
of Ohio as one great farm, consisting of woodland and cultivated fields, 
adapted by topographical features, soil, exposure, etc., to very different 
systems of tillage. 



314 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

In some, the soil is virgin, in others impoverished, by long and faulty 
cultivation. These fields are not counties, but wide agricultural dis- 
tricts, possessing each its special characters and adaptations, and requiring 
intelligent, independent, and widely different treatment in order to obtain 
the best results. 

If required to report on a farm exhibiting considerable variety of soil and 
surface, the wise and skillful agriculturist would examine carefully its differ- 
ent sections, learning, if possible, as his first step, what had been its original 
and primitive condition as indicated by the kind and the luxuriance of the 
vegetation, arbsorescent or herbaceous, with which it was covered. This 
would tell him at once what were the characteristics of the virgin soil. 
Then he would ascertain, if possible, what system of cultivation had been 
practiced and with what results. He wovld doubtless learn that certain 
crops on certain fields had always been failures ; that others once yielded 
large returns, had afterwards become less renumerative ; and, unless this 
farm was a marked exception to the general rule in our country, it would 
appear that its orginal fertility had been for one or another cause sensibly, 
perhaps greatly, impaired. 

Possibly, in order to better solve all the questions that might arise, 
he would have some chemical analysis made of the different varieties of 
soil, both virgin and long cultivated, which the farm affords. But being a 
wise and experienced agriculturist — as we have supposed him to be, he 
would know that a chemical analysis, as ordinarily performed of a pinch of 
soil from a field of many acres could afford but a very imperfect clue to the 
conditions and wants of such a field ; therefore, unless he could select his 
own samples, and these even numerous and of considerable volume, and 
then treated by a chemist of more than ordinary skill and conscien" 
tiousness, he would not attach much value to chemical analysis. He would 
much prefer to be guided by what he saw of the physical characters of the 
soil, the native growth of vegetation, if retained, the appearance of the 
growing crops, and the history, so far as he could learn it, of the experience 
gained there in many years of farming by those whose bread depended upon 
all trials and experiments being carefully and honestly made. Having ex- 
hausted all these sources of information, the agricultural expert would be 
able to review intelligently the past and prescribe for the future. He 
would know what had been the history and capabilities of the territory 
under consideration ; could see where the system of cultivation pursued 
had been judicious and when it had been faulty. Taking into account the 
nature of the soil, the climate, the slopes and exposures of the different 
sub-divisions, the facilities and difficulties of drainage, the presence or 
absence of indigenous fertilizers ; muck, marl, limestone, etc., he ought to be 
able to indicate a system of agriculture that might be introduced upon 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 315 

that farm by which its fertility would be raised to, and maintained at a 
higher standard than had ever before been reached, and largely increase 
*he chances of the proprietor drawing a competence or even wealth from it. 

This, then, is the duty which I propose to do, in a small and humble 
way, in the State of Ohio. I am far from claiming for myself the rare 
and almost super-human wisdom which would be required for the full per- 
formance of a task so difficult as a thorough and exhaustive review of the 
history, conditions and possibilities of Ohio agriculture would be. Still 
I have supposed it possible that, considering the subject in a broader and 
more general view than has before been taken of it ; giving greater scope 
to my investigations and comparisons than has been attempted by those 
who have studied only local features and questions, and using, for the 
fuller illumination of the subject, all the abundant materials accumulated 
by the State Agricultural Society, I could add at least something to the 
knowledge hitherto possessed of our great agricultural resources, and 
thus make a not altogether valueless contribution to their development. 
The plan which I have worked out for myself in this investigation is to 
give : first, a general review of the conditions upon which success in agri- 
culture depends — as climate, topography, soil, etc: the classification of 
soils according to their chemical and physical characters ; an inquiry into 
their sources of fertility ; their adaptation to different systems of agricul- 
ture ; their deterioration and renovation ; second, a description of the dif- 
ferent agricultural districts of Ohio as distinguished by peculiarities of 
climate, topography, natural productions, and prevalent systems of agri- 
culture. This would include an inquiry into the sources from which the 
soils of each district are derived ; their adaption and their changes under 
cultivation, with an indication of methods and materials for the mainten- 
ance of their fertility and with an investigation into the distribution and 
properties of such fertilizers as are found within our limits. 

In a report like this, anything more than a mere allusion to the first 
part of this programme would be out of place. I should perhaps say, 
however, that I do not propose to write a treatise upon the elements of 
agriculture, bnt simply to give a brief exposition of the physical and 
chemical characters of various soils, the part they play in the growth of 
vegetation, the source of their fertility and the theory of their impoverish- 
ment. I have thought that a few pages devoted to these subjects would 
supply a want that all our farmers feel, and some of them confess, while 
they would prepare the way for the more perfect comprehension of what 
might be said in regard to the characteristics of the different agricultural 
districts of our own State. 

In dividing our surface into different sections I have found it difficult 



3X6 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

to draw the limits of each or any one in such a way as to give agricultural 
unity to the area enclosed by them. A few broad generalizations may be 
made in regard to the agricultural capabilities of different sub-divisions 
of the State, but any large area presented so many exceptions to its pre- 
valing character that this coarse and rude handling of the subject, though 
bringing out many interesting and suggestive facts, must neccessarily be 
somewhat crude and unsatisfactory. For instance ; over fully three-fourths 
of the State the surface is underlaid by the drift and the soil is in a large 
part made up of materials of foreign origin. And since the most conspic- 
uous elements in the drift deposits is clay, the larger part of the soil 
underlaid by the drift is a clay soil. Again, the materials composing the 
drift have been distributed with so much uniformity that they have filled 
up and obliterated all the irregularities of the underlying rocks and the 
topography of the drift area is as a general rule monotonous. All these 
features may be said to prevail in the drift area, and so far as they can do, 
give it unity of character. But on the other hand the drift area extends 
from Ashtabula to Dayton, covering so Wide a belt that its margins north 
and south are exposed to very different climatic influence. This is shown 
by the contrast of the hemlock forests of Ashtabula with the blue grass 
pastures of the south. The drift materials too, differ locally to a marked 
degree in their chemical and physical characters ; and within this drift 
district we have the dairy farms of the Eeserve, the loam and gravel of 
the wheat lands of Stark, Wayne and Eichland, the corn lands Of the 
Black Swamp and Miami Valley. 

The area not occupied by the Drift deposits presents less diversity of 
agricultural character, but is far from being a unity. This district lies 
mostly in the coal field, and stretches from Hanover Summit, Columbiana 
county, to Portsmouth, on the Ohio. In most of this area the surface is 
rolling or broken, the soil is mostly from the subjacent rocks, and obtains its 
fertility from the elements they contain ; differing very greatly in limited 
distances. The lower coal measures consisting of alternations of lime- 
stones, shales, sandstones, fire-clays and beds of coal, some porous, others 
very impervious, furnish a soil which is frequently well watered and fer- 
tile to the hill-tops ; while the barren coal measures, and such members of 
the upper series as fall within our limits, consisting in the greater propor- 
tion of argillaceous shales, yield an intractable, less fruitful soil. Along 
the line where the two great districts I have indicated meet, they are 
mingled in such a way as to produce endless confusion. I have thought 
it better, therefore, after indicating the influences that have produced so 
wide and general an effect, to divide the State into districts of a more 
limited area, and to make each the object of special study, in order that 
its agricultural features might be more sharply defined and be more 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



317 



readily grasped by myself and those for whom the investigation is made. 
To this end I have established the following local districts, and have de- 
voted two seasons to a systematic examination of the agricultural char- 
acters they present : 



WILLIAMS j 




I. Miami Valley, consisting of the counties of Butler, Brown, Cham- 
paign, Clarke, Clermont, Clinton, Darke, Greene, Hamilton, Logan, Miami, 
Montgomery, Preble, Shelby. 

II. Maumee Valley, consisting of Allen, Anglaize, Crawford, Defiance, 
Fulton, Hancock, Henry, Lucas, Mercer, Ottawa, Paulding, Putnam, San- 
dusky, Seneca, Van Wert, Williams, Wood and Wyandot. 

DH. Scioto Valley, consisting of Adams, Delaware, Fayette, Franklin, 
Hardin, Highland, Jackson, Madison, Marion, Morrow, PickaWay, Pike, 
Boss, Scioto and Union counties. 



318 GEOLOGICAL STJBVEY OF OHIO. 

i 

IV. Muskingum, Valley, consisting of Ashland, Carroll, Coshocton 
Guernsey, Harrison, Holmes, Noble, Eichland, Stark, Tuscarawas, Wash- 
ington and Wayne counties. 

Y. Western Reserve, consisting of Ashtabula, Cuyahoga, Erie, Geauga, 
Huron, Lake, Lorain, Mahoning, Medina, Portage, Summit and Trumbull 
counties. 

VI. Hocking Valley, consisting of Athens, Fairfield, Gallia, Hocking, 
Lawrence, Meigs, Perry and Vinton counties. 

VII. .The river counties not belonging to any river system other than 
the Ohio, are Belmont, Columbiana, Jefferson and Monroe counties. 

During the last and preceding seasons I have gone over with consider 
able care the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th districts, and a portion of the 5th. 

The eastern portion of the State yet remains to be examined, and will 
form an object of special attention during the coming season. 

In addition to personal inspection of the topography of the regions 
visited, I have made examination of the soil, and have selected a suite of 
the most typical varieties for exhibition in the Cabinet, and for analysis. 
I have made notes on the relation of the soil to the geology ; the native 
and introduced flora ; the present aspect of agriculture and its past his- 
tory. I have also gathered statistics of observations on the climate of 
different locations, and continued many years ; have also obtained profiles 
of all the Uailroads and Canals in the State. I have constantly carried 
with me an aneroid barometer, and having the altitude of almost every 
railroad station, I have made hundreds of observations on the contour of 
the surface, which I hope will have both interest and value. 

In collecting these data, I have been laid under many obligations to 
the officers of the following railroad companies, for their kindness in fur- 
nishing me profiles of their respective roads, as well as for other cour- 
tesies: 

I. Pan-Handle route, from Steubenville to Newark. 
II. Cincinnati and Marietta, from Cincinnati to Harmar. 

III. Cincinnati, Sandusky and Cleveland, from Springfield to San- 
dusky. 

IV. • Sandusky, Mansfield and Newark, from Sandusky to Newark_ 
V. Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne and Chicago, from Bnon, Pa., to Ft. 

Wayne, Ind. 

VI. Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne and Chicago, from Cleveland to Wellsville. 

VII. Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati, from Cleveland to Co- 
lumbus. 

VIII. Hocking Valley, from Columbus to Athens. 

IX. Atlantic and Gt. Western, from Dayton to Meadville, Pa. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 319 

X. Little Miami and Xenia and Columbas, from Cincinnati to 
Yellow Springs. 

XI. Fremont and Indianapolis (new), from Fremont to Union City. 
XII. Columbns and Springfield (new), from Colnmbus to London. 
XIII. Coldwater and Mansfield (new), from Pioneer to Mansfield. 
XIY. Cleveland, Mt. Vernon and Delaware (new), from Delaware to 
32 miles east to Mt. Vernon. 

XV. Chesapeake and Ohio (new), from Columbus to Waverly, via 
Circleville and Chillicothe. 
Mr. G. KL Gilbert very kindly furnishes me with profile. 
XVI. Air Line from Toledo to Indiana State Line. 
XVII. Toledo, Wabash and Western, from Toledo to Ind. State Line. 
Mr. John W. Erwin furnished me with the profile of 

I. Miami Canal, from Cincinnati to Sidney, O. 
Mr. G. K. Gilbert furnished data for a profile 

II. Miami Canal, from Toledo to St. Mary's. 

Mr. Richard Howe, of Akron, furnished me a data for a profile 

III. Ohio Canal, from Cleveland to Newark. 

I should also express my indebtedness to J. E. Straughan, Esq., for a 
great number of facts relative to the altitude of the central portions of 
the State, not on railroad lines; also, to Prof. Xewberry and Prof. Orton, 
for mnch valuable information in regard to the geological structure of the 
country I have examined, and for topographical data, in addition to that 
procured by myself. 

In my final report on the agriculture of Ohio, I propose to discuss in a 
general way, in so far as they bear upon agriculture, the climate, topo- 
graphy, geology? zoology and botany of the State. This will afford a 
broad foundation upon which the local facts and constituting the descrip- 
tions of the subordinate districts, must rest. Tt-e time for taking this 
general view of the physical geography of Ohio has, however, not yet 
come, and will not arrive until I have gone carefully over the entire field. 
In this report of progress, I can therefore only present local facts and 
limited conclusions. In this category, will come the description of such 
of the districts I have enumerated, as I have examined. Of these, that 
in which I began my investigations, and that now perhaps the best 
known of all is of the Maumee Valley. Of this,. I append a brief sketch, 
as a sort of specimen brick of my work. 
I have the honor to be, 

Yours truly, 

JOHX H. KLTPPABT. 



320 GEOLOGICAL STJRVEY OF OHIO. 



THE MAUMEE VALLEY. 



By this name I designate for convenience not only that portion of the 
hydrographic basin of the Maumee which lies in Ohio, as also a consid- 
erable area adjacent to it on the east, drained by the Portage and San- 
dusky rivers ; but which exhibits essentially the same geographical and 
topographical features. The counties included in this district as already 
enumerated are : Allen, Auglaize, Crawford, Defiance, FultOn, Hancock, 
Henry, Lucas, Mercer, Ottowa, Paulding, Putnam, Sandusky, Seneca, 
Van Wert, Williams, Wood and Wyandot. 

The geology of this district as given in the reports of Prof. Newberry 
and Mr. G. K. Gilbert, is briefly as follows : 

The rocks underlying the whole area are, as a general rule, concealed by 
heavy beds of drift, but ar"e sufficiently revealed by exposures in the 
valleys of the streams and borings for water, oil, etc., to be satisfactorily 
determined. The surface rock of the north-western corner of the State, 
included in the counties of Williams, Pulton and Defiance; with parts of 
Lucas and Henry, is the Huron shale. This is underlaid by a thin sheet 
of Hamilton limestone, which forms a narrow line of outcrop, sweeping 
around from Sylvania, towards the south and west, following nearly the 
course of the Maumee, to the Indiana line. East of this, a parallel but 
broader belt is formed by the outcrop of the corniferous limestone. This 
belt passing from Sylvania, through Lucas and Wood counties, underlies 
most of Henry and Paulding. A corresponding belt oi this formation 
passes south from Sandusky along the eastern margin of Sandusky, 
Seneca and Wyandot counties. The interval between the belts of cor- 
niferous limestone, is for the most part occupied by a sheet of the water- 
lime rock, being the upper member of the Silurian formation; this 
underlies most of Lucas, Wood, Putnam, Hancock, Auglaize, Allen, Har- 
din, Wyandot, Sandusky and Ottowa. The central portion of the belt is, 
however, broken through by the Niagara limestone, which forms a narrow 
and irregular strip traversing the district from the lake to the neighbor- 
hood of Kenton, Hardin county. The foregoing list includes all the solid- 
ified rocks underlying the district. They are, however, for the most part 
covered and concealed by thick and continuous sheets of drift material. 
The drift material — these are mo.stly clays, blue and brown, which form a 
comparatively smooth surface, have filled up and obliterated all the orig- 
inal irregularities of the underlying rocks and attained in certain locali- 
ties, a depth of more than a 100 feet. 



GEOLOGICAL StTBVEY OP OHIO. 321 



TOPOGRAPHY. 



There is perhaps no other region of equal area within the limits of the 
State which presents such a monotonous surface as tlie eighteen counties 
which I have included in the Maumee valley. • The drift has completely 
obliterated all the greater irregularities of surface which the underlying 
rocky surface would present were the drift removed. In limited portions 
of Perrysburg, Lake and Troy townships, in Wood county, and Clay and 
Harris townships, in Ottawa county, the underlying rock has been for 
ages denuded of its coveriDg, and lies exposed on a general level with 
the surrounding country, but has an insufficient amount of soil on it to 
grow any other than the most sparse vegetation, and yet within a very 
few miles from these localities penetrations to the depths of 60, 70 and 
even 80 feet have been made in the drift in search of water for domestic 
purposes. On Adams street, in Toledo, the drift was penetrated to the 
depth of 115 feet before the underlying rock was reached. 

In several other portions of the valley the rock formation rises nearly 
to a general level of the surrounding country, whilst in the immediate 
vicinity of these places the drift has been penetrated to a depth varying 
from 80 to upwards of 100 feet before the underlying rock has been 
reached. As an instance, the fact may be cited that three miles west of 
Celina, in Mercer county, lime rock is found almost on a level with the 
surrounding country, yet in the town of Celina and east of it the drift 
has been penetrated to depths varying from 70 to 80 feet without reach- 
ing the underlying rock. In the vicinity of Bryan, in Williams county, 
the drift has been penetrated upwards of 100 feet without meeting the 
underlying rock. 

There is no portion of the entire valley which could with propriety be 
termed " hilly," yet there are portions, such as the northern portion of 
Williams, a portion of Allen, Auglaize and other counties, which are 
gently undulating, yet scarcely sufficiently so to merit the term "rolling." 
Nowhere are hills to be found. A very remarkable feature of the surface 
of the valley is the distinct outline of ancient beaches, locally known as 
" Sand Ridge," " Oak Ridge," " Sugar Ridge," and perhaps by other cog- 
nomens, and fonnd in nearly every county forming the valley. The princi- 
pal one of these enters Gorham township, in Fulton county, and passes diag- 
onally in a south-westward direction through the township, taking in its 
course the village of Fayette. In this township the ridge has an eleva- 
tion ranging from 225 feet in the north to 220 in the south. From here 
it passes into the north-east corner of Williams county, near the center 
of Mill Creek township; thence it passes south-westwardly through the 
21 



322 GEOLOGICAL SUEVET OP OHIO. 

villages of Hamar and West Unity. At this latter point the ridge has 
an altitude of 230 feet above the lake. Fear Pulaski village it. has an 
elevation of about 200 feet; The town of Bryan and village of Williams 
Centre are situated on it. Prom the latter place it passes into Defiance 
county, and is divided into two nearly parallel lines west of Farmers 
Centre, aud continues its course south-westwardly .through Hieksville 
into the south-east corner of De Kalb county, in the State of Indiana ; 
thence southward to a short distance west of Ft. Wayne, where it has an 
elevation of 230 feet, and forms the left bank of the Maumee. On the 
right bank of the Maumee is a similar ridge, which, entering Ohio at the 
south-west corner of Benton township, Paulding county, is traced south- 
eastwardly to the town of Van Wert, where it has an altitude of 224 
feet ; thence to Delphos, where its elevation is 218 feet ; thence to Gomer, 
and so on through Columbus Grove, Pendleton, Webster and Benton, to 
Ft. Finley, in Hancock county. This portion of the ridge was the first 
wagon road from Ft. Finley to Ft, Wayne in the early settlement of the 
country, and even at present it is the best road in that region. Being 
composed chiefly of sand and fine gravel, with sufficient clay to pack 
well, and yqt sufficiently porous to drain very readily, from the very 
nature of its construction it must always remain a good road. At Finley 
it retains an elevation of 225 feet. It undoubtedly passed through 
Marion and Big Lick townships, in Hancock county, and Big Spring and 
Seneca townships, in Seneca county, but at; present its outline is very 
obscure indeed. There are sand "dunes" and small hillocks of sand well 
mixed with clay, and an outline bearing a. very strong resemblance to a 
former ridge through the four townships just named, but a similarly ob- 
scure ridge may also be traced from Finley to Fostoria, where it assumes 
a very definite form again, with an elevation of 200 feet, and is traced in 
a south-eastern direction through London and Hopewell townships, in 
Seneca county. The village of Bascom, in Hopewell township, is situated 
on it. Near Tiffin it has an elevation of 210 feet. From Tiffin it is traced 
in a north-easterly direction, through Clinton, south-east corner of Pleas- 
ant, and north-west corner of Adams townships, where it leaves Seneca 
county and passes into Green Creek township, Sandusky county. The 
village of Galetown is situated on it, and here it is called the " south 
ridge road," leading to Bloomingville, in Brie county, where for a short 
distance the altitude is less than in other portions. Frank A. Greene and 
Bro., of Sandusky City, own a tract of land in Brie county, through 
which this ridge passes. The sand is eagerly purchased for moulding- 
sand in furnaces and foundries. It passes through the townships of 
Milan, Berlin and Florence, where it is so very obsqflre, except in certain 
localities, as scarcely to deserve the appellation of "ridge." It has here 



GEOLOGICAL SUEYEY OP OHIO. 323 

become a wide-spread sand plain, although it is rather heavily timbered. 
It passes through Lorain county at an average elevation of 200 feet above 
the lake, and in an- easterly direction, crossing the 0. C. & C. B. B. be- 
tween Berea and Cleveland. I have not traced it through Cuyahoga and 
counties further east. From the western portion of Cuyahoga county 
one may travel in this ancient beach — for it is a good road throughout 
almost its entire length — two hundred and fifty miles by way of Tiffin, 
Forts Finley and Wayne, and through the counties of Defiance, Williams 
and Fulton, to the State of Michigan, and not be subject to an extreme 
range of seventy -five feet of variation in elevation in the entire distance. 

A second ridge passes from north-east to south-west through Bickfield 
township, in Lucas county; the same direction through Fulton, Tork and 
southeast part of Clinton townships, in Fulton county; through Free- 
dom and Eidgeville townships, in Henry county ; thence south through 
Adams, Eichlaud and Highland townships, in Defiance county. At In- 
dependence, about 2 miles east of the town of Defiance, this ridge crosses 
the Maumee at right angles. At Ayresville, in Highland township, in 
Defiance county, there is an apparent junction of two ridges, the outer 
or oldest passing through Monroe, Palmer, Greensburg, Ottumwa and 
Blanchard townships, in Putnam county, Blanchard and Portage town, 
ships, in Hancock county, the southern portions of Henry, Bloom and 
Perry townships, in Wood county, Jackson and Liberty townships, in 
Seneca county, Jackson, Ballville, Sandusky, Eiley and Townsend town- 
ships, in Sandusky county, and Margaretta township, in Erie county, 
where it is on the ridge formed by an outcrop of the Corniferous lime- 
stone between Castajia Springs and the city of Sandusky. 

From Ayresville, in Defiance county, the inner or more reeent beach 
passes through Pleasant and Marion townships, in Henry county, the 
northern portion of Van Bnren township, in Pntnam county, through 
Jackson, Liberty, Centre and Freedom townships, in Wood county. In 
the latter two townships it is locally known as the "Scotch Ridge." From 
thence it passes into Woodville and Harris townships, Sandusky county, 
where it becomes obscure, or vanishes. 

There are many smaller and intermediate ridges, which will be properly 
noticed in the final report. 

These sand ridges are usually very narrow, but in places they are 
spread out over a considerable area, sometimes one half to three-fourths 
of a mile. Then again they form vast dunes, as * in Washington town- 
ship, Henry county. This entire township may be regarded as one vast 
sand dune. A portion of Pike, Eoyalton, Chesterfield, Gorham, Dover 
and other townships, in Fulton county, may be regarded as a sand 
dune, because it is simply oak openings, sand and prairies. The 



324 eKfeOLOGIOAIi SUEVBT OP OHIO. 

Hiester farm, ia Highland township, Defiance county, is on one of these 
sind ridges, where the ridge is over half a mile wide, and notwithstanding 
that in many places it is very much obscured, yet its outline can never- 
theless be distinctly traced. The sand is about twelve feet deep, resting 
on a bluish clay of about the same thickness. All the water on the farm, 
at the house, and in the field, is found at the junction of the clay with 
blue clay which underlies it, usually at a depth, of about twenty-five feet. 
Mr. Hiester has cultivated this farm twenty-four years, and is satisfied 
that the fertility of it is increasing rather than deteriorating. 

The course or direction of these ridges is, as a rule, parallel to the 
shore of the lake, or, in other words, at right angles to the general direc- 
tion of the most rapid drainage. In consequence of their direction drain- 
age has most certainly been obstructed. We not unfrequently find a 
marsh created by the ridge presenting a permanent barrier to the passage 
of the accumulated waters to a lower level beyond. In other instances 
we find a stream deflected from the direction of the shortest and most 
rapid drainage, as in the case of Blanchard's Fork or Auglaize river at 
Finley, where it is deflected west, and finds an outlet at Defiance into the 
Maumee, when its natural drainage — and everything is favorable for this 
latter except the ridge — would be through the midldle or east branch of 
Portage river, and its waters to enter the lake at Port Clinton, instead of 
Toledo via Defiance. It is by no means improbable that these beaches or 
ridges gave direction to the head waters of the St. Joseph and Tiffin 
rivers, in Williams and Fulton counties, and caused them to make vast 
detours before their waters mingled with those of the lake. Williams 
county having a general elevation of 250 feet above the lake, the surface 
of the county, except for these beaches, would have directed the waters 
of the St. Joseph through Fulton county, and thus have reached the lake 
after a flow of 50 miles instead of about 160. The 50 mile route would 
have afforded a fall of five feet per mile, whilst the actual route, estimat- 
ing the sinuosities of the stream, is really less than one foot per mile. 

This very level surface certainly causes drainage to be very slow and 
difficult, and it very seriously discourages practical thorough underdraw- 
ing for agricultural purposes. The probabilities are that thorough under- 
draining, except in the hands of a very competent and skillful engineer, 
will not be successful, for the reason that there is really less descent than 
a foot per mile from the head waters of the St. Joseph until its junction 
with the St. Mary. A fall of 5 feet per mile is equal to about one foot in 
a thousand feet only, or to about an inch in a hundred feet. It is a 
fact established beyond successful controversy that the St. Joseph does 



GEOLOGICAL SUJ4VKT OF OHIO, 325 

actually flow with less descent than a foot per mile; therefore it is possible 
to underdrain that region if as much fall as the river itself has can be 
obtained. 

These ridges were undoubtedly the ancient shores, or beaches of the 
lake, formed by the action of the waves, just as beaches are now forming 
on the shores of Lake Michigan. 

Dr. Edmund Andrews,* President of the Chicago Academy of Science, 
says of Lake Michigan : " The two shore currents convey sand enough 
into the head of "the lake to make, every year, a beach all around the 
curve, six feet high in the centre and thirty feet wide. This sand is con- 
tinually thrown up beyond the possibility of withdrawal — much of it 
into lofty domes entirely beyond the reach of the waves, and the retire- 
ment of the water simply leaves it on the slope. Indeed, it is impossible 
that it should be otherwise, for the daily addition of new layers covers 
the older ones, and protects them from any withdrawing action which the 
water might be imagined to possess." 

The very uniform general elevation of these ridges — the material of 
which they are composed, their general direction considered with relation 
to tbe distance and contour of the lake shore ; and, final] j, the v faet that 
there is no where between the outer ridge and the lake any land 
elevated to a level or beyond that of the ridge ; all these facts pre- 
sent a mass of evidence in favor of the lacustrine origin of these ridges, 
so that successfully to controvert this position appears to me a very hope- 
less and idle undertaking. 

The Maumee Valley is watered by the Maumee, Portage and Sandusky 
rivers and their tributaries.. Notwithstanding the fact that a well-defined 
ancient beach, already described, exists in Van Wert, Allen, Putnam, 
Hancock and Seneca counties, having an average elevation of about 225 
feet above the present level of the lake, and rudely conforming in its course 
to the present shore, the general direction of the three rivers above named 
is that of almost a right angle from this ancient beach to the lake, yet 
many of the principal tributaries flow in a direction parallel to the ancient 
beach, rather than in the direction of the principal streams. 

The canal iu the town of Bremen, in Auglaize county, has an elevation 
of 386f feet above the lake ; the town is distant from the lake 119J miles 
via the canal, but the St. Marys river flows north-westward from Bremen 
to Ft. Wayne, Indiana, a distance of about 60 miles, and then joining the 
St. Joseph from the north, forms the Maumee, and flows to Toledo, mak- 
ing the total distance that the water flows from Bremen to Toledo via Ft. 
Wayne, a distance of at least 160 miles ; making the descent average less 
than 2£ feet per mile. 

* North American lakes considered as chronometers of Post Glacial time. 



326 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

If a section were made commencing at Tiffin, in Seneca county, and 
terminating at Pioneer, in Madison township, Williams county, about 1£ 
miles from the Michigan State line, it would exhibit the section of a basin 
and show a maximum depression of less than 150 feet. Pioneer is 250 
feet above the lake ; Northwest township, the highest land in the county, 
is, perhaps, 300 feet above the lake ; all the land in the county slopes or 
inclines to the south and east. Another section, commencing on the 
former Mad Kiver and Lake Erie E. E., two miles north of Kenton, has at 
that point an elevation of 368 feet above the lake, and has a gradual descent 
to the lake, a distance of 75 miles — being an average of nearly 5 feet per 
mile. The elevation of the Huron river at Plymouth, Eichland county, 35 
miles from the lake, is 397 feet, being a fraction over 11 feet per mile descent 
to the lake. From St. Marys, in Auglaize county, which, having an ele- 
vation of 878 feet, to Fremont, situated on the head of Sandusky Bay, a 
distance of 87 miles, there is almost a regular descent averaging 4J feet 
per mile. The Maumee river, at Defiance, is 98 feet above the water in 
the bay at Toledo; the distance between these two points is 51 miles (by 
rail), thus making a regular descent of nearly 2 feet per mile. The 
Loramie, which is the water summit, in Shelby county, between the lake 
and Ohio river, is 387 feet only above the level of the lake ; Hog creek 
marsh, in Hardin county, the source of Hog creek or Ottawa river (has 
very nearly the same elevation of the Scioto marsh, and almost adjoins 
it,) is 375 feet only above the lake level ; the Tymochtee, which is a branch 
of the Sandusky river, rises in Marion county, at an elevation of 360 feet, 
flows northward 80 miles, with an average descent of 4£ feet per mile ; 
Cranberry marsh, in Crawford county, 414 feet. Notwithstanding the 
fact that the country is generally very level, yet the land elevations in 
some localities are considerably higher than the water; for example — the 
depot at Union City, partly in Darke county, is 615 feet above the lake 
level ; Bellefontaine depot, 644 feet — tops of some of the hills in the 
vicinity of Bellefontaine fully 150 feet higher than the depot; Galion, 
595. The west end of Lake Erie is north from Hardin county, north-east 
from Paulding, and due east from Williams county ; yet Blanchard's fork, 
rising in Hardin county, flows north into Hancock county, where it assumes 
the name of Auglaize; thence flows nearly parallel to the ancient beach 
in an almost due west direction, to the eastern boundary of Paulding 
county — a distance of about 50 miles; thence it flows northward and 
enters the Maumee at Defiance; having a descent of about 100 feet in 65 
miles, or about 18 inches per mile ; but if from. Finley it flowed north it 
would reach the lake in less than 50 miles, and have a descent of upwards 
of 200 feet, or 4 feet per mile. 

The St. Joseph and Tiffin rivers flow on either side of this ancient beach 



GEOLOGICAL SUEYEY OP OHIO. 327 

or sand ridge and nearly parallel to it ; St. Joseph flows on the outer side 
and the Tiffin on the inner or lake side. The natural descent of the land 
is from the north west corner of Williams county, to the lake. If Tiffin 
(or Bean creek as it is sometimes called) flowed directly to the lake it 
would reach it in less than 50 miles from Gorham township in Fulton 
county, and would have a descent of nearly 200 feet and would of course 
be greatly utilized as a motive power ; instead of pursuing its course 
towards the lake it flows from it in a very tortuous channel traversing 
perhaps 50 miles to the Maumee near Defiance ; with a descent not exceed- 
ing 60 feet from Gorham township to the Maumee at Defiance. 

Notwithstanding the Auglaize flows nearly due west through Hancock 
and Putnam counties, Beaver creek, Portage river, Black Swamp run, 
middle and east branches of Portage river, all rise within a few miles of 
the right bank of the Auglaize and flow northward, at right or rather 
obtuse angles to it. 

The Portage and Sandusky rivers flow from the line of the ancient 
beach directly towards the lake ; the Tymochtie, one of the principal trib- 
utaries of the Sandusky rises in Marion county, 360 feet above the lake 
level, and 60 miles in a right line from Sandusky Bay, being a descent of 
of six feet per mile. Portage river flows, about 70 miles with a descent 
of 120 feet or less than 2 feet per mile. 

The Sandusky and all its tributaries have cut through the superincum- 
bent drift or deposits of clay and flow upon rocky formations in place ; 
the bed of the stream being upon the water-lime group, beautifully ex- 
posed in and around Tiffin. The principal bed of the Portage is on the 
surface of the underlying rock, which in Wood and Ottawa counties is 
the water-lime group, but in Sandusky county and Harris township of 
Ottawa county is the Niagara group. 

The Auglaize and all its tributaries east of Paulding county rise on and 
flow over the water-lime group, in most instances the surface of the rock 
forming the bed of the streams; from the east line of Paulding county to 
the Maumee, the Auglaize flows over the corniferous. The Maumee be- 
tween the Indiana line and Toledo flows over the Huron shales, Hamilton 
group, and near Perrysburg enters on the water-lime group. 

The abundance or scarcity of streams and the rapidity or sluggishness 
of the current in them, are conditions which exert an influence upon the 
agriculture of the region. Where the country is as level throughout as 
the entire Maumee valley has been demonstrated to be ; the absolute level- 
ness is a guaranty against inundations and overflows such as occurred in 
the Scioto and Miami vallies in September 1866, destroy ng millions of 
dollars worth of property and greatly damaging the condition of the 
farms. In a level country the current is necessarily comparatively slug- 



328 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

gish, and no sudden rise of waters can occur ; but the waters must rise 
gradually because there are no elevations to give greater velocity to the 
waters tailing on the surface than is given to all the surrounding waters ; 
and the retreat of the waters must be just as gradual, leaving a rich 
deposit on the surface of the soil ; but where the streams swell rapidly 
the current becomes a roaring torrent, more good and rich soil is carried 
away by the current than is deposited except in cases of " back water? 

Level lands retain moisture longer than broken or hilly lands do, when 
of the same character; hence it is that level lands require in almost all 
instances. thorough drainage. 

The water falling on the surface of the earth from rains, or from melt- 
ing snows, permeates the soil and porous rocks and formations of such 
material as shales, porous clays, etc., until a compact or impermeable for- 
mation is met in the downward course. As the water does not penetrate 
the impermeable formation, whether it be clay, lime-rock, or whatever 
other material, it flows along the surface until it finds a fissure to pene- 
trate and permeate the next porous formation below. But it often hap- 
pens that the impermeable formations are exposed in hill-sides, " bluffs," 
or abrupt exposures, and there the water which has been finding its way 
through all the superincumbent material finds an escape or outlet, and 
thus forms springs. The surface of the Maumee valley being very flat 
or level, having very few hill-sides or other exposures of impermeable 
strata, there are consequently very few springs of living water. Hence, 
too, the scarcity of brooks, rivulets, creeks, etc., as compared with the 
hilly regions in the eastern and southern portions of the State. But the 
water-bearing strata throughout the entire valley are between the drift 
clays, that is, as a rule, water is found after having penetrated through 
the upper yellow and blue clay until a " hard-pan,'" covering a deposit of 
sand or gravel, is reached. In this deposit of sand or gravel the water 
is found. 

Hence, too, as already stated, the general levelness of the county, the 
slight fall or descent in the streams, is the reason why so very few flour- 
ing mills or saw mills were erected in the valley ; but since the introduc- 
tion of portable steam saw mills, there are at present more of these to be 
found in this valley than anywhere else in the State, on an equal area. 

Practical agriculture is, to some extent at least, influenced by the 
topography of the region. Where there is a vast extent of country as 
level as that of the Maumee valley, not only may every acre become sub- 
jected to the plow, and thus admit of no uncultivable land, but there is 
almost a guarantee against destructive floods by heavy rains. The sur- 
face being level, there will nob probably be any accumulation of water 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 329 

from melted snows or rains until the entire arable or plowable depth has 
become perfectly saturated with moisture ; then the accumulation of sur- 
plus waters will slowly take place. A gentle or sluggish current will 
then seek a lower level. The wind, being unobstructed, exercises a far 
greater evaporative power over a plain or level region than over a broken 
or hilly district. All of the surface being exposed to the rays of the sun 
at all hours during the day, evaporation by the sun's rays takes place 
more rapidly in a level, than in a hilly region. 

The same amount of rain-fall which would no more than completely 
saturate the soil of a plain, will cause a destructive flood in a hilly 
region, because the rain in the hilly region, as it falls can readily flow 
away, does not saturate, but flows down the hill-sides, and before the 
tops and sides of the hills can become saturated the valley has become 
flooded and the gentle stream converted into a roaring torrent, rushing 
destructively onward, seeking a wider channel and a lower level. 

In a vast level expanse where there is a great extent of forests, which 
do not admit the sun's rays to strike the earth, there is always an excess 
of moisture, and hence, too, as a rule, a greater amount of miasm. This 
excess of moisture is as unfavorable to successful agriculture as miasm is 
unfavorable to health. These two conditions did more, perhaps, to retard 
if not absolutely discourage settlement and opening farms throughout the 
black swamp region than any other. 

DBALNAGE. 

It is very obvious from the topographical features generally, and the 
specific elevations given on preceding pages, that there is no portion of 
the Maumee valley which is not susceptible of being thoroughly under- 
drained. Many persons are of opinion that a sufficient amount of fall 
could not be secured for thorough underdraining, but in all my examina- 
tions I have not found any portion which could not, by a competent 
engineer, in accordance with an efficient system, be completely drained. 
Every acre, almost, of the entire north-west requires thorough under- 
draining, because there is nowhere a porous or gravelly subsoil, but, on 
the contrary, I have everywhere found a stiff" clay subsoil. Even in 
places where the soil was very sandy the subsoil was an almost impervi- 
ous clay. Without thorough underdraining the actual fertility of the 
soil can not be developed. 

Where a vast region like this valley, embracing 7,554 square miles, 
requires thorough underdraining, it certainly is the part of wisdom and 
economy to nnderdrain in accordance with some well-digested and effi- 
cient plan or system. I would respectfully suggest that the Board of 
Public Works be constituted a " Drainage Commission," whose duty it 



330 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

shall be to prepare, from actual topographic surveys, a system of drain- 
age which shall embrace all the counties in north-western Ohio, the 
streams or tributaries of which empty into the Sandusky, Portage, Au- 
glaize, Maumee, St. Joseph's and Ottawa rivers, and the various creeks 
emptying into the lake. This plan to be recorded as the plan or system 
of the Maumee valley, and a similar system to be made for every hydro- 
graphic basin or valley in the State. The plan to be a comprehensive 
one, and to give the main lines only. Such a plan can be matured only 
after a careful survey of the several counties ; therefore, in every county 
in which drains are to be located, a record of the plan should be kept in the 
Auditor's office; and whenever any drains are made, they should be made 
in accordance with and be considered a part of the plan on record. Not 
only would much expense in the cost of drains be avoided by such a 
plan, but much vexatious annoyance consequent upon tedious litigation, 
and the " costs" thereupon accruing, would also be avoided. 

I trust that my recommendation of the institution of a "Drainage 
Commission " may be deemed neither impractical nor impertinent. Not 
only has the authorization of such a commission in effect been a method 
of procedure in Germany, France, England and Ireland, but one who 
thrice has graced the Supreme Bench of Ohio as Chief Justice, in speak- 
ing of this same Maumee Valley, says in Vol. 8, page 344, of Ohio State 
Eeports : 

" It is notorious that a large district in the northwest portion of this 
State, not less probably than one-sixth of the whole, and possessing ele- 
ments of unsurpassed fertility — while it is sufficiently elevated above the 
Lake on the one side, and the basin of the Ohio river on the other, and 
almost everywhere with sufficient inclination in some direction, readily to 
carry off its surplus waters, if there were channels for its conveyance — has 
yet such an unbroken surface, and is so destitute of ravines and natural 
channels, as to render the appellation of " Black Swamp " appropriate 
and familiar, and the district proverbial — more so probably than it really 
deserves — for dampness, miasm and disease. To this large district, capa- 
ble of transformation, and in fact now being rapidly transformed, into a 
region at once healthful and productive, drains are a necessity. They 
must often be several miles in extent, and laid out with reference to some 
general plan. It is easy to see that the execution of these works is beyond 
the power of isolated individual effort, and that the public authority must 
be invoked to prescribe the location and plan, and thus to overrule the 
conflicts of individual opinion and individual selfishness." 

Even his honor Chief Justice Brinkerhoff, in the above extract, gives it 
as his opinion from the Bench that "the public authority must be invoked 



GEOLOGICAL SUEVEY OP OHIO. 



331 



to prescribe the location and plan " of a system of drains in the Mamnee 
valley. 

The people in this valley fully appreciate the importance of not only 
open ditch draining, which shall serve as main-drains, bat thorough or tile 
underdraining. With commendable zeal and very generous expenditure 
of money have they constructed up to January, 1872, no less than three 
thousand miles of main or county drains, and fully two thousand miles of 
side or township drains ; together with thousands of miles of tile, plank, 
and "sapling" underdrains. 

Annexed I present a statement of the amount of county ditches, as well 
as their lateral or township ditches, as far as it was possible for me to 
obtain them from County Auditors or Commissioners : 



COUXTY. 



Allen 




Defiance 

Fnlton 


14 yrs. ago 




10 years. . 
1854 

1854 

3 years ... 


Henry 




Paulding 


Sandusky 


1859 

1860 

5 years ... 

5years--- 

1860 

10 years . . 

I860 


Shelby 


Tan Wert 

Williams 

Wood 

Wyandot 



First ditch 
in county. 



Miles of 

main 
ditch in 
county. 



*65 
200 
200 

15 
300 

25 

40 
604i 
250 

75 

50 
114 
5 
3714 

10 



Miles of 1 

side 
ditch. 



Cost of main 
ditch. 



Cost of 
side 
ditch. 



300 
200 



. 6600 per mile! 
: 1.50 per rod" 
< 2.25 " | 
20ets. cu. yd.' 
$1.50 per rod' 



fil.OO 



30 
131 
20 
73 
35 
264 



134.00 per rod 

|S1 to §3 " 

+ 2.00 " 



2.50 
2.00 
2.50 
;70cts. 

123+ 1*5.00 
i 1.75 



Size of main. 



^ ft. bv 20 in. 
13x2ta8 
12x3 
12x24 

8x3 

8x3 



Size of 
side. 



2,325 | 1,186! 



8x2 
14x2* 

8x3 
11x2 

4xli 
14x4x4 

6x2 



8x21x24 
8x3 
6x1* 



4x2 
9xl| 
3x2 
6x2 



10x3x3 



* 75 miles in addition granted by the County Commissioners, t Total cost, 8172,000. 

I could not obtain the statistics from Auglaize, Crawford, Hancock, 
Lucas, or Ottawa counties. Hardin and Shelby counties do not belong 
to the Maumee Valley, but as the figures were before me I give them. 

The number of miles made and the snms of money expended for them, 
are certainly arguments that these drains are not pastime performances, 
in which the agriculturists of this region are indulging, but that they are 
really absolute necessities, just as much as plows or harrows are, to 
develop and make operative the full capacity of the soil for agricultural 
products. 

Xotwithstanding the number of miles constructed, and the immense 
sums of money expended in the construction, yet is there no system what- 
ever. In many instances the bed of some sluggish, tortuous, maish or 
swamp rivulet, or stream has been widened and deepened. These beds 



3 32 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

of streams converted into drains may serve a good temporary purpose, 
but after the forests shall have been removed, as in the eastern and older 
portions of the State, and the flow of water from the underdrains keep 
the brooks bank full, then will causes arise for almost interminable litiga- 
tion resulting from the change of channel, and encroachment of channel 
wearing away of lands formerly in good state of tilth and highly produc- 
tive. If ever the adage " A stitch in time saves nine" was truly applica- 
ble to any thin git certainly is to the condition of drains in the northwest 
of to day. A single dollar judiciously expended in draining today will 
save the expenditure of $10 in less than 20 years. 

The annexed communication contributed by a very respectable citizen of 
Perrysburg, to the Toledo] Commercial, demonstrates that the importance of 
underdraining is at least not underrated. 

"WOOD COUNTY. 

Editor Commercial. — A perusal of a synopsis of the observations re- 
cently made by Mr. John H. Klippart, of the Ohio Geological corps, in 
reference to the Black Swamp region, suggests the idea that a few statis- 
tical data concerning Wood county, embraced in the swamps alluded to, 
may not prove unteresting to your readers. 

This entire Northwestern portion of Ohio is evidently destined to 
become the finest agricultural region of the State, and second to none in 
the West. Both the climate and soil, together with what has already been 
accomplished in its agricultural development, tend to confirm this belief. 
And of all the counties through which the famous Black Swamp extends, 
none will surpass Wood county in all the prerequisites to a grain and 
fruit-producing region. With a rich, 'black loam, varying in depth from 
eighteen to sixty inches, it only requires the skill of science and the 
muscle of Industry to produce results that will rival the far-famed Valley 
of the Miami. Comparatively speaking, it has been but a few years since 
its swamps seemed almost impenatrable, and bore a striking resemblance 
to that famous tract which Martin Chuzzlewit made his investment. 
Acres upon acres could be purchased for a trifle, which yielded to the pur- 
chaser no other profit than what might accrue to him as the subject of 
waggish criticism. Even at the present time, there are many hundred 
of acres of land, which — it has been observed with more pertinence than 
reverence — have never yet heard the mandate " Let the dry land appear.' 
In many portions of the county, it is not uncommon to see great tracts of 
swamp extending as far as the eye can reach. A large portion of this 
area of swamp and morass, during the summer produces a growth of rank 
grass, varying from six to ten feet in hight, and standing so densely that 
it is almost impenetrable. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 333 

Many things have hitherto had a tendency to turn the tide of emigra- 
tion from this quarter, and, consequently, have materially retarded its 
development. The Maumee region unfortunately, for many years was re- 
garded as a synonym of " chills and fever." To a greater or less extent 
malarious diseases did prevail, but perhaps not more so than in any newly 
settled country, and much of this unenviable notoriety was undeserved. 
The most exaggerated reports as to the prevalence of disease, in the 
Maumee Valley, were widely circulated, and generally credited, to the 
great detriment of its prosperity. In consequence, Northern Ohio has 
not kept pace with other portions of the State in agricultural and manu- 
facturing developments. But the older and more settled portion of Ohio 
may now begin to look to their laurels, for in this Northwestern region 
they will find a rival of no ordinary mettle — a rival that will command the 
homage due to deserved success — a rival that will have hewed its path in 
material wealth and prosperity, through every discouragement and dis- 
advantage, and over the most formidable obstacles. 

The improvement already made in the surface of the country has ex- 
ceeded all expectation. Land in this county, which but a few years since, 
were covered with interminable swamps and forest, purchasable at from $2 
to $10 per acre, have been converted into good farms, now commanding 
from $20 to $50 per acre. This marked change is mainly attributable to 
the extensive and excellent system of draining or ditching, so vigorously 
pushed forward in every portion of the county. It is a source of congrat- 
ulation that this same system of drainage is not confined to this county. 
It is doing as much for the agricultural development of neighboring 
counties, and is being as thoroughly and vigorously prosecuted. The face 
of the Black Swamp region at this time presents a complete network of 
ditches, draining the land of the surplus water, and improving and de- 
veloping the resources of Northwestern Ohio. 

The petition for the construction of the first ditch in Wood county was 
filed in the Auditor's Office, on the 28th day April, 1859, and up to the 
first of September 1869, there were constructed and in process of con 
struction one hundred and forty ditches, whose aggregate length is four 
and ninety -five miles, of which one hundred ninety-two miles have been 
established in the last three years. The respective lengths of the ditches 
as as follows : 

16 ditches are less than one mile in length. 

1 mile and less than 2 miles. 

2 " u " « 3 u 

3 « u u u 4. a 
4. u it u i< 5 a 

5 «( <( it (i q a 



33 


u 


a 


23 


u 


11 


21 


a 


u 


8 


« 


u 


10 


tt 


tt 



334 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

6 ditches are 6 miles and less than 7 



5 


u ■ 


ti 7 


u 


« 


«i 


" 8 


a 


3 


ti 


" 8 


u 


n 


a 


" 9 


it 


3 


u 


" 10 


u 


a 


i< 


" 11 


a 


3 


a 


" 11 


u 


u 


a 


" 12 


u 



1 ditch is 37 3-8 miles long. 

The last mentioned ditch is ditch designated as Ditch No. 12, and " one 
of the institutions" of Wood county — a fact to which tax-payers can readily 
testify. It is perhaps the largest undertaking of the kind in North- 
western Ohio. The petition for this ditch was filed in the Auditor's 
Office, in June of 1859. The Engineer made his first report thereon in 
May, 1861. In June of the same year, the ditch was established, and the 
first work was sold in November, of 1862. The entire cost of its construc- 
tion is estimated at more than $100,000, and at this time it is perhaps a 
little more than one-half completed. It begins in Jackson township, at 
the extreme southwestern corner of the county, and runs a northeasterly 
course, down the western branch of the Portage river, passing through 
the townships of Jackson, Milton, Liberty, Portage, Center, Webster and 
Freedom, terminating at Pemberville, in the last named township. It has 
a total fall of 67J feet. When entirely completed it will drain and ren- 
der fit for cultivation not less than fifty thousand acres of wet and swamp 
land. The breath and depth of this great drain varies according to 
locality. The first six miles it has a bottom width of ten feet; the next 
three miles it has twelve feet bottom ; the next seven miles, fourteen feet ; 
the next four miles, twenty feet. The. remaining portion of its course, it 
takes the channel of the west branch of Portage river, which is required 
to be cleared of all obstructions. Its depth varies from one to eight feet. 

This one improvement alone— that might claim ratik with ship canals 
without a very great degree of presumption — is of the greatest importance 
to the future prosperity of the county, and, expensive as the enterprise, it 
will eventually produce results beneficial beyond the power of the present 
to estimate. 

Ditches Nos. 21, 22, 83, 97 and 100, also quite important, are each 
from ten to twelve miles long, and drain a large area of territory in differ- 
ent portions of the county. In the foregoing statistics, the township 
ditches are not included, the aggregate length of which will probably 
reach from fifty to sixty miles or more. 

And the end is not yet. Other ditches are in contemplation, among 
others a very large one, its course already staked off, passing through 
several counties. Seventeen miles of its length will be within the bound- 
aries of this county. Also another, to be constructed through the cen 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 335 

tral portion of the county, ranning due east and west, probably near 
twenty miles in length. 

Through the courtesy of Captain Jos. B. Xewton, our present Auditor, 
I have been enabled to glean these statistics from the records of his 
office, and they may be relied upon as being correct, and form an impor- 
tant item in the progressive history of the county. 

It is by this system of drainage, that the entire area of country, once 
known as the Black Swamp, is being converted into a most fertile and 
productive region, and in a few years will become one of the most valuable 
agricultural districts between the Alleghanies and the Mississippi. The 
opportunities for investment in lands are yet good and the chances for 
a handsome realization, by many, are regarded as superior to the prairies 
of the West. Here wild lands can still be obtained for from §5 to $10 j>er 
acre, and the heavy growth of timber, within easy access of railroads, and 
convenient to good market, will more than reimburse the capital invested. 
It is indeed a matter of some surprise that the facilities and advantages 
of an excellent market here present, are so overlooked in the great tide 
of western emigration. Here the finest opportunities are presentedfor se- 
curing good farming lands, and at no greater cost in many instances than 
in the extreme Western States, and that too with better facilities to better 
markets, and all the inestimable advantages incident to an older civiliza. 
tion. Wood. 

The soil of the Maumee Yalley, deriving its origin from the drift, is, of 
course, a tenacious moist cold soil, and while it is rich in all the ingre- 
dients necessary to constitute a fertile soil, its physical condition is such 
as to render it in many places infertile. The fertility of it, for the pres- 
ent generation at least, will be best developed by thorough underdrain- 
ing. That the practical agriculturists appreciate this fact, and are acting 
upon it as rapidly as possible, needs no better evidence than the amount 
of pubMc drains located and made, as just stated ; but these public drains 
are of themselves insufficient. They are merely main arteries, and do 
not drain the farms in detail, and at best, do nothing more than carry off 
the water which is conducted into them. The object of underdraining, in 
practical agriculture, is to afford a subterranean conduit, for the discharge 
of the waters inherent in, and which are in excess in the soil. It was for 
this purpose, that tile drains were first made, and it is a mistake to suppose 
that underdraining is for the purpose of discharging the surface water from 
the soil in which the plants are growing. Underdraining is being prac- 
ticed to a limited extent only in the Yalley. The following list of manu- 
factories, the date of their establishment, and the amount of tile manu- 



336 GEOLOGICAL SUKVEY OF OHIO. 

f'actured by them, indicate that an initiatory step has been taken in this 
direction. In a territory embracing over seven thousand square miles, 
and having a population of 380,000 people, more than eight hundred miles 
of tile underdrains should have been made ; but according to the best 
information I could obtain, that is the extent of tile draining in the Mau- 
mee Valley. In fact, this number of miles of tile drain would not be any 
excess for any one of th,e eighteen counties in this Valley. (See table, 
next page.) 

I have elsewhere discussed* how drainage operates, how it affects the 
soils, in detail, and whatever discussion this topic may now merit at my 
hands will be given in the final report, but it may not be improper to 
state here that thorough drainage, or tile drainage, removes stagnant 
waters from the surface ; that it removes the waters in excess, or surplus 
waters from under the surface. Then, too, after thus mechanically pre- 
paring the soil, drainage lengthens the working season, because the sur- 
face water being removed, and the excess of waters in the soil being re- 
moved more rapidly (at least several weeks sooner in the spring than 
it would be removed in the course, ot natural evaporation), they open 
the season at least two weeks earlier than the undrained soil would be in 
proper condition for the plow or cultivator. Then, too, in the autumn it 
extends the working season from two to three weeks, because the soil does 
not and cannot become saturated so readily as a soil which is not under- 
drained. Then drainage deepens the soil. By depriving the subsoil of 
the excess of moisture, it becomes more friable, and thus the soil itself is 
deepened. Drainage warms the subsoil, because the removal of the ex- 
cess of moisture removes the degree of cold which the water induced, 
and when the cause of the difficulty is removed the effect ceases. Drain- 
age equalizes the temperature of the season of growth by removing the 
excess of moisture as it falls from the clouds, and thus prevents the 
plants from becoming thoroughly chilled. Drainage carries down soluble 
substances to the roots of plants. It prevents heaving out, or freezing 
out, or winter killing, because when the excessive moisture is removed it 
will be difficult to form ice in the soil, and the actual cold without mois- 
ture very seldom injures the roots of plants. Drainage prevents injury 
from drouth by supplying to the roots of the plants moisture by capillary 
attraction. 

Drainage necessarily renders the soil more porous than it was before 
being drained, and therefore admits the atmosphere to the depth of sev- 
eral inches. The oxygen of the atmosphere is an active and incalculably 
valuable agent in producing plant food ; all the advantage or benefit that 

•Principles and practice of drainage. 



List of Drain Tile Manufacturers in the Maumee Valley, together with tlie extent and thickness of the clay used, date of 

' and number of tile manufactured. 



Address. 


County. 


Extent and thickness 
of clay beds. 


Thiokness of 

soil or other 

covering. 


How is the 
clay tem- 
pered f 


Am't of tile made 
and date of estab- 
lishment. 


Name of machine 
used. 


Proprietor. 


P.O. 


Extent. 


Thickness. 


Bods 
made. 


Com'ence- 
ment. 


G. E. Poage 

Binehart &Connor 


Binehart ... 


Allen 

Auglaize ... 


Entire county .. 


6 to 20 ft .. . 
1 to 3 ft.... 


[ft. yel. grav. cl'y 
lto2ft.soil,3to5 

2 to 6 ft. soil 


Soaklto2d'ys 

[longer. 

Soak 3 days or 


12,500 
5,000 


June, 1868 
Apr., 1870 


Shellabarger's, O. 
Latourette's, N. Y. 


Langhorst & Bro. 


N. Bremen.. 


(i 


Nearly all oounty 


18 in 


Strip off the sod. 


W'k fast as dug 


43,750 


4 years... 


(i « 


J. D. Karst 


Wapakoneta 
Pindlay 


Hancock ... 


tt u 
15 to 20 acres... 


18 in 

3 to 4 ft.... 


No stripping 

6 in. bl'k loam . . 


Soak 3 days .. 

[winter tern. 

Mois'n to tern., 


6,750 
4,690 


Apr., 1870 
May, 1869 


it it 
Shellabarger's, O. 




LiVy Centre 




More than a sec'n 


10 ft 


12 " sandy " 


Winter expos'e 


120,000 


, 1869 


Bartlett's, Mich. 


E. P.. Hall 




Lucas 


Inexhaustible .. 

[Bide Swan C'k 

}m. wide on each 


10 to 40 ft.. 


lto3ft 


2to3ds.soak'g 


13,000 


, 1869 Tiffany's, " 




MaumooCity 


(i 


2 to 3 ft .... 


6 to 12 in. loam . 


lto2 " " 


18,750 


5 years . .. 


Bartlett's, " 








Whole county .. 


Don't know. 


8 in. black loam. 

[bl'k loam. 

1 to 2 ft. peaty 


1 day soaking. 


One kiln 


Commen'g 


Shellabarger's, O. 


J. Shellabarger .. 


Shane'sCro'g 


it 


i the county 

[yellow. 
Abund'ce blue & 


2 to 4 ft—. 


Winter freez'g 


8,500 


Pall, 1867 


Own make. 


Patterson&Moore 


Neptune 


« 


3 to 6 ft 


14 in. of sod 


Soak sevl days 

[I? 1 * 
W'k direct frm 


8,000 


Spr'g, 1869 P. N. WollasWs. 




Ottawa .... 


Putnam 


5aores,2ft.yel'w 


6in.bluecl'y 


Soil 6 in 


12,500 


June, 1869 


Bartlett's, Mich. 


Hendricks & Son. 


Fremont ... 


Sandusky .. 


3 acres, 3ft ..... 






Winter expos'e 


3,750 


Apr., 1870 


Penfield, O. 











a 

o 

2 

i 

I 



§ 



s 



w 
w 
-J 



338 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

is obtained by plowing is, simply to render the soil porous and to expose 
new surfaces to the action of the atmosphere in order that the plant food 
may be elaborated or prepared. 

In performing the functions indicated in these several statements of the 
benefits of drainage, an improvement in the quantity and quality of the 
crops certainly must ensue. Then, too, drainage increases the effects of 
manures by removing the excess of moisture. The place occupied by the 
water is occupied by the manure itself or a liquid form of the manure, 
and whilst the water was neutral, if not injurious, the manure is active in 
preparing plant food. There are other advantages of draining which are 
susceptible of application in a sanitary view, which need not be discussed 
here in detail. I wish to say in conclusion on this point, that there is 
not a single acre throughout the entire Maumee valley that will not be 
very greatly improved by thorough underdraining ; and what is more, 
there is not a single acre that is not susceptible of being thoroughly 
underdr'ained. On a previous page I have shown that there is sufficient 
fall in every principal stream throughout this entire area for expeditious 
and safe surface drainage. 

Thorough underdraining requires less absolute inclination or fall than 
surface drainage, therefore every tract of land throughout the valley is 
susceptible of being thoroughly underdrained. The establishment of the 
number of tileries given on a preceding page demonstrates that an 
abundance of the best clay for tile making is to be found on almost 
every farm in the valley. 

In Noble and Delaware townships, Defiance county, and Jackson, Bath, 
Perry, German, Shawnee and Amanda townships, in Allen county, is an 
exposure of clay, which, in Defiance county especially, from its mechani- 
cal character, is termed by the farmers " bees-wax," from its tenacious 
character. This clay is found everwhere within the Maumee Valley, its 
chemical composition being the same wherever found, although, varying 
in color, from a greater or lesser extent of organic matter being contained 
in it. It is the clay j?er se of the Blaek Swamp. What course is to be 
pursued with this land, is a little difficult to determine. Great care must 
be exercised in the management of it, and the season of the year and 
condition of the weather, have greater influence upon it, than upon soils 
generally. I suggested to a gentleman that thorough underdraining 
would be the most effective measure that could be adopted to develop its 
fertility. He replied that they could not drain it. I suggested that as 
the clay was moist, it was evident it could absorb moisture and it could 
also part with moisture. He then showed me a drain that had been made 
and where the drain was filled, the water was yet standing on the drain 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 339 

ten days after the rain. The solution of this, is, that the clay had been 
handled at an improper season, and the handling of it when it is too wet, 
has much the same effect upon it as ramming clay, which is to make it 
entirely unproductive. This clay soil, should not be worked at any other 
time than in a dry season. It should be plowed in dry weather, hoed in 
dry weather, and neither horses nor cattle allowed to trample on it in wet 
weather. After all, the most profitable crop to be grown upon this clay 
in its present condition, is grass. 

OBIGIN OF SOIL IN 3IAU3IEE VALLEY. 

The counties included in the Mauniee valley have already been enume- 
rated on a preceding page. Every county in this valley forms a portion 
of that region known as the " black swamp," except the eastern portion 
of Seneca, the southern and eastern portion of Crawford, and the south- 
ern and eastern portions of Auglaize and Mercer counties ; all of the re- 
mainder of the valley of the territory may with propriety be regarded as 
"black swamp." This swamp consists of drifl,* chiefly clays, which have 
filled the basins or valleys made by erosions, wide and deep excavations, 
and drainage channels of former periods, and in most of the counties it 
has obscured the underlying rocks. 

This drift varies in thickness or depth fiom a few feet in Erie county, 
where it rests upon the limestone, to perhaps 150 or more feet in Williams 
county. In boring an Artesian well at Delta, in Fulton county, the drift 
was found to be 80 feet thick, and then rested upon black shale ; whilst 
at Stryker, a few miles distant, the thickness of the drift was found to be 
127 feet. This same drift deposit has been traced throughout the counties 
of Steuben, La Grange, Elkhart, St. Joseph, La Porte, Porter, Lake, De 
Kalb, Xoble, Kosciusko, Marshall, Stark, Jasper, X ewton, Allen, Whitely, 
Fulton, Pulaski, White and Benton, in the State of Indiana. Dr. Vernon 
Gould, of Fulton county, Indiana, states that the drift attains a thick- 
ness of 300 feet in that county. 

A statement somewhat iu detail regarding the superficial deposits in 
the Mauniee valley are appropriate here, because it is to these deposits 
that the soils of this region owe their origin. 

The drift material overlying and obscuring the surface of the stratified 
rocks in the Maumee valley, and from which the soil of this region is de- 
rived, may be divided as follows, in an ascending series from the stratified 
rock, viz: 

* See Prof. Newberry's discussion of the "Drift,'' pp. 24-33 in the Beport of Progress for 1869 . 



340 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

a. Glacial drift. 

b. Erie, clays. 

c. Forest bed. 

d. Iceberg drift. 

e. Alluvium. 

/. Peat, calcareous tufa, shell marl. 

The glacial drift consists of boulders, (nigger-heads) clays, sands and 
gravels, deposited indiscriminately ; later geological phenomena have not 
unfrequently assorted these deposits, and in a great measure separated 
the sands and gravels from the clays, and deposited them in regular strata. 
These glacial deposits are, except in rare instances, covered by the Brie 
or other clays. In boring an Artesian well on Adams street, in Toledo, 
boulders of this period were found resting on the subjacent lime rock, at 
a depth of 115 feet from the surface. These boulders are found on hill 
tops as well as in valleys, and not unfrequently appear to have been left 
by the washing away of the lighter material from the formations in which 
they once were imbedded ; * but all the boulders found on the surface or 
imbedded in the yellow or blue clays in the Maumee valley, were deposited 
during the ice-berg period. 

The Erie clay is sometimes associated with beds of gravel and sand, 
and when moist is of a blue color. At times, thin gray bands are found 
in it; it is commonly more or less calcareous, and always holds boulders 
and pebbles in greater or less abundance. These, when of palaeozoic 
rocks, though partially worn smooth, are generally somewhat angular, 
but are rounded when from the Laurentian or Huronian series. They are 
frequently scratched ; and in some localities few of them are found with- 
out striae, which are best preserved on the pebbles of limestone. These 
lower clays have as yet yielded no fossils.* 

In some localities this clay is calcareous to such a degree as to be more 
properly classed as a blue marl, because, on exposure to meteoric changes 
for twelve or fourteen months, it readily disintegrates, and has been ap- 
plied to sandy soils with great advantage. 

I have ascertained the extent of area occupied by the Erie clay in the 
valley and thickness of the strata, by personal examinations of the mate- 
rial brought to the surface during the progress of the well digging, and 
by inquiries made of competent persons. Commencing ' on the south, 
beyond the limits of the valley as included in the list of counties named 
on a previous page, in order to obtain as great an elevation as pos 
sible, I commence at Arcanum, in Darke county, which is about 500 
feet above the lake level. At this place the upper strata of the Erie 

* Sir W. E. Logan. 



GEOLOGICAL STTRVEY OP OHIO. 341 

clay is found to be 20 feet thick, resting on 3 feet of sand, and is covered 
by 10 feet of yellow gravelly clay. At Versailles,* in the north-eastern 
portion of the county, at about the same altitude above the Lake, the 
upper strata of the Erie clay is found to be 18 feet thick, covered by 
about 1 foot of vegetable mould and alluvium. At Newton, in Miami 
county, after passing through 7 feet of yellowish clay, a stratum of this 
blue clay 15 feet thick is reached, which rests on a bed of sand, in which 
an unfailing supply of water is obtained. At Sidney, in Shelby county, 
at an altitude of 420 feet above the Lake, the upper stratum of blue clay 
is from 25 to 30 feet thick, resting on sand, and is covered by a deposit of 
yellow clay, abounding in limestone gravel, 10 to 12 feet thick. 

At Bellefontaine, after passing through six feet of yellow clay, and five 
feet of gravel, the blue clay is reached, having a thickness of four feet 
only, until a stratum of sand is reached, which here forms the water 
table or stratum. On the fair grounds at Kenton, in Hardin county, at 
an elevation of 442 feet above the lake, this clay lies at a depth of 10 
feet from the surface, it has been penetrated 42 feet ; but the entire thick- 
ness has not been penetrated here. 

At Marysville, Union county, at an elevation of 425 feet above the 
lake, there is deposit of gravelly yellow clay 10 feet thick, depoiited over 
a 20 feet stratum of Erie clay. At Marion, the altitude is 389 feet above 
the lake; here the Erie clay rests directly on the Corniferous limestone, 
the stratum varies within the limits of the city, from 9 to 17 feet, and is 
covered by from 3 to 5 feet of good yellow clay, from which excellent 
brick and tile are manufactured. I have no reliable data from either 
Wyandot or Crawford counties, with regard to this clay, but am told that it 
is from six to thirty feet thick, and is met with in every well that is dug. 
At Shelby, in Eichland county, the depot at the station of this village 
being 513 feet above the lake, this clay is 12 feet thick, resting on 5 to 6 
feet of gravel and sand, and is covered by 10 feet deposit of yellow clay. 
At Plymouth, Eichland county, being 420 feet above the lake, the blue 
clay is fully 60 feet thick, covered by 15 feet of yellow gravelly clay. 
At New London,' in Huron county, having an altitude of '408 feet above 
the lake, the Erie clay has a thickness of 14 feet, overlaid by a bed of 
seven feet of yellow gravelly clay. No reliable information from Erie 
county, but in Fremont, Sandusky county, the superficial deposits are in 
a descending order, as follows, viz. : soil one foot, sand and gravel eight 
feet, blue clay nine feet, hard pan one foot, sand abounding in water. 

In making a second and inner circle of counties in this valley, I com- 
mence, at the town of Mercer, in Mercer county. Here this clay is 

* Union City, 17 miles west, is 617 feet above the Lake. 



342 GEOLOGICAL STJBVEY OP OHIO. 

reached at a depth of 12 to 15 from the snrface. On Black creek, in the 
north western part of Mercer county, it is reached at a depth of 4 to 6 
feet; and wells sunk or bored in it to the depth of 20 to 40 feet, become 
flowing wells. Three miles west of the town of Gelina, is an exposure of 
the water lime, and rock are here quarried., whilst in the town of Celina — 
395 feet above the lake, and east of it the blue clay has been penetrated 
to the depth of 70 to 80 feet, without meeting any rock in situ. At 
Shanesville, Mercer county, near the left bank of St. Mary's, the blue 
clay — upper stratum — is 20 feet thick, covered by 12 feet of yellow clay. 
At Bremen, in Auglaize county, the canal level here is 386f feet above the 
lake ; the Fremont and Indianapolis railway survey gives the village an 
altitude of 465 feet above the lake ; after passing through 8 feet of a com- 
paratively pure yellow clay, the Erie clay is reached, having a thickness 
of 20 feet, resting on a stratum of sand two feet thick. At Rbinehart, 
in Union township, Auglaize county, perhaps the most elevated region 
in the county, this clay is found at a depth of 10 to 12 feet. At Wapa- 
konetta it is reached at a depth of 12 to 15 feet, and attains a thickness 
of 14 to 15 feet, resting on 5 to G feet of sand and gravel. In Allen 
county, it forms a belt averaging nearly three miles in width, commencing 
in the western portion of Jackson township, on both sides of the Ottawa 
river or Hog creek ; thence the river flows nearly the centre of it, until 
it reaches a point about 3 miles south-west of Lima ;* where the stream 
changes its course, and flows nearly due north, leaving the belt of clay to 
continue westward through Amanda township. Throughout this belt, the 
stratum maintains an average thickness of about 20 feet, in a few very 
small areas it constitutes the soil ; but more generally is covered by a 
lacustrine deposit and vegetable mould, from six inches to three feet in 
thickness. At Ottawa, Putnam county, the blue clay is 40 to 50 feet 
thick, is concealed by a deposit of yellow clay mixed with gravel, several 
feet thick ; the water-table is in the sand on which the blue clay rests ; 
the water rises in the wells to within 8 or 10 feet of the surface. At 
Findley,t in Hancock county, the blue clay is reached after penetrating 
seven feet of drift material, and is from 12 to 20 feet thick, resting on 
sand, whilst just outside the corporate limits is a fine exposure of the 
water-lime. 

At Bryan, in Williams county, where the surface is 208 feet above the 
lake, this clay is reached at the depth of 5 to 8 feet, and here the upper 
stratum has a thickness of 12 to 15 feet. At the average depth of 25 

*Lima, 310 feet above the lake, according to the profile of Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne 
and Chicago railway survey, and is 381 and 324 respectively, by two other surveys, 
t Findley, 208 feet above the lake. 



GEOLOGICAL SUfiVKY OF OHIO. 343 

feet from the snrface water is found to flow 3 or 4 feet above the surface 
— wells bored 80 to 100 feet deep will flow 5 to 6 feet above the surface. 
The flowing of artesian wells may be discussed at greater length in the 
final volume ; but it may be proper to remark here that the flowing wells 
in Mercer county, being located in the same superficial deposit, may prove 
to be connected with those of Williams county. 

At Perrysburg, on the right shore of the Maumee river, ou the farm of 
Jas. W. Ross, the Erie clay forms a portion of the bed and bank of the 
river. Four or five miles from Tiffin, where the railway from Tiffin to 
Clyde crosses Spicer creek, this clay is found forming the bed and banks 
of the stream, and here presents a jointed structure. In Liberty town- 
ship, Knox county, a few miles north of the village of Mt. Liberty, a 
branch of Dry creek has cut its channel through a stratum of this clay, 
having the same jointed structure as at Spicer creek, in Seneca county. 

This clay is found and penetrated in every well in Fulton, Henry, 
Paulding and Van Wert counties. 

Thus, it will be seen that there is a wide-spread unbroken sheet of this 
clay underlying the entire Maumee Valley, and that the supply of water 
for domestic purposes is found in the sand underlying it, throughout the 
same area. 

The following sections will, perhaps, aid in presenting the deposition of 
the Erie clays in a clearer light : 

Section of Artesian Well in State House Yard, Columbus. 

Feet. Inches. 
Surface earth. . 1 

Brown earth. . . 2 

Sand, and gravel 11 

Blue clay with bowlders (Erie clay) -. 4 

Sand... 2 

Quick-sand 3 

Leafy blue clay --- 1 

Blue clay and sand (Erie clay) 18 

Clay and gravel — 3 

Sand, clay and gravel - -- 9£ 

Cemented clay, sand and gravel.. 68J 

Lime rock at .'. 123 

Section of Artesian Well on Adams Street, Toledo. 

Feet. Inches. 
Blue clay (Trie clay) 80 

Coarse gravel — the water rose 20 from this 00 10 

Blue clay (Erie clay) 10 

Gravel (water) 1 

Blue clay, with bowlders (Erie clay) 23 

Lime rock at 114 10 



344 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



Section of Artesian Well on Mr. ArrowsmitWs Farm, Farmer Township, 

Defiance County. 

Feet. Inches. 

Sand, clay and gravel 14 

Tough blue clay (Erie clay) 20 

Packing sand - 49 

Sand-rock (?) at 83 

The next deposit in an ascending order, after the Erie clays, is that of 
the Forest clay. This is a stratified clay resting on the Erie — usually of 
a buff or light brown appearance — but the color is not constant, and is 
sometimes due to various oxydes. This clay is regarded as the soil in 
which trees grew during the period intervening between the deposit of 
the Erie clay and of the ice-berg drift. The roots and trunks of trees 
are found imbedded in it and at times on it. It is found at " Four Cor- 
ners," Huron county, at a depth of 6 feet ; at Monroeville, at a depth of 8 
feet ; at Charity School, Kendall, Stark county, at a depth of 100 feet ; 
in Franklin county, at a depth of 25. feet (?) ; in Athens county, near 
New Albany, at 40 feet ; in Scioto township, Pickaway county, at a depth 
of 6 feet ; at Union Village, Warren county, at 60 feet. 

Succeeding the Forest period was the Ice-berg period, which strewed 
sand, gravel and bowlders over the floor of the great fresh water sea, 
which at that time covered a considerably larger proportion of the area 
of Ohio than is represented by the Maumee Valley. Clays deposited at 
this period may be seen in the hill at the wharf at Perrysburg; in the 
cut of the A. & GL B. B. bed, half a mile north of the depot in Mansfield 
— near the railroad bridge over Spicer creek, in Seneca county, and other 
places. 

After the retreat of the main body of waters; or, in other words, after 
the last emergence of the land the new surface abounded in inequalities, 
depressions and basins, which subsequently became prairies, swamps, 
morasses, &e. In the shallow water depressions, fresh water mollusks 
congregated together, and their shells and the precipitated carbonate of 
lime which had been held in solution, formed together with the argillace- 
ous matter what is known as fresh water shell marl — often extending over 
considerable areas ; usually of a few inches only in thickness, but in some 
localities it is found to be a foot or more in thickness. Of these mollusks 
there have been identified several species of the genus Ctolas ; Pisidium, 
Limnea, Physa, Planorbis, Ancyclus, Valvata, Melania, Anculosa, Sue 
cinea, Pupa, and many Helices. This fresh water shell marl is not unfre- 
quently found below a bed of peat or muck ; peat being produced by the 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 345 

accumulation of the remains more or less decomposed of herbaceous 
plants — generally mosses — of slow decomposition, which collected together 
in wet places, where other substances become blended with them through 
the agency of water. Mud accumulated around the roots and stalks of 
these herbaceous plants and a spongy semi-fluid mass well fitted for the 
growth of moss, which, especially Sphagnum, began to luxuriate; this 
absorbing a large quantity of water, and continuing to shoot out new 
plants above, while the old were decaying, rotting, and compressing into 
a solid substance below, gradually replaced the water by a mass of vege- 
table matter. 

There is no broad line of demarcation between peat and muck, but cus- 
tom or usage has decided that which will answer the purpose of a fnel to 
be peat ; whilst that having a greater proportion of earthy matter, so as to 
unfit it for fuel purposes, is denominated muck. 

Travertin or calcareous tufa is a deposit chiefly carbonate of lime, which 
had been held in solution and deposited in shallow waters. 

The soil consists of the weathered Brie clays in places — as in the Hog 
Creek Valley, in Allen county; in the. vicinity of Brunersburg, in Defi- 
ance county, as well as in other portions of the county, where it is 
familiarly known as " beeswax." In other portions the forest clays ; the 
iceberg and the more recent lacustrine deposits, intermingled with vege- 
table mould, form the soil. 

There is no instance throughout the entire valley where the soil is 
formed from the underlying rock ; or that the fertility of the soil is due, 
in any degree, to the influence or disintegration of the rock or rocks 
beneath. 

The ancient raised beaches or sand ridges form a portion of the lacus- 
trine deposit, and to which I have already referred when considering the 
topography of this region. 

PEAIBIES. 

Another very striking feature of this valley, and which I have deemed 
proper to consider in this place, is the vast number of plains or prairies, 
which, to a greater or lesser extent, are to be found in every county in the 
valley. In Williams county they are perhaps the least in extent — con. 
taining, in many instances, less than twenty acres, not unfrequently two 
to three acres only ; whilst in Wyandot county, on the other hand, a maxi- 
mum extent has been attained. The " Sandusky plains," as the prairie 
in Wyandot is called, are bounded on the north by the Tymochtee* and 

* Tymochtee, in the Wyandot language, is said to signify " around the plains." In this 
case it certainly is very appropriate — if true. 



346 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

'Sandusky rivers; on the west by the Tymochtee; on the south by the 
east branch of the Tymochtee, in Big Island township, in Marion county; 
on the east by the Little Sandusky and the Sandusky rivers. This prairie 
contains 135 square miles or about one- third of the area of the county, or 
upwards of 86,000 acres of land; and has an average elevation of about 
300 feet above the level, of the Lake ; that is, the junction of Tymochtee 
with the Sandusky river is at an elevation of 200 feet (aneroid measure- 
ment) above the Lake ; the residence of Everett Messenger, in Salt Eock 
township, Marion county, and near the south boundary of the prairie, is 
408 feet (aneroid) above the Lake ; the railway track at Upper Sandusky 
depot having an elevation of 288 feet above the Lake, according to the 
profile of the P., Ft. W. & O. E. E, 

In Wood county, the principal prairies are named Liberty, Tontogany, 
Hull's, Gibson's, &c, and in the aggregate are spread over about 50,000 
acres. In some of these prairies are beautiful groves of timber — chiefly 
of the several varieties of oak, yet not unfrequently of a very mixed char- 
acter ; in fact I have found in them intermingled with the oaks, hickory, 
quaking asp, walnut and beech. These groves forcibly remind one of 
islets in the Lakes; the early setters undoubtedly were similarly im- 
pressed with their appearance, and from this seeming propriety the large 
grove in the midst of a prairie in Marion county has caused the name of 
" Big Island " to be conferred on the township in which it is situated. 

The theory which ascribes the origin of these prairies to the customs of 
the aborigines annually burning all the vegetable matter on them, and 
thus preventing the growth of trees, must be abandoned as untenable. 

We find on the Sandusky plains in Wyandott county, groves on the 
prairie consisting of a clump containing a dozen or two trees, and from 
this as a minimum go on increasing in area until they cover from ten to 
twenty acres. Groves of a few acres in extent, and others of the merest 
" clumps " of trees, are found on Hull's, Tontogany, and other prairies in 
Wood county. 

In the counties of Huron and Erie is a prairie extending over ah area 
of perhaps two hundred square miles, embraced between the Huron and 
Vermillion rivers, which, as well as the Sandusky prairie, is dotted over 
with groves of forest trees. If the annual fires prevented the growth of 
trees, and these clumps and groves have grown only since this practice 
ceased, or rather since the removal of the Indians, then I am at loss to 
account for the non-appearance of trees over our entire prairie. 

But the origin of these prairies, or rather the absence of trees or forests, 
is due to other causes ; many of these prairies undoubtedly preceded the 
advent of the aborignes. I am of opinion that the supply of water on 
the area now known as plains or prairie, was entirely too great for the 



GEOLOGICAL SUEYEY OF OHIO. 



34? 



healthy growth of arborescent vegetation, and therefore the vegetation 
was not only herbaceous, but such as very probably had aquatic habits 
The clnmp of trees on every little knoll or elevation in the prairie is con- 
clusive evidence that the main body of the prairie was not in a eondition 
suitable for the growth of trees ; that the prairie was covered with vege- 
tation is abundantly substantiated by the deposit of humus in every one 
of the prairies which I have examined. The view that this humus is 
formed from the vegetation which grew on the spot, and not from vege- 
table matter brought down from higher elevations, is, I think, folly con- 
firmed by the condition of the hnmns itself. A careful examination of it 
where it has not been disturbed by the plow, shows distinctly, in some 
instances, the size and direction of the roots and leaves of which it is 
formed. 

In a note to an article on the flora of Ohio, published in the Ohio Agri- 
cultural Report for 1859, page 241, Prof. J.S.Newberry says: "The 
prairies bordering on, or east of the Mississippi, may be, and doubtless 
are, partly or locally due to one or more of the influences suggested in 
the above theories ; [a, that they are due to a peculiar fineness of soil ; b, 
thai they are the beds of ancient lakes ; e, that they are due to annual 
fires] ; bat even here the great controlling influence has been the supply 
of water. The structure of the soil of the prairies coinciding with the 
extremes of want and supply of rain characteristic of the climate, have 
made them now too wet and now too dry for the healthy growth of trees. 
A sandy, gravelly or rocky soil and subsoil, more thoroughly saturated 
with moisture, and more deeply penetrated by the roots of the forest 
trees, afford them a constant supply of the fluid which to them is vital. 
This, as it seems to the writer, is the reason why the knolls and ridges 
composed of coarser materials are covered with trees, while the lower 
lands, with finer soil, are prairies. Where greater variation of land 
exists, the highlands are frequently covered with trees, in virtue of the 
greater precipitation of moisture which they enjoy.- 

FORESTS. 

There is no better evidence of the character and natural fertility or 
capacity of a soil than its indigenous vegetation. Judged from this 
stand-point, the black swamp appears to be better adapted for a grazing 
than for a grain producing country. The rapid alternation, and not un- 
frequently very sharp outline of forest or prairie, are indications of the 
natural character of the soil of each — the prairie to sustain a luxuriant 
growth of herbaceous plants only, whilst the other either from chemical 
composition or mechanical condition sustains a growth of immense forest 
trees. 



348 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

The forests in the Maumee valley have demanded the earnest applica- 
tion of the physical force of an entire generation to remove a sufficient 
area in order to render the remaining portions habitable for the purpose 
of modern agriculture. The immense forest trees, swamps, " swales," 
cranberry, and other marshes, no doubt exerted a great, if not preponder- 
ating influence in delaying the settlement of this portion of the State. 
Of immense trees, it may be stated that near Upper Sandusky, in Wyan- 
dot county, is a Sycamore tree which measures thirty-nine feet in circum- 
ference several feet from the surface of the earth. Oaks and Walnut 
trees having a diameter of four to five feet were neither unfrequent nor 
uncommon in the early settlement of the valley. 

As already stated, the streams are sluggish, and nowhere have a suffi- 
cient fall, except being led a considerable distance in a " race," to be 
utilized as a motive power in operating saw mills or grist mills ; there 
being no gravel in sufficient quantities, or other material out of which to 
construct roads, caused a large portion of the valley to be impassible with 
a team during one half the year. Bailroads and portable saw mills are 
rapidly changing the face of the country, whilst the soil is being sub- 
jected to the plow, and under favorable circumstances yield a very gen- 
erous return to the agriculturist for his labors. 

The forest trees throughout this valley are such as require a considera- 
ble supply of moisture for their growth and healthful preservation. 
Wherever " clearings " have been made, although of no greater extent 
t-han a few acres, or along the lines of railways, more especially where 
ditches have been made on either side of the track, there the forest trees 
immediately adjoining are perishing from a deprivation of the accustomed 
supply of moisture. 

The forest growths on the " ridges " or ancient beaches, are not uni- 
formly of the same species of trees that flourish in the moist lands on 
which the ridges are located. In Williams, Defiance, Henry and Pauld- 
ing counties, intermingled with the several species of Oaks, are to be 
found the Yellow Poplar (Leriodendkon tulipifera) and Black Walnut 
( Jxjglans nigra) ; the latter two, however, are now almost all removed to 
supply the demand for economic purposes. In Van Wert, Allen, Putnam 
and Hancock counties the Sugar Maple (Acer Baccharinum) is found in 
considerable abundance, whilst in eastern Brie, Lorain and Cuyahoga 
counties the Chestnut is the most conspicuous, if not predominating forest 
tree which marks the course of the ridges. 

The outcrop of the black shales in Erie, Huron, Eichland, Morrow, and 
so on southward to the Ohio river, appear to form a boundary in Ohio, 
west of which no ehestnut {Castanea visca) or cuccumber tree {Magnolia 
acuminata) is found'growing indigenously. Throughout the Black Swamp, 



GEOLOGICAL STTBVEY OF OHIO. 349 

especially in the local swamps and marshes, are to be found both arboreal 
and herbaceous vegetation — the arborescent being generally some form of 
coniferse, as the tamarack or hackmatack (LAKES Americana) — the herba- 
ceous being the marsh marigold (Caltha ptdastris) and the side-saddle 
flower (Sarracenea purpurea), together with others, is usually found in 
the " tamarack swamps," as well as in the cranberry marshes. It is not 
an uncommon occurrence to find a tamarack swamp to be in reality a 
peat bog. In company with the cranberry and side-saddle flower are 
often found either or all of the following mosses : 

a. Sphagnum cymbifolium, 

b. " cuspidatum, 

c. " acutifolium, 

d. " subsecundum ; 

all of whieh are recognized as peat-forming plants. About one mile to 
the south-east of the town of Montpelier, in Williams county, is a cran- 
berry marsh, in which the sphagnum cymbifolium abounds ; this marsh 
abounds also in side-saddle flowers and tamarack trees, and is at the 
same time a " peat bog." Similar bogs are found in almost every town- 
ship in the county, as well as in many parts of Putnam and other coun- 
ties, and even as near the margin of the black swamp as Wyandot county. 
Almost all of these swamps abound in either peat or muck, both of which 
are of great value in agriculture. 

I have so uniformly found the cranberry plant and sphagnous mosses 
in the peat bogs, and have failed to find them where there was no peat or 
muck, so uniformly that I shall be disappointed if every cranberry marsh 
in which the sphagnous mosses grow does not prove to be a repository of 
peat, or of muck at least. 

Among the arborescent vegetation or flora throughout the black swamp 
is to be found White Oak (Quercus alba) ; Eed Oak (Q. rubra) ; Spanish Oak 
( Q. faleata) ; Black Oak ( Q. tinctoria) ; Burr Oak ( Q. macrocarpa). Almost 
all the " oak openings " which so abound in Lucas, Fulton, Henry. &a, 
counties, generally have a preponderance of scrubby Burr Oak, Swamp 
Oak (Q. aquatica Mx.)-, Jack oak {Q. imbricaria) ; — (Wood's Botany, edition 
of 1869, page 643) — Swamp white Oak (Q. Tricolor) ; Blue Ash (Fraxintjs 
quadrangulata) ; White Ash (_F. Americana) ; Black Ash, or Water Ash 

. sambueifolia) ; Beech (Fagus syfoatica) ; Black Maple {Acer nigrum) $ 
Sugar Maple (A. saccharinum) ; Bed or Swamp Maple (A. rubrum) ; Bit- 
ternut Hickory {Carya amara) ; Shagbark (C. alba) ; thick Shellbark (<7. 
sulcata) ; Mockernut (C. tomentom) ; Pignut ( G. glabra) ; White Elm 
(Ulmtjs Americana) ; Bed or Slippery Elm (U.Julva). There is a third 
species called by the early surveyors a black elm, and which is known 
also as water elm, probably a variety only of white elm ; — Sycamore 



350 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

(Platantjs occidentalis) ; Hackberry, or Hoop Ash ( Oeltis occidentalis) ; 
Dogwood (Ooenus florida); Iron wood (Ostkya Virginica) ; Hornbeam 
/Carpinus Americana) ; Black Walnut ( Jtjglans nigra) ; White Walnut, 
or Butternut ( Juglans cinerea) ; Yellow Poplar (LiriodendrOn tulipifera); 
White Poplar (Populus monilifera) ; Quaking Asp {P.tremuloides); Cot- 
tonwood (P. heierophylla) 5 Balsam Poplar or Tacamehac (P. balsamifera) . 
Balm of Gilead (P. Candieans) ; Bed Cherry (Cerasus Pennsylvania) ; 
Wild or Black Cherry (C. serotvna) ; Lynn, or Linden (Tilia Americana) ; 
Thorn {crmtagus). I recognized the tomentosa, punctata, coodnea, crus- 
galli ; there is one more which I have failed to identify, having neither 
the fruit ripe, nor the flower. Honey Locust (Gleditschia triacanthos) ; 
Buckeye (JSsotjlus glabra) ; Box Elder, or Ash Maple (Negundo acer- 
oides) ; Eed Bud (Ceecis Canadensis) ; Kentucky Coffee Tree (Gymno- 
OLADtrs Canadensis); Mulberry (MoRtrs rubra) ; Gum (Nyssa multiflora) ; 
Sassafras (Sassafras officinale). 

Nearly all the shrubby undergrowths indigenous in Ohio, are to be 
found in the Maumee valley. Many annuals or herbaceous plants, which 
long since have disappeared from the older settled portions of the State, 
are yet found in comparatively great abundance in this valley ; among 
these may be enumerated Silphitjm laciniatum (compass plant or rosin 
weed) ; Sarracenea purpurea (pitcher plant) ; several species of Cypri- 
pediae, and others. 

The foregoing list of trees and shrubs is far from being a complete one. 
A botanical survey would require much time, and a visit — especially so 
far as herbaceous plants are concerned — during different portions of the 
year. 

In the final volume the influence of forests upon vegetation, as well as 
their influence in causing rain, springs and other meteoric phenomena, 
will be discussed. It is deemed not improper, nevertheless, to state here 
that the forests in Ohio are being removed entirely too rapidly for the 
future success of that agriculture which will be demanded at the hands 
of the next generation by the increased population. The railways alone 
consume one million cords of wood annually for fuel. In a conversation 
with a very intelligent "railroad man" in 1862, he informed me that "the 
company holds it to be cheaper to use wood for fuel at any price less than 
eight dollars per cord, rather than use the ordinary bituminous coal at 
six cents per bushel." He stated that the sulphur in the coal destroyed 
the fire-boxes so very rapidly as to cause the wood to be considered the 
cheaper fuel at even $8 per cord. The immense number of "fees" de- 
manded annually will require the forest to be removed from many acres. 
Add to this the enormous and annually increasing demand tor " v lumber ' 
for the various uses to which the several kinds of timber are applied, in 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 351 

the construction of buildings, tenements, shipping vessels and cars, fur- 
niture, manufactures and the arts, and the reflecting mind will be con- 
vinced that the day is not far distant which will And Ohio comparatively 
treeless ; unless, indeed, some new source of supply should be made com- 
mercially practicable, 

Nothing will restrain this denuding process as applied to our forests 
except a demonstration that a certain proportion of area in forest is ab- 
solutely essential to the successful growth of crops ; and this demonstra- 
tion must not be arguments written oat and printed in books, reports, 
magazines, or any other form of verbal communication, but must be 
written on and over the once productive broad acres in unmistakable 
characters, impressed by droughts, by blighted harvests, parched mead- 
ows, dried up streams and springs, the keen winds of winter and the dry 
winds of summer sweeping unresistingly and bearing destruction over 
the State deprived of forests to break their strength and stay their de- 
struction. 

So long as the agriculturist believes that he can acquire more money by 
the sale of forest trees than he can derive from the influence of these 
trees on his crops, so long will he unhesitatingly dispose of every tree for 
which he can find a purchaser. When he learns that in a given series of 
years as much money may be acquired by growing young trees as there 
can be growing ordinary crops, then, but not till then, may we expect 
this denuding process to be restrained. 

It is not probable that any laws which Congress or the General Assem- 
bly of the State of Ohio might enact for the purpose of protecting or 
preserving the forests yet remaining in the State would be observed vol- 
untarily, or eould be rigidly enforced. Massachusetts has demonstrated 
that the cultivation of young forest trees is just as profitable as any 
other crop usually grown. In Ohio the natural resources of the State 
are employed to meet present emergencies or demands only ; there is no 
manifest provision or regard for the future. "After us the deluge" is so 
unmistakably written upon all the developments of these resources as to 
cause a feeling of regret and sadness rather than of joyous anticipation 
for the condition in which we are transmitting nature's bounties to future 
generations. 

Herewith is presented a table showing the number of acres in forest in 
each of the counties in the Maumee valley, a region possessing the largest 
area of forest and most densely timbered portion of the State. The table 
shows the number of acres in forest in 1853, the entire number of acres 
in the county, as well as the per centage of acres in forest in each county. 
Also, the number of acres and percentage of forest in 1870. Excluding 
Mercer county (because it failed to report the number of acres in forest 



Table showing area in Forest in 1853 and 1870 ; also, the Population in 1840, 1850 and 1870. 



CO 

to 



Counties. 



Aljen „.. 

Anglaize 

Crawford 

Defiance 

Fulton 

Hancock 

Henry , 

Lucas... 

Mercer 

Ottawa 

Paulding. 

Putnam . 

Sandusky 

Seneca ---...----.-. ., 

Van Wert 

Williams 

Wood 

Wyandot , 

Totals 

Acres cleared in 17 years 
Cleared annually , 



Acres in 
county. 



Acres in 

forest in 

1853. 



256,328 
247,776 
252,1561 
257,492 
257,057 
337,029 
262,106 
200,079 
278,703 
162,823 
259,235 
301,294 
255,661 
345,153 
258,592 
264,889 
382,845 
255,595 



4,834,813 



49,877 



191,164 
196,356 
114,535 
224,327 
206,948 
235,398 
245,660 
162,023 

"l5l",428 
251,825 
265,072 
163,213 
171,9"" 
236,088 
201,113 
337,760 
161,476 



3,516,366 
2,668,455 



847,911 



Per cent, 
of area of 
county in 
forest in 
1853. 



74.56 
79.25 
45.2Q 
87.14 
80.51 
69.82 
93.71 
81.00 



93.00 
96.83 
87.98 
63.85 
49.81 
91.30 
75.96 
88.19 
63.17 



77.17 



Acres in 

forest in 

1870. 



128,809 
137,509 
76,714 
173,283 
147,886 
161,055 
204,297 
131,235 
177,235 
119,059 
230,240 
216,320 
110,156 
117,151 
186,408 
145,051 
267,946 
115,336 



2,845,690 
Mercer, 177,235 



2,668,455 



Per cent, 
of area of 
county in 
forest in 
1870, 



50.25 
55.51 
30.42 
67.29 
57.51 
47.77 
77.91 
65.60 
63.58 
73.09 
88.81 
71.81 
43.07 
33.93 
71.11 
54.76 
69.98 
45.13 



58.85 



Population 
in 1840. 



9,079 
13,152 



9,986 
2,503 
9,382 
8,277 
2,248 
1,034 
5,189 
10,182 
18,128 
1,577 
4,465 
5,357 



100,559 



13.31[per sq. m. 



Population 
in 1850. 



12,116 

11,340 

18,177 

6,966 

7,780 

16,774 

3,432 

12,381 

7,712 

3,310 

1,766 

7,221 

14,529 

27,105 

4,793 

8,018 

9,165 

11,169 



183,754 



23.69 per sq. m. 



Population 
in 1870. 



23,623 
20,040 
25,556 
15,719 
17,789 
23,847 
14,028 
46,783 
17,254 
13,255 
8,544 
17,083 
25,504 
30,828 
15,824 
20,991 
24,596 
18,554 



379,818 



48.98Jper sq. m. 



§ 

o 

o 

I 



o 
o 

n 
S 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 353 

in 1853), there were, in ronnd numbers, three and a half millions of acres 
in the remaining seventeen counties of the valley in 1853. In 1870 these 
same counties had less than two and three-quarters millions acres in 
forest, showing a removal of nearly a million acres of forest in seventeen 
counties in seventeen years. 

During the past 20 years the population has about doubled in numbers 
in the valley, and there is no good reason to suppose that the removal of 
the forests will not keep pace with the increase of population. 



METEOROLOGY. 

In agriculture, climate is of as great importance as is the quality of 
the soil. The climate of any region is as much the result of geological 
phenomena as is the structure or composition of the soil. If there were 
no mountains — no broad seas or oceans — but simply level plains all over 
the globe — then, notwithstanding we would enjoy the different changes 
of the seasons of the year, as spring, summer, autumn and winter, yet, 
throughout the entire circle around the globe embraced by any degree of 
latitude, there would be found an identical climate and growth of vege- 
tation. It is the elevations and depressions — mountains and valleys — 
high table lands and oceans, prairies and lakes, that cause the great 
diversity of climate in different portions of the globe on the same par- 
allels of latitude. It is this diversity of climate that enables the agricul- 
turist to grow the diverse crops on the same parallel of latitude. 

Recent investigations in vegetable physiology demonstrate that plants 
more readily adapt themselves to a new soil, than to a new climate. 
Foreign grape-vines find in the soils of Ohio an abundance of the proper 
food to grow and to develop them — but our climate is less generous, and 
deprives the vine of its exquisitely flavored fruit ; our soils grow in great 
luxuriance the cotton plant, but the season is entirely too short to yield a 
crop. Innumerable instances might be cited, in each of which it could 
be shown that the soil has the requisite qualities for growth and devel- 
opment of the plant, but the climate being too severe the plants must 
either be grown in a hot-house or conservatory, or not De grown at all. 

So far as the cereal crops are concerned, it has been ascertained by 
experiment, that at the level of the sea they may be grown from the 30th 
to the 70th degree of north latitude—subject, however, to considerable 
variation from the positions of the places in regard to marine and inland 
or continental climates. At the equator neither wheat, barley nor rye 
can be grown at the level of the sea, and it is not until a hight of 2,000 
feet is attained on the mountains that they can be cultivated. 
23 



354 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

Those who are cultivating wheat have learned by experience that if 
during the flowering season there is much rain, foggy weather, or even 
much wind, together with want of sunshine, that the wheat heads do not 
fill— the process of fecundation has been interrupted, and the crop is lost. 
Of all cereals, wheat, especially, requires a bright sun to bring it to per- 
fection. Barley, oats and rye can be cultivated over a wider range than 
wheat, although there is considerable difference in their climatic adapta- 
tions. Barley and rye are grown in Norway, in latitude 70°, where they 
adapt themselves to the short summer ; but there the summer sky is 
bright. Oats succeed well in a moist climate, where the mean tempera- 
ture does not fall below 55", and at the same time they can be cultivated 
at a much greater elevation than wheat. Neither oats nor rye can be 
cultivated in the cold, moist climate of the Faroe Island, in latitude 62°. 
Barley is the only grain that succeeds, and then it scarcely ever matures 
hard grain. 

The potato adapts itself to a wider geographical range than any other 
plant which is grown for food for the human race. It accommodates 
itself to very different degrees of temperature and moisture. And yet, 
whilst the foregoing statement is strictly true, it is equally true that very 
few plants are as capricious as the potato. Varieties of this esculent 
grown on the " Lake Shore," are neither as prolific nor as well- flavored 
iu the heavy clays of Central and Southern Ohio. Darwin states that he 
found the plant growing wild in the wet, moist island of Ohonos, and 
Sabine found it growing in the dry climate of Valparaiso. It can be 
cultivated from the level of the sea in the tropics, to the height of 13,000 
feet ©n 4he mountains, and through a great variety of moist and dry cli 
mates, to 75° of north latitude. 

Of our cultivated crops, the Zea Maize, or Indian Corn is perhaps the 
most susceptible to the influences of climate. The three degrees of lati. 
tude embraced whithin the limits of the State of Ohio, so materially 
affect the growth and productiveness of this crop, that varieties grown 
as standard varieties in the southern portion of the State do not mature, 
except in rare seasons, in the northern portion. 

All the popular varieties of the cultivated grape, grow luxuriantly in 
the Valley, and it is asserted by growers that as good an article of wine 
is produced from grapes grown here, as from those grown in any other 
portion of the State. It is, however, suggested that no drift soil pro- 
duces as good a quality of grapes or wine, as does soil formed in place 
from disintegrated shales. 

Meteorological records made by J. B. Trembly, M. D., of Toledo, com- 
mencing in 1860, are introduced here for the purpose of showing that the 



GEOLOGICAL STOEVEY OF OHIO. 



355 



Manmee Valley enjoys a really fine climate, and for agricultural and hor- 
ticultural purposes, the temperature and precipitation during the spring 
months is Tery favorable for the germiniation of seeds, and the growth 
of plants — the autumn temperature, that which is promotive of impart- 
ing to the maturing fruits the finest flavor ; whilst the annual mean tem- 
perature is 3.88 degrees F. only, lower than at Steubenville, 85 miles south 
of Toledo in latitude; or the same number of degrees lower than Ger- 
mantown, in Montgomery county, 135 miles south of Toledo ; whilst Hills- 
boro, Highland county, 162 miles south of Toledo, has a mean annual tem- 
perature of only 1.18 degrees F., above that of Toledo. 



TABLE A. 

Showing five annual maximum, minimum, mean Barometer, and range. Also 
ike greatest and least variation for each year as noted in the table. 



Years. 


% 

3 

a 

1 


-*3 

■a 

3 
1 

a 


"3 
§ 


& 

i 


t 

>> 

■§ 

© 

© 

a 


to 
(3 
© 

Hi 


1869 


29.9 

29.95 

29.9 

30.42 

29.83 

29.85 

29.81 

29.83 

29.9 

29.87 


28.45 

28.85 

28.5 

28.57 

28.61 

28.58 

28.47 

28.77 

28.88 

28.94 


29.374 

29565 

29587 

29.314 

29.35 

29536 

29.23 

29597 

29.354 

29.33 


.84 

.89 

.85 

.880 

.710 

.75 

.88 

.72 

.63 

.68 


.61 

.68 
.58 
.46 
.62 
.47 
.75 
£7 
.66 
.61 


.00 


1868 


.00 


1867 - 


.00 


1866 


.00 


1865 


.01 


1864 


.00 


1863 


.00 


1862 - 


.00 


1861 1. 


.00 


1860 . 


.00 







Maximum height of barometer for ten years 3042 inches. 

Minimum " " " " 28.45 " 

Mean " " «* " '. 29.308 " 

Barometrical range for ten years ...... 1.9T " 

The greatest yearly variations for ten years 1.95 " 

The least yearly variations for ten years... 83 ' 



356 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



TABLE B. 

Showing the mean temperature of each month of the year for ten years, be- 
ginning with the year 1860 ; also, the mean temperature for each month 
for ten years. Also, showing the mean of the seasons for ten years, begin- 
ning with the year 1860 ; also, the mean for each season for ten years. 



Months. 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


1867. 


1868. 


1869. 


Monthly 
mean for 
10 years. 


January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

Jaly 

August 

September . . 

November .. 
December... 


28.87 

30.56 

42.56 

48.37 

63.96 

64.18 

72. 

70.21 

59.16 

50.87 

37.33 

84.05 


25.55 

33. 

35.88 

49.43 

55.01 

69.48 

70.26 

71.48 

62.9 

53.38 

39.91 

38.14 


27.09 

37.317 

34.835 

49.35 

60.147 

66187 

74.9 

74.17 

66.064 

53.824 

40.785 

36.125 


34.104 

31.166 

35.224 

48.615 

63.06 

68.275 

74.507 

72.95 

61.651 

44.873 

44.163 

34.223 


27.254 

31.829 

35.717 

46.119 

63.19 

70.4 

75.09 

71.103 

61.519 

48. 

40.641 

27.641 


23.46 

29.128 

40.18 

40.352 

59.654 

73.333 

69.341 

68.845 

70.185 

50.179 

41.096 

29.921 


24.673 

25.497 

31.761 

50.907 

55.845 

67.396 

74.577 

65.24 

58.974 

53.149 

40.563 

27.361 


19.563 

33.295 

30.76 

48.519 

52.309 

71.097 

71.781 

70.771 

62.407 

53.567 

43.441 

28.319 


21.018 

23.087 

38.277 

42.508 

58.064 

68.13 

79.7 

69.846 

59.894 

47.9 

39.484 

25.233 


32.97 
J32.294 

28.2768 

45.795 

57.363 

66.574 

79.534 

73.072 

64.773 

44.319 

84.774 

31.427 


26.455 

30.517 

35.349 

46.995 

58.86 

68.505 

73.469 

70.788 

62.927 

50.007 

40.218 

30.242 


Total... 


49.343 


50.368 


51.732 


51.069 


49.876 


49.639 


47.994 


48.819 


47.761 


48.512 


49.527 



Mean temperature for ten years, 49,527. 



Seasons. 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


1867. 


1868.. 


1869. 


Mean 
for 10 
years. 


Autumn 

Winter 


51.63 

68.79 

49.12 

*29.393 


46.77 
70.4 
52.06 
25.53 


47.977 
73.418 
53.557 

30.848 


48.973 
71.91 
50.23 
30.43 


48.008 
72.164 
50.052 
31.106 


47.728 
70.506 
53.82 
26.743 


46.171 
69.073 
50.595 
26.697 


43.863 
71.216 
53.138 
26.736 


46.283 
72.558 
49.092 
23.613 


47.068 
70.917 
50.044 
20.465 


47.446 
71.095 
51.270 
26.986 



"Two months — January and February. 

The warmest year in the decade was 1862, the coldest, 1868. 



GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY OF OHIO. 



357 



TABLE C. 

Showing the amount of rain and melted snow in inches which fell during 
each month of the year, from January 1st, 1861, to December 3lst, 1869. 
Also, the mean for nine years. 





Melted Snow axd Kais rx Inches. 


Meau 


Months. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


1867. 


1868. 


1869. 


for nine 
years. 


January ... 
February... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

J*ly -.- 

August 

September.. 
October 

November . . 
December .. 


2.125 

1.375 

5.5 

5.75 

4.677 

3.875 

5.125 

3.383 

2.562 

2.312 

3.125 

1.375 


3.875 

2.875 

5.562 

4.437 

6. 

3.562 

2.875 

2.375 

2 375 

2.25 

2.5 

4.312 


2.875 

3.562 

2.4375 

1.875 

2.437£ 

2.5 

3.437 

2.213 

1.625 

3.125 

3.75 

2. 


.375 
.9375 
1.9375 
4.75 
2.1875 
3.5 
3.25 
4.211 
7.006 
1.6875 
5.8125 
1.5 


.75 
1.6875 
1.75 
3.125 
2.25 
3.625 
6.062 
3.75 
10.1875 
2.25 

.3125 
3.5625 


1.75 
2.3125 
3.77 
.875 
5.375 
4.6875 
4. 

2.4375 
7.1875 
2.625 
3.125 
2.5625 


1.5 

3.125 

2.225 

3.625 

5.5 

1.9375 

2.0625 

2.437 

2. 

2.875 

2. 

1.875 


1.25 

1.0625 

8.75 

3.3755 

5.3125 

8.1875 

2.5 

4.4375 

2.5 

1.625 

2.875 

1.062 


1.6875 
3.4375 
3.635 
4.8125 
5.75 
8.25 
2.625 
.625 
1.625 
2.8125 
4.5625 
2.4375 


1.7986 
2.2642 
3.8502 
3.6249 
4.3877 
4.4583 
3.5594 
2.9844 
4.1186 
2.3957 
3.1138 
2.2629 


Total.. 


36.466 


42.998 


32.637 


37.1545 


39.313 


40.6878 


31.062 


42.0375 


42.25 


38.9087 



In 1862 there "was the greatest amount of precipitation, and the least in 1867. 



TABLE D. 

Shotting the amount of Snow which fell during each month far nine consecu- 
tive years, and the mean for the same time. 



Months. 


Sxow in Inches. 


Mean for 




1861. 


1862. 


1863. 1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


1867. 


1868. 


1869. 


Years. 


January 

Febraary 

March 

April 

May 


13.5 
2.063 
9. 
5. 


19.25 
21. 

8.74 
4. 


11.75 12.5 

34. 3.25 

13.25 7.75 

5. 5. 


7.5 

10.75 

4.75 

2.25 


7.75 
9.75 
12. 


18. 
22.25 
17. 
2. 


13.5 

7.5 

11.5 

8. 


6.25 
17. 
19. 

1.75 


12.2311 

13.3401 

12.2222 

3.6664 










i 










July 















































i 














October . .... 




.75 
3.25 
6. 


.068 i .125 
75. ! 6.5 

2. ;i3. 








3. 
1.5 
14. 


'2.5" 
9.75 


3. 
15. 

4.75 


7714 






7. 
5.25 


4.0555 


December 


3.375 


12.175 


6.5277 


Total 


41.37 


63. 


67.813 48.125 


28.625 


41.675 


77.55 


52.75 


66.75 


51.8144 



In 1867 there "was the greatest amount of snotr, and the least in 1865. 



358 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



TABLE B. 

Slwwing the warmest and coldest days for ten years. Also, the mean tempera- 
ture of the year, yearly range, mean temperature of the warmest and coldest 
days, with date. 





a 


«3 

i 


a 


I 


a& 


P 

SB 

1 




id 


Org 






+3 

i 

a 


■ §1 

i2 as 
S-tf 


a 
9 


3 . 

si 


as 


1 




3 . 
S3 


S3 

V H 

as 


a^ 


1860 


94 


Aug. 6th.. 


—10 


Jan. 2d . . . 


49.343 


104 


83. 


Aug. 7th.. 


—2.66 


Jan. 2d. 


1861 


96 


Aug. 2d... 


—4 


Feb. 8th.. 


50.368 


100 


.87. 


Aug. 2d... 


9.66 


Jan. 30th. 


1862 


97 


July 6th- 


—2 


Feb. 15th . 


51.732 


99 


87. 


July 6th.. 


11.66 


Feb. 15th. 


1863 


95 


Aug. 2d... 


6 


Feb. 3d... 


51.069 


89 


85.33 


Aug. 2d... 


9.33 


Feb. 3d. 


1864 


98 


July 28th. 


—15 


Jan. 1st .. 


49.987 


113 


87.33 


June 25th. 


—11.66 


Jan. 1st. 


1865 


* 94 


July 6th.. 


— 1 


Jan. 11th . 


49.639 


95 


82.66 


June 6th . 


5.66 


Jan. 26th. 


1866 


95 


July 16th. 


—16 


Feb. 16th. 


47.994 


111 


85.66 


July 16th. 


—7. 


Feb. 15th. 


1867 


94 


July 23d.. 


—6 


Jan. 14th . 


48.819 


100 


80.66 


July 24th. 


6. 


Jan. 29th. 


1868 


100 


July 14th. 


—10 


Feb. 3d... 


47.761 


110 


87.33 


July 14th. 


4. 


Jan. 9th. 


1869 


95 


Aug. 20th. 


3 


Feb. 28th. 


48.512 


92 


84.33 


Aug. 19th. 


11.66 


March 6th. 




100 


July 14th. 


—16 


Feb. 16th. 


49.554 




87.33 


Aug. 14th. 


—11.66 


Jan. 1st. 



SUMMARY FOR TEN YEARS. 

The warmest year in ten years was 1862, mean temperature 51.732 

The coldest year in ten years was 1868, mean temperature 47.761 

The mean temperature for ten years 49.554 

The mean temperature of the warmest day in ten years, July 14, 1868.. . 87.33 

The mean temperature of the coldest day in ten years, Jan. 1, 1864 — 11.66 

The highest temperature in ten years was July 14, 1868 100. 

The lowest temperature in ten years was Feb. 16, 1868 — 16. 



GEOLOGICAL SUBTBT OF OHIO. 



359 



TABLE ¥. 



Showing the course of winds in ten years ; the clear, cloudy and variable 
days. Also, the number of days in which it rained and snowed. 



















ri 


•6 


















o 


© 


















'3 


o 
a 
to 




m 
o 






43 

to 


to* 


1 




15 


3 


Tears. 




'Z 


r3 


ni 


S" 


Q 


o 


£ 


£ 




J3 


3 


a 


d 


Q 


t>» 




a 


-j 




"" 


*" 


<3 


<2 




■3 


"a 














-*3 


% 







m 


e 




is 


1 




CD 


3 


O 
i— I 


■> 


13 


-3 




■2 


j 


d 


3 


O 


O 


O 


o 


c-i 

3 




■3 


F-f 




d 
















o 


© 




o 


d 


.O 


o 


© 




SQ 


Us 


S3 


SQ 


Jz; 


& 


£; 


^ 


Sz; 


1869 


546 
453 
534 
590 
596 
548 
482 
520 
580 
504 


165 
168 
212 
224 
210 
264 
230 
205 
192 
217 


226 
336 

263 
199 
220 
229 

300 
262 
218 
229 


158 

141 

86 

82 

69 

57 

83 

88 

105 

148 


43 
54 
53 
49 
63 
55 
68 
80 
70 
78 


143 
121 
101 
133 
117 
149 
157 
142 
110 
161 


180 
191 
211 
183 
185 
162 
140 
143 
185 
127 


103 
103 

92 
117 
108 

9s 

92 
103 

51 
100 


49 


1868 


43 


1867 


52 


1866 


49 


1865 


25 


1864 


35 


1863 


35 


1862 


46 


1861 


43 


1860 


34 






Total 


5353 


2087 


2502 


1017 


614 


1333 


1707 


967 


411 







The average number of days in which it rained for each year in ten years. 96.7 
The average number of days in which it snowed for each year in ten years. 41.1 
The average number of days in which it rained and snowed for each year 

in ten years 137.8 

The average number of clear days for each year for ten years 61.3 

" ." " cloudy" " " " " 133.3 

" " " variable davs" " " " 170.7 



360 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



TABLE G. 

Showing the Isothermal lines and mean amount of precipitation of the sea- 
sons for ten years. 

The great controlling conditions of all climates depend upon the tem- 
perature and amount of precipitations. To compare one portion of a 
country or continent with another relative to the amount of heat or rain, 
observations need to be taken at numerous places. These when reduced, 
show that the distribution of heat and moisture are confined to certain 
belts or zones. Upon this suggestion Humboldt initiated Isothermal Lines, 
which have been extended from one point to another until the whole 
Globe has been charted and mapped. 

From observations that have been taken in the city of Toledo, Ohio, 
these thermal lines and hyetal or rain charts are as follows : 

Spring temperature . 47.446 degrees. 

Summer ' " 71.095 " 

Autumn " 51.27 " 

Winter " 26.986 " 

Mean temperature for ten years 49.527 " 

Spring precipitation 11.7834 inches. 

Summer " 10.8784 " 

Autumn " 9.7211 " 

Winter " 6.2751 " 

Mean precipitation for nine years 38.9087 " 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 361 



AGRICULTURAL VALUE OP SOILS IN MAUMEE VALLEY. 

It is proposed in the final volume to enumerate all the rocks and clays 
which contribute to the formation of the soils of Ohio, and to present a 
chemical analysis of them, and to trace the soils to their origin. A 
few of the characteristic or typical soils of the valley were analysed by 
Mr. T. G. Wormley, the chemist to the Geological Corps. A portion of 
these analyses are here presented as an exponent of the work in this 
direction. 

The analyses of soils was at one time supposed to be a method of ascer- 
taining the fertility or infertility of a soil; or of indicating what ingre- 
dients were absent from the soil, and that the want of these rendered it 
less fertile than if they were present. If plants were passive, then, per- 
haps, an analysis of the ashes of the plant, together with an analysis of 
the soil, would be of great advantage to the practical agriculturist. But 
the plant itself is active; that is, it possesses to a very great degree- the 
power of selecting its food. 

A thorough and complete discussion of this topic cannot fail to be of 
the greatest interest to the agriculturist ; but to do so in detail would 
require a special volume; therefore a brief outline of the present state of 
knowledge on this topic must suffice. This discussion involves, as a mat- 
ter of course, the question whether certain mineral substances, always 
constituents of plants, perform an essential function in forming the mass 
of the plant ; and whether they are contained in different proportions in 
different plants. Botanists have made investigations for the purpose of 
ascertaining whether definite classifications of plants might consistently 
be made, by accepting the differences in ash constituents as a basis. 

Professor Liebig divided plants, according to the predominant elements 
in their ashes, into saline, calcareous and silicious plants. Botanists ap- 
plied these ideas to the soil in which these plants grow, and formed the 
opinion that a soil in which a saline plant flourishes must contain much 
potash, and that a soil in which a calcareous plant luxuriates much lime 
must necessarily be contained. 

They endeavored to find a connection between the ashes and the soil, 
and thus were led into multifarious errors; the classifications made to-day 
at one place were found objectionable the next day at another place, 
according to the differences in the locality. 

Much was attributable to the erroneous views which some advocated, 
namely, that plants do not possess the faculty or power of selecting their 
food ; that they are obliged to take up the assimilable mineral substances 
contained in the soil, in exactly the same proportions in which they find 



362 GEOLOGICAL- SURVEY OP OHIO. 

them to exist in the soil; that these acceptable elements of the soil do not 
regulate the growth of the plants; that those plants, which are unable to 
substitute one substance for another, are strictly limited to one kind of 
soil, and that their existence is strictly limited to the chemical condition 
of the soil. 

Comprehensive works were written to establish the division of plants, 
in relation to the soil, into constant, adapted and precarious plants. Those 
requiring a certain peculiar soil were called constant plants; those pre- 
ferring a certain other peculiar soil, without being confined to it, were 
called adapted; precarious, those appearing not to be limited to any 
peculiar soil. 

To base the existence and growth of plants upon the chemical constit- 
uents of the soil, is not demonstrable in all instances, and it seemed very 
singular to these advocates that such very different modifications should 
exist in plants; that the ashes of the one might be composed of any given 
substances whatever, while those of another must have a very particular 
or special composition. The number of the "constant" plants was very 
limited, and instances occurred almost every day in which this or that 
kind of plants transgressed the limit drawn, and appeared and flourished 
upon a soil which had been pronounced unsuitable. 

Aside from this, it was shown by analyses that the calcareous plants of 
the botanist were not the calcareous plants of the chemist; the latter 
deeming the quantity of lime contained in the ashes to be the criterion ; 
the former the growth of the plant upon a calcareous soil. It is not a 
matter of surprise that the stock growers of Ohio are of opinion that the 
Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratense) requires a calcareous soil, and will not 
flourish on any other ; but the chemist fails to find as much lime in the 
ashes of this grass as he does in either those of timothy (Phleum pratense) 
or red clover (Trifolium). If the chemist classed according to predomi- 
nating qualities of the ashes of plants, he could class the blue grass first, 
as a potash plant; second, as a silicious plant; and lastly, as a lime or 
calcareous plant. 

The same differences obtained with regard to the calcareo-silicious 
plants. Consequently the plant must have the power of selection ; car- 
bonate of lime is often known- to exist in a lime soil in such proportions, 
compared with the other elements, that the plants, in order to obtain the 
rarer constituents necessary for their development, such as phosphates, 
would actually be compelled to become storehouses of lime. 

We know that aquatic plants have a power of selection; that they do 
not take up the substances in the proportions in which they are presented 
to them in solution. Prof. Liebig examined the water lentil (duck-meat) 
(Lemna trisulca) floating upon the surface of the water and sinking its 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



363 



roots into the water; found that the water of the swamp upon whose sur- 
face the lentil had grown was very differently constituted from the ashes 
of the lentil. 



100 parts of dried lentils gave 
16.6 parts of ashes. 

In 100 parts of slightly glowing 
ashes were contained : 



Lime 16.82 

Magnesia 5.08 

Common salt 5.897 

Chloride of lime .. — 1.45 

Potash 13.18 

Natron 

Oxyd of iron, with traces of clay. 7.36 

Phosphoric acid 8.730 

Sulphuric acid 6.09 

Silicic acid 12.33 



Salt left by the water from Botan- 
ical Garden : 1 litre contains 0.415 
grammes of salt left, slightly glown. 

In 100 parts of the salts are con- 
tained: 

Lime , 35.00 

Magnesia - 12.264 

Common salt 10.10 

Chloride of lime 

Potash 3.97 

Natron 471 

Oxyd of iron, with traces of clay. . .721 

Phosphoric acid 2.619 

Sulphuric acid 8.271 

Silicic acid 3.24 



" The composition of the water," says Prof. Leibig, " compared with 
that of the ashes, shows that all mineral substances, except the natron, 
are found in the plant, but in a very much changed condition ; the water 
contains 45 per cent, of lime and magnesia, the plant only 21 per cent, of 
both ; the water contains 0.72 per cent, of oxyd of iron, but the plant ten 
times as much. The difference between the phosphates, potash, etc., is as 
considerable. Evidently a selection had taken place ; the plant took up 
the soluble mineral constituents in such proportions as it needed them 
for its vital functions, but not in such proportions as they were presented 
to it in the liquid." 

The plant is active in seeking for food ; it selects and takes up what it 
needs for its development. 

From this it is evident that the inference to be drawn from the ashes 
of a plant as an indication of the soil upon which it grew must necessa- 
rily be very much restricted. 

The objections justly urged against the opinion that the chemical com- 
position of the soil was sufficient for the appearance of the plants grow- 
ing upon it, led to the opposite extreme, namely, to a denial that the ele- 
ments of the soil exert any influence in this respect, and gave rise to the 
opinion that to the physical composition of soil alone, the plants growing 
thereon was to be ascribed. 

One of the advocates of the physical condition of soil arrives at the 
conclusion that the physical condition of the soil alone determines the 
kind of plants which flourish upon it, and the chemical constitution has 
nothing to do with it ; for, he says, the growth of the plants depends 
upon the physical properties of the soil, and the mineral constituents 



364 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

come into the plants accidentally, and remain in the cellular tissue be- 
cause they are not volatile like the water. 

On the strength of various analyses it has also been maintained that 
the species of plants growing upon a calcareous or silicious soil, contain 
respectively more lime or silica. This, perhaps, would prove that the 
plants can retain in their tissues the mineral elements, in a free state, 
which they can not assimilate or otherwise exclude after the vegetable 
elaboration of the liquids they hold in suspension or combination. This 
free state is remarkably manifest in certain cases, for instance, by the 
calcareous crystals of the Hydrurus erystallophorus ; but it does not prove 
that those substances are essential to the proper organization, because 
the same species growing upon different soils contain different substances. 

If the analyses of plants growing upon a calcareous soil showed more 
lime, and those growing upon a silicious soil more silica, it would prove 
that the plants did not take up such unavailable substances. But if we 
suppose that these substances form an essential part of the mass of the 
plants, then those plants which live upon different soils, must obtain them 
from other sources than from the soil. Singular as it may appear, these 
views advocated by Thurmann were adopted by many renowned botanists. 
However erroneous these fundamental views, they led to very correct 
conclusions, because when they came to apply them to practical agricul- 
ture they insisted that the pulverization of the soil is the most essential 
requisite. 

Leaving these conflicting views to be settled by chemists and vegetable 
physiologists, a brief statement of the conditions necessary for the growth 
of plants, so far as known with certainty, may not be out of place. 

Climate not being under discussion, no reference to it is necessary, for 
every plant requires a certain amount of heat, light, atmospheric mois- 
ture, etc. These requisites being supplied, the physical composition of 
the soil is the first and most important condition for the growth of plants. 
The sand, clay and lime soils have each their own peculiar vegetation, 
conditioned by their own proper physical composition, furnishing the 
necessaries of life to certain species of plants only. Now, plants are dif- 
ferent in this respect ; that some are much affected by any change in the 
conditions under which they naturally grow, and may easily perish, while 
others, naturally, have an extraordinary vitality. 

A ditch dug through a peat bog will cause the disappearance of the 
rare moor plants, which are the delight of the botanist. A change in the 
intensity of light or in moisture, occasioned by the clearing of a forest, 
will cause many species of plants to disappear, while others appear in 
their place. But a large number of plants may exist under very different 
conditions. Plants which are kindred to each other according to the 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 365 

external form of all their parts, and belong to one and the same species, 
are very different. In the -water, in the swamps, in the field, in the 
meadow and on rocks, in the stump and tree, whose dead and decaying 
bark furnishes food to other vegetables, and out of whose substance 
others obtain their food, show that the conditions of vegetation are ex- 
ceedingly diverse. 

But every species of plant, wherever found and flourishing, will be 
found having the conditions requisite for its growth ; the mineral sub- 
stances and the materials for the formation of the organic parts. 

If a sufficient amount of these substances is not contained in this soil, 
the species either will disappear or be compelled to confine itself to the 
formation of sprouts only — a slow growth — until it finds food sufficient 
for its full development. The life of any species of plants depends upon 
a certain amount of food, and in the place of the perishing one there will 
spring up another less choice in its food. 

This amount of food is not conditioned by the wants of the plants 
alone, according to their number or multitude, but by the vital power of 
any species of plants, by their power of collecting food, for there are in- 
active as well as active plants ; it is also dependent on the extension and 
number of the roots, and the capacity for absorbing food. 

Plant life to a certain degree depends upon the physical condition of the 
soil. We find certain species preferring a sandy, or limey, or clayey, or 
humous, or moist, or wet, or dry, or cold soil. Any experienced botanist, 
knowing the physical condition of the soil, will seldom fail to find any 
species of plants precisely where the soil posseses the property required 
for its growth ; and, in general, he will judge correctly of the degree of 
moisture in a soil by the plants growing thereon. 

Certain plants appear under certain conditions only, but their limits are 
often extensive and very difficult to determine. 

As to the ashes of the plants, their composition is governed by the 
individualities of the species of plants, but not by the soil in any other 
way than by the presence of a sufficient quantity of the necessary ingre- 
dients. 

A plant will be the more sensitive or susceptible of injury the less it is 
able to adapt or substitute, in part, one substance for another, (alkaline 
earths chiefly), it will develop more vigorously, and be content with a 
poorer soil, the greater the power it possesses for eliminating these sub- 
stances from the soil, other conditions being equal. 

Since plants possess the power of selection, the analysis of their ashes 
cannot furnish any correct inference as to the quantity and quality of the 
constituents of the soil. There are a number of plants growing, chiefly 



366 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



in gardens and rich fields, -which require a large amount of food, and 
probably of nitrogenous substances, for their vigorous development. 
But the amount of nitrogen contained in a plant does not justify the 
inference that the nitrogen is contained in the soil in the form of nitrogen. 
The following analyses of the ashes of some of the principal agricultu- 
ral plants, compiled from Emil Wolff,s " Aschen Analysen von Land- 
■wirthschaftlichen Producten :" 

GRAINS. 





CD 
O 
BO 

o 

8 




In 100 parts of ashes are 


contained — 








m 

< 


•i 


4 
o 

OQ 


a 


o 

C8 


s 

.a 

O 

rd 

M 

o 


1 

t 

CO • 

S3 

ft CS 


p 
'B 

OB C3 


'© 
e8 

o 
'a 

g 

02 


o 


Wheat 


98 

SO 

50 

23 

9 

3 

29 

5 

2 

1 

1 

1 


1.97 
2.09 
2.60 
3.14 
1.51 
1.37 
2.73 
3.69 
2.18 
2.54 
1.44 
. 1.97 


31.16 
31.47 
20.15 
16.38 
,27.93 
23.07 
41.79 
30.63 
64.14 
22:75 
35.68 
54.69 


2.35 
1.70 
2.53 
2.54 
1.83 
6.12 
0.96 
2.07 
0.63 
9.94 
26.09 
8.52 


3.34 
2.63 
2.60 
3.73 
2.28 
4.42 
4.99 
8.10 
6.91 
24.44 
4.08 
.7.98 


11.97 

11.54 

8.62 

7.06 

14.98 

12.42 

7.96 

14.29 

5.29 

11.60 

8.75 

5.22 


1.31 
1.63 
0.97 
0.67 
1.26 
1.74 
0.86 
1.12 
1.01 
2.66 
1.40 
1.04 


46.98 
46.93 
34.68 
23.02 
45.00 
48.67 
36.43 
41.50 
14.89 
20.74 
13.59 
15.20 


0.37 
1.10 
1.69 
1.36 
1.30 
2.11 
3.49 
2.34 
4.17 
2.20 
6.09 
5.69 


2.11 
1.88 
27.54 
44.33 
1.88 
0.23 
0.86 
1.24 
1.07 
1.87 
4.32 
1.49 


0.22 


Rye 


0.61 


Spring barley ... 


0.93 
0.58 


Buckwheat 


1.42 
1.30 
1.54 


Flax seed 

Aeorn 


0.16 
1.76 


Apple whole fruit 
Pear " " 


0.52 



STRAW AND STALKS. 





3D 

g 

■a 

•a 






In 100 parts 


of ashes are contained — 
















a 

o 


o 




-d 






o 

H 
Q 

,a 

a 

a 


< 


S 
o 
ft 


of 

o 
02 


© 

a 
■ 3 


_03 

© 

a 

bo 


1} 


H 
O 

'£• 
ft i 


1. 

00 o3 


O 
JO 

1 


d 
d 

•B 

o 


Wheat 


18 
10 
21 


5.37 
4.79 

4.80 


13.65 
19.24 

22.85 


1.38 
2.15 
4.13 


5.76 

8.58 
7.77 


2.48 
2.72 
2.60 


0.61 
1.04 
0.69 


4.81 
5.14 
4.48 


2.45 
2.71 
3.71 


67.50 
56.38 
52.02 


1.68 


Rye 


2.51 


Spring barley... 


2.26 




9 
4 


4.70 

4.87 


22.12 
22.96 


2.89 
14.63 


8.86 
9.63 


4.04 
6.17 


1.45 

1.56 


4.69 
12.66 


3.09 
3.00 


48.57 
27.88 


6.31 




1.74 




6 


6.15 


46.86 


2.21 


18.43 


3.66 




11.89 


5.32 


5.56 


7.88 




23 
16 


5.13 
3.53 


22.90 
31.06 


4.07 
8.14 


36.82 
22.23 


8.04 
6.58 


1.72 
2.40 


8.05 
13.59 


6.26 
6.54 


6.83 
5,51 


5.64 




4.09 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



367 



BOOTS AND TUBERS. 





GO 

e 

GO 
CS 
1 

cm 

O 




In 100 parts 


of ashes are contained — 
















C3 


a 
o 


a 


o 


*iH 
















"3 


o 


o 


3 


c3 


d 




,2 

a 


CD 

O 

£1 


1 


a 








8? . 

CD • 


3M 


*3 


o 




a 


To 
<! 


o 


o 

OB 


3 


a 


O 




OB. c3 


■—I 
33 




Potatoes 


53 


3.77 


60.37 


2.62 


2.57 


4.69 


1.18 


17.33 6.49 


2.13 


5.22 




98 


3.86 


55.11 


10.90 


5.36 


7.53 


0.93 


10.99 3.81 


1.80 


3.28 




32 


8.01 


45.40 


9.94 


10.60 


3.69 


0.81 


12.71' 11-19 


1.87 


6.47 











LEAVES, Etc. 





ED 

<S> 
CO 

B 
03 


In 100 parts of ashes are contained — 














o 


o 




•6 






O 










03 




u 


o 


-■-1 


. 




u 

o 










<& 


o 


o 

.a 


PS 


c3 


d 




a 


CO 


"GO 

a 


CS 


a 


if 


•d 


00 • 




*3 


S 




* 


<B 

< 


o 


o 


3 


s 


o 




do 
QQ 03 


i— i 




Tobacco, leaves . . 


12 


18.41 


20.07 


3.39 


41.59 


11.72 


3.07 


3.16 


3.86 


8.92 


5.22 


Hops, fruit 


25 


7.59 


34.45 


2.19 


16.65 


5.47 


1.45 


16.73 


3.58 


16.60 


3.28 


Hops, whole pl'nt 


3 


9.47 


24.62 


3.41 


22.17 


7.87 


2.91 


9.18 


4.78 


20.08 


6.47 



Whilst there is a very considerable proportion of hnmus, or decayed 
vegetable matter distributed over the surface of the valley, there is after 
all very little alluvial matter, and the soil id drift material, chiefly clay, 
exposed to the action of the elements, and intermingled with the decom- 
posed and decomposing vegetable and other organic matter. In many 
countries, and even in some counties in Ohio, the soil is formed to a very 
great extent from the underlying rock, but in this valley the soil is not 
even affected by the underlying, except, perhaps, in such limited areas that 
I failed to discover them. 

That the soil in the Haumee, formed as it is from the drift, has all the ele- 
ments of fertility as recognized by chemistry, is shown by the following 
chemical analyses, and is demonstrated in a practical manner on the farms. 
The first analysis is from the farm of Mr. Henry Breed, in section 34 in Per- 
rysburg township, Wood county. This is from a portion of the farm recog- 
nized as "Black Swamp "by those who limit the Black Swamp proper 
to that region of country embraced between Fremont and Perrysburg. 



368 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



The analysis of this and the other soils in Ohio "were made by Mr. T. G. 

Wormley. 



Organic matter 

Silicic acid 

Silica 

Sesqui oxide of iron. 
Alumina 



14.94 grains 

soluble in. 

hydrochloric 

acid. 

5.37 

.03 



f 



85.06 grains 

insoluble in 

hydrochloric 

acid. 

16.36 



Copper . 

Phosphate of lime 

Lime 

Carbonate of lime 

Carbonate of magnesia . 






Potash and soda. 
Sulphuric acid .. 





54.29 


1.97 




1.20 


9.69 


.07 


trace. 


trace. 


trace. 


.50 


0.00 




0.92 


4.72 




1,14 






0.54 


.10 


2.28 


.075 


.11 



Phosphoric acid . 



99.365 



From a mean or average of 151 analyses of the grain, chaff and straw, 
of the wheat plant, 44 per cent .of the crop is grain, 47 per cent is straw, 
and 9 per cent, is chaff. The grain yields 1.93 per cent of ashes, the straw 
4.84 per cent., and the chaff 12J per cent. According to these proportions 
the wheat crop which yields 25 bushels of wheat of 60 pounds per bushel, 
consists of 1500. pounds of grain, 1602.1 pounds of straw, 306.9 pounds 
of chaff; and removes from the soil that which will yield 144.08 pounds 
of ashes. This ashes is distributed as follows : From the grain, 28.95 
pounds ; from the chaff, 37.59 pounds ; from the straw, 77.54 pounds 
These ashes are composed of the following substances : 





Pounds, of 

ashes in one 

bu. wheat. 


Pounds of ashes in 

straw, from one 

bu. wheat. 


Pounds of ashes in 

chaff of one bu. 

wheat. 


Total 
pound. 




.03 

.012 

.258 

.126 

.03 


per ct. 

0.058 

1.2 
22.4 
10.9 

27 
11.2 

0.8 
50.1 

0.1 


2.000 
2.064 
.519 
.075 
.211 
.057 
.0128 
.0749 
.0997 


per ct. 

69.9 

18. 
2.5 
7.4 
1.9 
0.5 
2.8 
3.1 


0.0085 

1.2112 

0.1374 

0.0269 

0.0282 

0.0196 

0.006 

0.966 


0.091 
81.2 
9.1 
1.8 
1.9 
1.3 
1.4 
4.3 


.0385 


Sand and silica 


3.2872 
.9144 




.2279 




.2672 




.126 
.006 
.570 
.00012 


.2026 


Oxide of iron 

Phosphoric acid 


.0040 
.7109 

.0898 










1.15812 


99.458 


3.1034 


100.1 


1.5038 


5.7545 



These averages show that the grain, straw and chaff of one bushel of 
wheat weigh 136.40 pounds ; but when reduced to ashes weigh 5| pounds 
only. These 5| pounds are inorganic substances or earthy matters, ab- 
stracted from the soil. Of these inorganic ingredients, it will be seen 



GEOLOGICAL STTEYEY OP OHIO. 369 

that phosphoric acid is the most important, and next in order of import- 
ance is potash, in the constituents of the ashes of the grain. These two 
elements forming nearly three-fourths of the ashes. In the straw, silica 
and potash predominate, constituting more than three-fourths of the 
ashes of the straw; and constitute nine-tenths of the ashes of the chaff. 
It is in the straw only, that the lime attains any such proportion as one 
would expect to find, when every agriculturist claims that a limestone 
soil is best for wheat, and in the absence of a limestone soil applies gyp- 
sum or calcined lime, as a sort of top dressing. 

After having ascertained the inorganic or earthy constituents which 
enter into the composition of the wheat plant, it may be well to ascertain 
whether these constituents are contained in the Black Swamp soil, in suf- 
ficient quantities to assure the skillful husbandman that wheat may be 
successfully grown. 

Medium soils will weigh about three millions (3,000,000) pound per acre, 
to the depth of one foot. 

The Breed farm contains then per acre: 

Organic matter 632.500 pounds. 

Sttiea 1.630.000 " 

Sesquioxide of iron ,. 59.000 " 

Alumina 326.950 " 

Manganese 2.100 " 

Phosphoric acid 9.900 " 

Sulphuric acid 2550 " 

Lime , .- 36.000 " 

Lime, carbonate of 141.000 " 

Magnesia, carbonate of... 34.200 " 

Magnesia 16.200 " 

Potash and soda 71.400 " 

Total 3.01L500 

Every bushel of wheafcjgrown removes .7109, or nearly three-fourths of 
a pound of phosphoric acid. Of all the inorganic substances required for 
the production of wheat, phosphoric acid is found in the smallest quan- 
tity on this Breed farm; and yet small as the quantity is, there is sufii- 
cient to grow 25 bushels of wheat per acre, for 557 years. 

This soil has all the earthy or mineral matters required for growing 
corn. The mean or average of many analyses of corn, is as follows: 

Grains. Stalks. 

Potash 26.63 36.3 

Soda...i 7.54 1.2 

Lime 1.59 10.8 

Magnesia 15.44 5.7 

24 



370 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



Grains. Stalks. 

Oxideofiron 0.60 2.3 

Phosphoric acid 39.65 8.3 

Sulphuric acid 5.54 5.3 

Silica acid .* ...., - 2.09 28.8 

Ash. i.5l Ash 5.33 

When the mechanical condition of this soil shall be in proper order for 
the best growth of plants, then will this soil yield bounteous crops of 
Kentucky Blue Grass (PoA pratense'), Timothy (Phletjm pratense), or 
Bed Clover (Trifoletjm pratense). Analyses show that the ashes of 
these plants consist of 



Potash 

Soda 

Lime , r 

Magnesia 

Oxyd of iron 

Phosphoric aoid 

Sulphuric acid 

Silioic acid 

Chlorine 

Ashes 



Bine Grass. 



38.45 
0.69 
5.65 
2.76 
0.28 

10.06 
4.20 

33.08 
6.16 



5.92 



Timothy. 



25.73 
1.79 

15.57 
5.52 
0.28 

11.76 
5.06 

32.41 
2.40 



5.08 



Red Clover. 



40.87 
6.47 

26.53 
8.91 
1.53 
4.01 
3,52 
2.66 

11.76 



6.14 



On the Breed farm is found a great variety of forest trees, chiefly of 
such species, however, that require a large supply of moisture. The land 
requires thorough under-draining as an initiatory or preparatory step to 
successful cropping. The analysis of this soil certainly indicates that 
there is a good supply of every essential ingredient in the soil to produce 
largely all the crops generally grown in the State. The following is an 
analysis of the soil of Mr. Graves' farm near Versailles, in Crawford 
county, Kentucky, and which, it is asserted, has yielded 34 bushels of 
wheat and 100 bushels of corn per acre. Analysis by Eobt. Peter, of the 
Kentucky Geological Survey : 



Organic and volatile matters 

Carbonate of lime 

Magnesia 

Phosphoric acid .- 

Sulphuric acid 

Potash 

Soda — not estimated 

Sand and insoluble silieates 

Alumina, oxyds of iron and manganese . 

Totals 



Per Cent. 



5.513 
2.734 
0.333 
0.306 
0.037 
0.205 



77.194 
13.344 



100.066 



Pounds in one 

acre one foot 

deep. 



165,420 

82,020 

. 9,990 

9,180 

918 

6,150 



8,327,820 
400,320 



3,001,818 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 371 

The soil of Tontogany Prairie exhibits the following composition : 



Organic matter 

Silica 

Sesquioxide of iron. 

Alumina 

Phoshphate of lime 
Lime 



Per cent, 
soluble in Hy- 
drochloric 
Acid, 6.31. 



Carbonate of lime 

Carbonate of magnesia. 

Magnesia 

Sulphuric acid 

Phosphoric acid 

Potash and soda 



9.18 
0.04 
2.03 
1.65 
.30 



1.07 
.91 



.05 



Per cent. 

Insoluble in 

Hydrochloric 

Acid, 84.51. 



66.37 



14.75 
0.98" 



0.76 



1.09 
1.75 



Total 



Pounds per 
acre. 



275,400 

1,992,300 

60,900 

492,000 



34,200 
32,100 
27,300 
22,800- 
1,500 
*7,470 
52,500 



M. 



2,998,470 



* Including the phosphoric acid with the phosphate of lime. 

This prairie soil shows less potash and soda, less phosphoric acid, and 
less organic matter than the soil from Mr. Breed's farm, but has more 
silica and alnmina. The timber on this prairie are oaks, chiefly, and 
aspen. That these prairies are, in actual practice, the most valuable 
farming lands in Wood county, is sufficiently proven by the value of 
lands. The average value of lands in the county, as returned by the 
county auditor, is $13.53 per acre. The townships of Plain, Washington: 
and Weston, in which Tontogany prairie is situated, are valued at $16.15,. 
$18.83 and $17.27 per acre; whilst Henry, Jackson and Portage town r 
ships, destitute or nearly so of prairie, are valued at $9.33, $7.76 and' 
$7.69 respectively per acre. Lake township, the north-west corner of 
which is within three miles of Toledo, and has within its limits a railway 
station on the Lake Shore roa'd, as well as five miles of the road itself, is 
valued at $12.12 per acre, or 41 cents less than the average of the county. 

In Wyandot county, the townships of Crane, Mifflin, Pitt, Salem and 
Tymochtee, in which the greater portion of the Sandusky plains or prai- 
ries is contained, are valued respectively at $26.82, $18.96, $19.01, $21.36 
and $25.94. Jackson, Marseilles and Eichland townships, destitute or 
nearly so of prairies, are valued at $14.60, $14.79 and $18.97 respectively ; 
the average of the county is $22.19, showing that the good timber 
land is valued higher than the prairies. 



372 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



The following is an analysis of Illinois prairie soil, taken opposite to 
Keokuk. Analysis by Eobert Peter, of the Kentucky Geological Survey : 



Per cent. 



Pounds 
per acre. 



Organic and volatile matters 

Carbonate of lime 

Carbonate of magnesia 

Alumina 

Potash 

Soda 

Silica and insoluble silicates. 

•Oxide of iron 

Phosphoric acid 

Total 



9.Q50 
.890 
.526 

2.404 

.197 

.100 

84.470 

2.350 
.175 



270,000 

26,700 

16,786 

72,150 

5,910 

3,000 

2,534,100 

70,500 

5,250 



3,003,390 



According to this the Illinois prairie is much more sandy or silicious 
than the Tontogany. Illinois has notably less potash and soda, as well 
as less phosphoric acid — substances the small quantities of which, it is 
believed, will not be compensated by the very large amount of silica and 
silicates, at least in an agricultural sense. 

The following analysis is from the soil on John Hiester's farm, situated 
on the second ridge mentioned on page 324. This farm is located from 
two to three miles south of Independence, in Defiance county, and is 
famed throughout the county for its fertility. The analysis shows its 
chemical composition, as follows : 



Organic matter 

Silica .' 

Sesquioxide of iron 

Alumina 

Manganese 

Copper 

Lime 

Lime, carbonate of 

Magnesia, carbonate of 

Magnesia 

Potash and soda ...... . 

Sulphuric acid 

Phosporio acid 



Soluble in 
hydrochlo- 
ric acid — 
per cent. 



0.97 
.02 

1.37 
.40 
.05 
Trace. 
.046 
.27 
.23 
.09 
.09 
.052 
.044 



Insoluble in 
hyrochlo* 
ric acid — 
per cent. 



2.24 

84.29 

Trace. 

7.34 
Trace. 
Trace. 

1.29 



.47 
1.45 

' 0.019 



Pounds 
per acre. 



96,300 

2,529,300 

41,000 

232,200 

1,500 



52,500 
8,100 
7,200 
14,100 
46,200 
1,560 
1,800 



The ridge has a slight elevation only where this farm is situated, but it 
is rather wide-spread j and Mr. Hiester's farming is perhaps the best 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 373 

specimen of ridge farming in the county. His wheat crops are excellent, 
especially in a wet season ; his corn good, and fruit, for beauty of form, 
color, flavor, and exemption from scales, scabs, specks, etc., is the subject 
of remark wherever known. 

Of the twelve townships which constitute Defiance county, six, namely, 
Adams, Richland and Highland, are traversed by the second ridge or 
ancient beach, whilst Farmer, Hicksville and Milford townships are tra- 
versed by the first or outer beach. The lands are valued as follows — 
Adams, Richland and Highland, being the eastern range of townships, 
are in proximity to the county town, Adams and Richland traversed by 
the Wabash Railroad : Adams at $11.88, Richland $14.33, and Highland 
$11.77 per acre. The townships of Farmer, Hicksville and Milford are 
valued at $14.83, $13.41 and $13.76, although situated in the western end 
of the county, and without any advantages of railways, canal, or even 
the Maumee river. Mark township, which " corners 7 ' with Milford, and 
is bounded by Farmer on the north and Hicksville on the west, is valued 
at $5.83. The five remaining townships in the county, but which are en- 
tirely destitute of ridges or beaches, are valued respectively, Defiance 
(in which the county town is situated, a good railway and canal furnish 
means for transportation) at $9.38 ; Delaware, between Defiance on the 
east and Mark on the west, valued at $10 ; Xoble, north of and adjoining 
Defiance — Richland bounds it on the east — is valued at $8.15; Tiffin, 
north of Noble and west of Adams, $10.42 ; Washington, located between 
Tiffin on the east and Farmer on the west, at $8.84. The townships of 
Farmer, Hicksville and Milford, through which the first or outer ancient 
beach or sand ridge passes, have an average valuation of $14 per acre ; 
the townships of Adams, Highland and Richland, traversed by the second 
or inner ancient beach, have an average valuation of '$12.35 per acre. 
The six townships traversed by these ridges have an average valuation of 
$13.18 per acre, whilst the remaining six townships have an average val- 
uation of $8.88 per acre only — the latter six having the benefit of the 
Maumee river, Auglaize river, canal, and one of them the county town ; 
so that the estimated value of the ridge land is upon its intrinsic agricul- 
tural value, and not upon any facilities of market, or other artificial 
advantages. 

In every county throughout the Maumee valley, or Black Swamp, with 
the exception of Seneca, through which these ridges or beaches pass, the 
townships which are traversed by the beaches are estimated at a greater 
value than the land in the adjoining townships not traversed by the 
ridges. 

In Allen county, the townships of Marion, Sugar Creek, Monroe and 
Richland are traversed by the first beach, and are estimated at $22.70, 



374 GEOLOGICAL SUEVET OF OHIO. 

$19.50, $20.52 and $22.84 per acre respectively. Amanda and Spencer 
townships are south of and adjoining Marion, and are estimated at $10.75 
and 10.25, notwithstanding either of them has the canal for a boundary 
line. In Van Wert county the ridge passes through Harrison, Pleasant 
Eidge and Washington townships, and the lands are estimated at $13.13, 
$16.47, $14.64 and $14.67 respectively, being the central, east and west 
tier of townships. The tier adjoining on the north are Tully, Union, 
Hoaglin and Jackson, in which the lands are valued at $8.05, $6.02, 
$6.74 and $3.99 respectively, the average for the county being $11.15 per 
acre. Similar ratios to the aggregate already cited prevail in Putnam, 
Hancock, Williams and Fulton counties. 

Analyses have now been made and presented of the three prominent 
and distinctive characteristic soils which occur in this valley, namely; 
the soil of the Black Swamp proper, the soil of the prairies, and the soil 
of the sand ridges. There are, as a matter or course, intermediate soils ; 
soils partaking of the character of any two of these, as for example, there 
are soils in Wood county partaking of the character of both prairie and 
Black Swamp ; there are soils in Defiance county partaking of the char- 
acter of sand ridge and Black Swamp ; there are soils Henry and other 
counties, partaking of the character of sand ridge and prairie soils and 
various other combinations forming the alluvions which are found in the 
immediate vicinity of the banks of the streams. Perhaps as characteris- 
tic a soil as any which could conveniently be given, showing the combin- 
ation of the Black Swamp and prairie, is that of the farm of Mr. James 
W. Boss, of Perrysburg, of which the following is an analysis. 

Analysis of soil from the farm owned, by James W. Ross, Perrysburg. 

Soluble in Insoluble in 

Hydrochloric Acid. Hydrochloric Acid. 

10.12 per cent 89.88 per cent. 

Organic matter... 2.13 " » 6.11 " 

Silicic Acid 03 " Silica 66.90 " 

lofiron 1.53 " Trace. 



Alumina 3.34 " 13.25 " 

Phosphate of Lime .51 " Phosphoric Acid 096 " 

Carbonate" " 58 " ' 95 " 

" " Magnesia 1.00 " 71 " 

Total Potash and Soda in Soil 1.80 " 
Not examined for Manganese nor Copper. 

The soils throughout the valley increase their proportion of organic 
matter from the dividing ridge or water-shed as they approach the lake. 

The organic matter in a soil taken from the summit of the water-shed 
in Shelby county near Swander's station is as follows : 



GEOLOGICAL SUJ4VEY OF OHIO. 



375 



Soil from cornfield northeast of, and adjoining Swander's station, on 
Dayton & Michigan railroad, in Shelby county : 



Soluble in Hydrochlorie acid, 5.768. 



Insoluble in Hydrochloric acid, 94.232 per ct. 



Organic matter 1.59 

Silica 033 

Sesquioxide of iron 2.55 

Alumina .75 

Manganese 19 

Copper .*. trace. 

Phosphate of lime 20 

Carbonate of lime 43 

Potash and soda 08 

Sulphuric acid 05 

5.883 



Organic matter 3.92 

Silica 74 71 

Alumina 10.65 

Manganese trace. 

Copper trace. 

Lime 96 

Magnesia 94 

Potash 2.04 

Soda 72 

Phosphoric acid 09 

94.03 

5.883 

99.613 



Showing about five and a half per cent of organic matter. The soil 
taken from the bank of Hog creek or Ottawa river, east of Lima, in Allen 
comity, shows a fraction over eight per cent, of organic matter, while the 
prairies in the vicinity of the lake show nine and one fourth per cent, of 
organic matter. The soil of the Black Swamp in the vicinity of the 
lake, as for example that of Mr. Breed's farm, shows twenty-one and 
three-fourths per cent of organic matter. This organic matter is chiefly 
of vegetable origin, and performs a very important function in. practical 
agriculture. It will be observed in all the analyses presented here, that 
the supply of phosphoric acid is in every case fully equal to, and in most 
cases in excess of the supply of phosphoric acid in the boasted fertile 
soils of Kentucky. 

Whilst the physiology of plant life will be discussed at length in the 
final report, it is not out of place here to state that the phosphates per- 
form as important a function as any other element or ingredient of the 
soil in the production of cultivated crops. It is not exceeding the truth 
to state that no crop can be grown in a soil absolutely destitute of phos- 
phates. Tet the various crops require them in diverse proportions, and 
hence the philosophy and great importance of rotation of crops. The 
cereals and grasses require more silica. Turnips, potatoes and tuberous 
root crops require more alkalies. Every one of the leguminous order of 
plants, such as clover, beans, peas, etc., require more lime and sulphates 
than the other crops. Hence it is that the cultivation of the same crop 
for a series of years upon the same soil, renders the soil unproductive for 
the continuance of that crop, except, indeed, such elements be restored 
to the soil as have been abstracted by the crops. If leguminous plants 



376 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

have been cultivated for several years successively upon the same soil, 
then, in all probability the immediate available supply of lime and sul- 
phates in their various forms may have been exhausted, and a serial crop 
or grass crop, which require less of these but more silica and other in- 
gredients, will grow as abundantly or as proliflcally as though no legumin- 
ous plants had been grown upon it at all. These phosphates which are 
really and absolutely indispensable to the growth of all vegetables, are 
found universally diffused in rocks and in all soils, whether the soils are 
formed in place, or whether they owe their origin to the drift. There are 
very few rocks in which phosphates cannot be found in some form ; in 
granite for example, they abounds in minute crystals of apatite, which, in 
other words is phosphate of lime, can be seen with the aid of the micro- 
scope. And it is safe to assert that iii every soil on which vegetation is 
found, phosphates exist in some form other. The amount of phosphates 
required in our cultivated crops far exceeds that in the wild plants, and 
the supply required by the dense population must be restored to the soil 
in some form or other, or else the fertility of the soil deteriorates. 

Throughout the entire Maumee Valley, often obscured by the drifts, 
are unlimited supplies of natural fertilizers. In the great prairies of 
Wyandot county, or the Sandusky plains, as this prairie often is called, 
at a depth of two or three feet from the surface, are inexhaustible sup- 
plies of shell marl. In any event, large deposits have been found in the 
south-west corner of Crane and Pitt townships, and as the prairie un- 
doubtedly is of homogeneous formation, there is no doubt these supplies 
exist everywhere to a greater or less extent. In Weston, Plain, Liberty 
and Milton townships, in Wood county, marl has been found. In almost 
every cat swamp or cranberry marsh, at the depth of several feet, shell 
mail has been found to exist. It is found on Arrowsmith's farm, in 
Defiance county. In Ottawa county, in Portage township, are the 
well known plaster beds, or deposit of gypsum. A continuation of this 
plaster bed, in all probability, has been reached, between Woodsville 
and Bollersville, at the depth of twenty or more feet. In digging a 
well, I failed to procure a sample, but from the description of reliable 
parties, I feel satisfied that it was gypsum that was obtained. Then the 
supplies of muck and peat are inexhaustible. 

I do not propose to discuss in this report, the effect of manures, or 
the kind of manures to be applied to the soil for the various crops, that 
part is being reserved for the final report ; but in this preliminary report, 
a general outline only can be presented of the labors performed. The 
details of the economic value and application of natural manures discovered 
in the course of the Survey, ought to be discussed at length, to be of value 
to the practical agriculturist. 



GEOLOGICAL SU.BVEY OP OHIO. 377 

In Seneca connty more examinations have been made than elsewhere 
with a view to ascertain the existence of muck, marl or peat, and upwards 
of seventy-five or eighty points were examined. Peat is found in Seneca 
county in the northeast corner, section twenty-nine of Clinton township, a 
mile or two southeast of Tiffin, in a little swale on high ground north of 
Mr. Shantz' house — muck and peat together — for it is difficulty to draw a 
line of demarcation and indicate precisely where the one terminates or 
the other commences — is a deposit nearly five feet thick and rests on a 
light blue clay, which is inclined to be marly. In Coo's swamp, near the 
swale just mentioned, at a depth of two feet, there is a deposit of about 
three feet of peat, resting on a soft gray clay in appearace, but which is 
really arenaceous. On the infirmary farm, in section 5, in Eden town- 
ship, is a deposit nine feet thick of good peat resting on a bed of shell 
marl. In Herold's hollow, about a mile south of Tiffin, on the Mohawk 
r oad, is a deposit of seven feet of peat, the first of which is coarse and 
fibrous, then farther down becomes fine and at the terminus of the seven feet 
is so very fine that the water which accumulates in the boring washes it 
nearly all out of the auger, when boring. Then in the swamp near 
Dittoes, east of Lewis Smith's dwelling, is a swamp of perhaps four acres, 
in which is a deposit of three feet of peat. On Honey creek bottom in the 
southeast quarter of section 31, in Clinton township, is a marsh containing 
upward of six acres. Its form is a narrow strip from north to south. 
In this is a deposit of good peat, the first two feet of which is firm and 
the vegetable matter not all decayed ; but from that down to the depth of 
six feet is well decayed. A.t the depth of eight feet a deposit of shell marl 
is found which continues on to a depth of twelve feet — as deep as ex- 
amined. Xot far from this last swamp is another swamp of perhaps an 
acre, covered with water almost the year round, ten inches or more in 
depth. This contains from twelve to eighteen inches of peat. 

In section 6 of Eden township, in a small swamp, there are about ten 
inches of peat. Continuing along Honey creek and Brush's swamp, is a 
deposit of muck. On brook's farm on Honey creek bottom, is a swamp or 
marsh of twenty-five or thirty acres ; the soil in the immediate vicinity is 
peaty and the marsh itself is covered with a brownish colored water in- 
dicative of humic acid. In penetrating this marsh, a deposit of eight feet 
of good peat was disclosed and between eight and eleven feet in depth 
was a deposit composed of lime in calcareous mud intermingled with 
stringy fibers of root. The above is sufficient to indicate the abundance of 
peat and muck in Seneca county. 

Seneca connty is a representative of two geological epochs, so far as 
the surface geology is concerned. All west of the Sandusky river belongs 
properly to, and is a portion of the Black swamp. All east of the San- 
dusky river was high land at the time the western portion was submerged 



378 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

Therefore the eastern part of the county is a portion of the dividing ridge 
which divides the waters of the Sandusky from those of the Huron and 
Michigan. This dividing ridge extends southward through the eastern 
half of Crawford county, thence sweeps suddenly around to the west 
crossing the northern portion of Marion county and the northern portion 
of Hardin county, or rather immediately north of Kenton, thence takes 
a southwestern course, crossing the eastern portion of Auglaize county 
and the southern portion of Mercer county. All this ridge was dry land 
when the remaining portion of the north-west of the State was sub- 
merged. Hence it is, that we find deposits of sand and gravel in the 
high lands about Tiffin. The gravel bank immediately west of Crestline 
belongs to this high land formation, and is, perhaps, the only gravel bank 
of any considerable extent in the entire Maumee Valley. 

It would involve a vast amount of labor to examine every one of the 
swamps, swales and marshes throughout this valley, but examinations 
have been made of quite a number of them, at least seventy-five in Seneca 
county, and quite a number in Williams, Fulton, Allen, Auglaize and 
Wyandot counties, and all of them with the same result, all of them con- 
taining muck, peat, and in many instances marl, except where these 
swamps are in the vicinity of sand ridges or dunes — there, as a matter 
of course, they are filled with clay and sand. 

In the whole Maumee Valley there is no deposit of gravel of sufficient 
extent for road or any other practical purposes, but as the Sandusky 
river, in Seneca county, appears to be following the'line of juncture be- 
tween the Black swamp proper and the upland formation, upon examina- 
tion it is found that almost every one of these peat, muck or marl beds in 
the eastern part of Seneca county, rests upon a deposit of sand and gravel. 
The marl, muck and peat deposits are found in various parts of the State, 
and are by no means confined to the Maumee Valley alone. Specimens 
of excellent peat have been obtained from Copley township, in Summit 
county. Also in Portage county, near Eavenna, where a manufactory has 
been established for putting the peat into a commercial form. Shell marl 
is found in Summit county underlying the Tamarack swamp, in Norton 
township, and in many places throughout the southern tier of townships 
in Medina county. There is a deposit of it at Shreve's station, in Wayne 
county. In various portions of Champaign, Union, Madison, Eairfleld, 
Pickaway, Payette, Greene and Pranklin counties, peat, muck and shell 
marl are found in considerable quantities. 

The remains of the mastodon, an animal of gigantic size now extinct, 
is found in many of the peat bogs and marshes throughout the State. 
Eemains of this animal have been exhumed in Auglaize, Champaign, 
Clarke, Crawford, Cuyahoga, Darke, Hardin, Montgomery, Pickaway and 



GEOLOGICAL BUUVEY OF OHIO. 379 

Pike counties within the past three years. "Whilst constructing the canal 
in Stark county, the tusks of some huge extinct animal were exhumed in 
a swamp or morass near Massillon. Tusks of great size have been found 
in Erie county. The position in which the greater proportion of these 
remains have been found, seems to indicate that the animal was " mired," 
or " swamped," and so died in an erect position ; and died in the place 
where the remains are found. 

In addition to the above natural manures, that is muck, peat and marl, 
there is a deposit extending over thousands of acres in the western part of 
Brie, and north-east part of Sandusky county, or rather in the township 
of Margaretta, in Brie, and Townsend, in Sandusky. This deposit is 
known to geologists as calcareous tufa, which is a deposit of the carbonate 
of lime, which has been held in solution by the waters; now represented 
by Castalia springs, in Margaretta township, Erie county. This deposit 
is in places seven to eight feet in depth, and is throughout, unmixed with 
any extraneous matter, such as mud, debris of trees, etc. In fact, at the 
depth of about two and a half feet, the deposit becomes granular and is 
very friable, and as easily handled as sand, and is familiarly known by the 
diggers as " corn-meal." An attempt has been made to utilize this tufa 
by Mr. Gamp, of Sandusky City. There have been four different analyses 
made of this travertin or tufa, all which are here given. 

Analysis of travertin, at Castalia Springs, made at School of Mines, 
Columbia College, New York, March 19, 1869. 

Silica , 175 

Sulph. baryta 910 

Iron and alumina 862 

Carb. Lime 87.775 

Carb. magnesia 2.209 

Water and loss 8.069 

100.000 

Marl, Castalia Springs (in powder,) by same chemist as above. 

No. 1. No. 2. 

Silica 075 0.111 

Snlph. baryta 356 

Iron and alumina 362 0.012 

Carb. Lime 97.726 92.410 

Carb. magnesia 1.481 2.853 

Water and loss 4.525 

100.000 100.000 

No. 1 is from a small enclosure of about 20 acres. No. 2 was taken 
nearly a mile east from the present excavation on the large tract. 



380 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

Sample from near the railroad station (Hoyt's paper mill), three feet 
below the surface, where an excavation had been made to bury a cow ; 
analyzed at Natrona Chemical Works, Natron, Pennysvania, September 
12, 1870, H. Pemberton, Superintendent. 

Sand and silex ; ,27.35 

Iron and alumina 2.10 

Carb. magnesia 4.35 

Carb. of lime , 66.20 

100.00 



Analytical Laboratory No. 32 South Third St., 
Baltimore, August 31, 1870. 

Eesult of analysis of unmarked sample in lumps and powder, received 
August 27, 1870. 

Moisture (at 100 C.) 1.06 

Lime 28.25 

Carbonic acid 31.33 

Phosphoric acid 1.535 

Sulphuric acid trace. 

Insoluble residue' 36.54 

98.715 

The substance is principally carbonate of lime ; small quantities of 
phosphate and sulphate of lime are also present. It might be used as a 
lime dressing for land, if the cost of obtaining and grinding it was incon- 
siderable. 

WM. P. TONEY, 

Analytieal Chemist. 

It will be seen in the one analysis, that it contains one and a half per 
cent, of phosphoric acid, which is equivalent to 46.050 pounds per acre to 
the depth of one foot. The deposit will average six feet, which will 
afford 276.300 pounds of phosphoric acid per acre. This travertin of 
itself, is by no means a barren soil. 

In 1870 Mr. Camp planted a portion of it in corn, several ears of which 
were kindly given me as a sample, and I am confident that better corn, or 
more to the acre, has not been grown on any fields which I have witnessed 
during the season. 

In 1862, in the annual Agricultural Eeport, I suggested that a good 
article of fish guano might be manufactured from the refuse of fishes 



GKOLOGICAI. STJBYET OF OHIO. 381 

packed in Sandnsky City. I stated in detail what was being done in that 
direction in other countries. I am pleased to note that the suggestions 
embodied in that article were seed sown on a fertile soil, for there is now 
in Sandnsky City, and has been daring the past several years, a manufac- 
tory of fish guano, where it is manufactured to the extent of many tons 
per annum, and the demand far exceeds the snpply. I learn that Mr. 
Camp has become interested in the manufacture of fish guano, and intends 
introducing this travertin or calcareous tufa in connection with it. 

Nowhere throughout the valley do the underlying rocks exert any 
chemical influence upon the soil. In fact, the only influence exerted by 
the underlying rocks upon the soil is to give contour to the surface to a 
very limited extent along the banks of some of the streams. The under- 
lying rocks, as already stated, throughout the entire area is a lime rock. 
This lime rock has in store for future ages a great abundance not only of 
lime proper for agricultural purposes, but contains phosphoric acid and 
magnesia as well. In fact, the entire belt of water lime contains magne- 
sia — three elements, lime, phosphoric acid, and magnesia, essential to all 
cultivated crops. 

All the depressions, swamps, swales, marshes and ponds throughout the 
entire Maumee Valley have in them muek, peat or marl, with the excep- 
tion of those in the immediate vicinity of sand ridges. 

Notwithstanding the soil in this Valley in its primitive condition, re- 
quiring much toil and expenditure of capital in subduing the forests and 
thorough drainage, yet it contains all the elements and in excellent pro- 
portions, to grow the most prolific crops when the soil shall have been 
properly prepared. As an evidence of the productive capacity of this 
soil, there is here presented a statement of the wheat and corn crops in 
every county in the Valley, for the years 1851, 1858 and 1869, together 
with the average of twenty years ; showing the capacity to produce wheat 
to be unsurpassed in the average of the Valley, by any other equal area 
in the State. 



382 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 
MAUMEB VALLEY. 



Wheat. 



Acres. 



Bushels. Average. 



Cohn. 



Acres. 



Bushels. 



Average. 



Allen— 1851 

" 1858 

" 1869 

" 20 years' average 

Auglaize — 1851 

" 1858 

" 1869 - 

years' average .. 

Crawford— 1851 

" 1858 

" 1869 

" 20 years' average - 

Defiance— 1851 

" 1858 

" 1869 

" 2b years' average . . 

Fulton— 1851 

" 1858..... 

" 1869 

" 20 years' average 

Hancock — 1851 

" 1&58 

" 1869 

" 20 years' average .. 

Henry— 1851 

" . 1858 

" 1869 

" 20 years' average 

Lucas — 1851 

" 1858 

" 1869. 

' ' 20 years' average 

Mercer — 1851 

" 1858 

" 1869 

' ' 20 years' average .... 

Ottawa— 1851 

" 1858 

" 1869 

" 20 years' average . . . | 



15,560 
16,165 
19,062 



15,192 

10,900 
10,062 
16,918 



13,481 

20,164 
15,345 

24,188 



16,486 

6,076 

6,992 

17,106 



10,154 

8,360 

6,108 

15,398 



9,888 

24,488 
17,703 
30,123 



21,517 

1,849 

3,781 

11,273 



5,286 

4,289 
2,991 
7,299 



5,097 

11,479 
13,310 
21,895 



15,178 

2,933 
2,538 
5,404 



299,426 
194,497 
310,221 



19.2 
12.1 
16.27 



165,090 

162,361 
112,978 
267,799 



10.86 

14.8 
11.3 
15.83 



131,847 

310,843 
216,914 
463,816 



9.77 

15.4 
14.2 
19.17 



204,379 

83,009 

78,984 

235,104 



12.40 

13.6 
11.5 
13,74 



124,678 

139,055 

77,181 

234,482 



12.27 

16.5 
12.6 
15.23 



130,583 

359,520 
542,836 
486,470 



13.20 

14.6 
19.3 
16.14 



249,202 

25,959 

56,945 

159,269 



11.59 

14. 

15.1 

14.13 



65,909 

83,189 

42,688 

116,929 



12.46 

19.3 
14.2 
16.02 



70,285 

203,749 
125,348 
324,393 



13.80 

17.7 

9.3 

14.82 



163,899 

52,702 
30,073 
85.114 



10.86 

17.9 
11.9 
15.75 



3,785 



49,225 | 13.00 



11,326 

12,781 
20,122 



19,599 

9,105 
11,300 
20,349 



15,919 

14,780 
19,549. 
22,359 



21,398 

3,352 

6,182 
9,622 



9,092 

4,231 

6,614 

10,904 



9,449 

14,642 
17,514 
29,172 



25,443 

2,500 
4,661 
9,837 



6,874 

3,002 

4,780 
7,828 



6,510 

9,199 

9,294 

20,103 



16,221 

2,279 
3,274 

4,781 



443,126 
315,769 
344,319 



382,082 

308,655 
222,947 

388,867 



443,027 

487,054 
554,305 
461,855 



668,884 

82,635 
153,294 
147,498 



295,498 

94,387 
141,822 
235,041 



295,644 

403,014 
442,428 
534,871 



758,794 

68,788 
110,159 
131,474 



211,371 

73,508 
128,613 
209,141 



228,911 

314,103 

148,926 
337,028 



433,540 

70,259 

85,517 

107,104 



4,261 | 132,832 



39.1 
24.7 
17.1 

19.5' 

33.8 
19.7 
18.87 

27.84 

32.9 
28.3 
20.65 



31.26 

24.6 
24.8 
15.33 

32.49 

22.3 
21.4 
21.56, 

31.28 

27.5 
25-3 
18.34 

29.89 

27,5 

24. 

14.13 

30.73 

24,4 

27, 

26,72 

35.16 

34.1 

16. 

16.81 

26.72 

30.8 
26.1 
22.4 



31.16 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



383 



MAUMEE VALLEY— Continued. 





Wheat. 


Corn. 




Acres. 


Bushels. 


Average. 


Acres. 


Bushels. 


Average. 


Paulding— 1851 


1,174 
1,713 
4,470 


13,858 
13,507 
60,781 


11.8 

7.8 

13.6 


1,074 
2,177 
4,366 


32,595 
44,770 
67,592 


30.3 


" 1858 


20.5 


" 1869 


13.19 






" 20 years' average. . 
Putnam — 1851 


2,351 

8,471 

8,261 

14,224 


25,783 

127,328 

99,061 

213,540 


10.97 

15. 
12. 
15. 


3,701 

5,481 
11,158 
19,002 


112,883 

158,639 
269,041 
410,980 


30.48 
28.9 


" 1858 


24.1 


" 1869 


21.63 






" 20 years' average. . - 
Sandusky — 1851 ... ... 


9,322 

13,684 
14,885 
22,897 


99,823 

244,822 
220,975 
393,059 


10.71 

17.8 
14.8 
17.16 


14,248 

9,323 
13,046 
21,539 


412,075 

201,307 
360,292 
357,024 


28.93 
21.4 


" 1858 


27.6 


" 1869 


16.62 






" 20 years' average . 
Seneca — 1851 ...... 


17,001 

40,160 
30,340 
44,174 


227,668 

725,513 
477,539 
867,792 


13.39 

18. 

15.7 

19.60 


16,874 

15,671 
21.747 
24,092 


476,171 

492,026 

478,828 
522,308 


28.22 
3j.3 


" 1858 


21.9 


" 1869 


21.68 






" 20 years' average 

Van Wert— 1851 


33,766 

5.519 

6,888 

10,044 


457,181 

78,950 

78,138 

141,064 


13.85 

14.3 
11.3 
14.06 


24,726 

3,337 

5,732 

13,223 


718,920 

72,941 

82,003 

143,513 


29.07 
21.8 


" 1858 


14.3 


" 1869 


10.84 






*' 20 years, average. 
WjlTiamn— 1851 


7,705 

8,241 

8,986 

21,138 


79,442 

105,272 

96,765 

273,860 


10.31 

12.7 
107 
12.96 


9,204 

3,181 

6,528 

14,089 


240,378 

64,732 
142,266 
274,933 


26.1 
20.8 


" 1858 


21.8 


" 1869 


19.57 






" 20 years' average . . 
Wood— 1851 


13,219 

5,580 

6,757 

13,161 


155,927 

88,274 

92,506 

234,806 


11.80 

15.8 
13.7 
17.84 


11,075 

5,333 
10,294 
20,524 


309,893 

163,774 
210,076 
256,230 


27.98 
30.7 


" 1858 


20.4 


" 1869 


12.97 






" 20 years' average 

Wyandot— 1851 


8,406 

9,914 
11,639 
21,368 


104,378 

141,226 
179,133 

386,833 


* 12.40 

14.2 
15.4 
18.1 


15,608 

9,790 
16,886 
32,255 


427,000 

289,591 
423,639 
405,289 


27.37 
29.5 


" 1858 


25.1 


" 1869 


12.55 






" 20 years' average. . 
Total Valley— 1851 


12,034 

198,841 
184,464 
320,242 


153,156 

3,245,056 
2,536,518 
5,255,332 


12.72 

16.32 
13.75 
16.41 


19,188 

127,606 
183,517 
291,098 


534,430 

3,821,134 
4,314,695 
5,474,219 


27.86 
29.94 


" 1858 


23.51 


" 1869 


18.80 








219,868 


2,658,455 


12.09 


249,390 


7,082,333 


28.40 



384 GEOLOGICAL SUEVEY OP OHIO. 

The population of the Maumee Yalley for the decades terminating in 
1840, 1850 and 1870 respectively, are given on page 352. It may not be 
improper to assume that the agriculture of the Valley has been inaugur- 
ated and brought to its present state of development within the past 
thirty years. The period selected for the twenty years average, is that 
which presents perhaps the most reliable average of the natural produc- 
tiveness of the soil, under the present and past mode of cultivation. 
Prior to 1840, the agricultural products were necessarily inconsiderable, 
the residents of the Valley being engaged in removing the forest trees, 
and otherwise making preparations for the future cultivation soil j so that 
the decade commencing in 1850, may be regarded as the commencement 
of an agriculture in the Valley conducted for the purpose of growing 
breadstuffs for export. 

The counties of Allen, Auglaize, Mercer, Paulding, Putnam and Van- 
wert, having a greater altitude above the lake than Defiance, Fulton, 
Henry, Lucas, Ottawa, Sandusky or Wood, yet do not produce as much 
wheat per acre as the latter. It is very natural to suppose that the area 
having the greater altitude, would have the least moisture, or in other 
words be the best drained naturally ; but the former six counties, are not 
so well drained, and have besides much more moisture than the six 
located on the floor of the depression, or former lake bed. The latter 
counties abound in oak openings, and have a much larger proportion 
of arenaceous matter, spread over their surfaces. Whilst this arenace- 
ous (or sandy) matter retains less moisture than the vegetable mould 
and alluvium, it at the same time has the practical effect of a partial 
drainage. But the counties of Fulton, Henry, etc., are naturally better 
drained than Mercer, Allen, Auglaize, etc., are; and the difference in 
actual productiveness is due to differences in drainage rather than to any 
differences of absolute fertility in soils, other than mechanical conditions. 
Paulding and Putnam counties are the ©nly ones of the first six enumer- 
ated, that produce a greater average of corn, than the lowest of the six 
counties mentioned as having the least altitude. 

When thoroughly underdrained and otherwise properly prepared, there 
is no doubt that the productive capacity of the Maumee valley can easily 
be doubled, at least so far as the wheat crop is concerned. 

The average corn crop, although not equaling the Scioto or Miami val- 
leys, nevertheless falls very little short of their averages. There are no 
accessible statistics of the other cultivated crops extending back so far as 
these two principal ones for consecutive years, but for the periods during 
which they have been collected and recorded are here presented, and, 
upon comparison with the products of other valleys in the State, will be 



GEOLOGICAL STTEVET OP OHIO. 



385 



found not to be relatively less, except in the tobacco crop. There is pre- 
sented also, in connection with this, a statement of a few maximum or 
prize crops grown in this valley, showing the producing capacity under 
more than ordinary favorable circumstances. Certainly, if the productive 
capacity of any soil is so much greater under any peculiar or given cir- 
cumstances, than the general average, the maximum amount may always 
be obtained by producing the same conditions under which the first maxi- 
mum was obtained. 

From the tables on pages 382 and 383 the following table of the com- 
parative productiveness of the several counties is made : 



WHEAT. 
Comities yielding an animal average of 
less than 10 bn. per acre, during a period 
of 20 years : 
Auglaize 9.77 

Counties yielding between 10 and 11 bn. 
per acre: 

Allen 10.86 

Mercer 10.86 

Putnam 10.71 

Paulding 10.97 

Van Wert 10.31 

Counties yielding between 11 and 12 bn. 
per acre : 

Hancock 11.59 

Williams 11.80 

Counties yielding between 12 and 13 bu. 
per acre : 

Crawford 12.40 

Defiance - 12.27 

Henry 12.46 

Wood 12.40 

Wyandot 12.72 

Counties yielding between 13 and 14 bn. 
per acre : 

Fnlton 13.20 

Lucas 13.79 

Ottawa 13.00 

Sandusky 13.39 

Seneca 13.85 



COEN. 

Counties yielding less than 20 bu. per 
acre: 

Allen 19.50 

Counties yielding between 26 and 28 bu. 
per acre : 

Auglaize 27.84 

Mercer 26.72 

Tan Wert 26.10 

Williams 27.98 

Wood 27.37 

Wyandot 27.86 

Counties yielding between 28 and 30 bu. 
per acre : 

Hancock 29.89 

Putnam 28.93 

Sandusky T 28.22 

Seneca 29.08 

Counties yielding over 30 bu. per acre : 

Crawford 31.26 

Defiance 34.49 

Pulton 31.28 

Henry 30.73 

Lucas 35.16 

Ottawa 31.16 

Paulding 30.47 



25 



Co 

GO 

a 



Counties in Maumee Valley. 



Rye. 



Average acreage and product for 
twelve years, from 1858 to 1869 
inclusive. 



Acres. 



Bushels. 



Average 

bushels 

per acre. 



Barley. 



Average acreage and product for 
twelve years, from 1858 to 1869 in- 
clusive. 



Buckwheat. 



Average acreage and product for 
twelve years, from 1858 to 1869 
inclusive. 



Acres. 



Bushels. 



Average 

bushels 

per acre. 



Acres. 



Bushels. 



Average 
bushels 
per acre. 



i 

o 
t- 1 
o 

2 

a 

a 
w 



H 
o 

O 

w 



Allen 

Auglaize 

Crawford 

Defiance 

Fulton 

Hancock ... 

Henry 

Lucas 

Mercer 

Ottawa 

Paulding 

Putnam 

Sandusiy .. 

Seneca 

Van "Wert.. 
"" Williams . . . 

Wood 

Wyandot - 

Totals 



760 
783 
609 
159 
284 
534 
135 
207 
914 
43 
100 
524 
294 
5181 
649 
383 
276 
410. 



7,589. 
7,657 
6,399 
1,819 
3,200 
4,991 
1,461 
2,241 
8,930 
479 
1,039 
5,688 
3,706 
6,145 
6,471 
4,394 
3,036 
4,620 



9.72 

9.77 
10.50 
11.44 
11.26 

9.34 
10.81 
10.82 

9.77 
11. 
10.39 
10.85 
12.61 
11.86 

9.97 
11.47 
11. 
11.26 



282 

1,886 

1,118 

114 

123 

361 

77 

258 

903 

113 

19 

94 

290 

895 

181 

173 

414 

473 



4,134 

28,631 

19,540 

1,875 

2,437 

6,218 

1,211 

4,714 

13,934 

2,030 

258 

1,304 

•4,026 

15,668 

2,938 

2,848 

7,183 

8,120 



14.88 

15.12 

17.47 

16.44 

19. 

17.22 

15.72 

18.27 

15.43 

17.91 

13.57 

13.89 

13.88 

17.50 

16.23 

16.46 

17.35 

17.16 



669 
620 
563 
715 
933 
727- 
438 
701 
561 
255 
303 
581 
670 
528 
646 
759 
1,697 
489 



8,059 

7,265 

8,620 

9,523 

13,092 

10,996 

6,217 

9,388 

6,675 

3,460 

3,567 

6,092 

9,119 

7,152 

8,455 

10,279 

32,805 

7,013 



12. 

11.71 

15.13 

13.31 

14. 

15.12 

14.17 

13.39 

11.89 

13.56 

11.77 

10.48 

13.61 

13.54 

13. 

13.54 

18.74 

14.54 



7,582i 



79,865 



10.53 



7,774 



127,069 



16.34 



11,855 



167,777 



14.40 



Counties in the Maumeo 
Valley. 



Allen 

Auglaize . . 
Crawford.... 

Defiance 

Fulton 

Hanoook 

Henry , 

Luoas 

Meroer , 

Ottawa , 

Paulding 

Putnam 

Sandusky .., 

Seneca , 

Van Wert . . . 

Williams 

Wood 

Wyandot . . . 

Totals 



Oats. 



Average acreage and produot for 

twelve years, from 1868 to 1869, 

inclusive. 



Acres. 



5,566 
6,792 

11,757 
4,898 
4,144 
8,460 
8,286 
3,225 
6,348 
1,552 
776 
3,109 
8,905 

14,669 
2,218 
5,652 
7,045 
5,111 



101,913 



Bushels. 



132,229 

152,175 

334,803 

102,146 

111,476 

211,388 

51,430 

88,409 

136,351 

41,981 

14,881 

64,060 

223,659 

408,407 

46,661 

148,614 

182,268 

125,671 



2,576,609 



Average of 
oats — l>u. 
per acre. 



23.75 
22.39 
28.49 
23.75 
26.88 
24.97 
22.49 
27.41 
21.47 
27.05 
19.17 
20.60 
25.11 
27.85 
21.03 
26.29 
25.86 
24.57 



25.28 



Clovek. 



Average acreage and product for seven years, 
from 1863 to 1869, inclusive. 



Acres. 



5,982 
2,295 
7,041 
3,692 
5,060 
6,785 
1,671 
1,905 
4,455 
964 
601 
2,464 
7,329 
10,613 
2,773 
7,838 
3,117 
3,073 



77,658 



Tons hay. 



4,243 
2,045 
7,902 
4,092 
5,856 
7,482 
1,936 
2,359 
3,954 
1,293 
635 
2,752 
6,461 
10,681 
2,979 
9,012 
3,686 
3,187 



80,555 



Bushels 
seed. 



2,039 

925 

3,797 

1,364 

2,319 

3,983 

894 

1,314 

1,445 

528 

59 

1,524 

4,175 

5,067 

1,164 

2,993 

2.275 

1,473 



37,338 



Acres plow- 
ed under 
for manure. 



287 
312 
169 
401 
261 
345 
178 
192 
470 
79 
69 
164 
261 
537 
154 
431 
229 
240 



4,779 



Sweet Potatoes. 



Average acreage and 

produot for two years, 

1868 and 1869. 



AcreB. 



23 

8 

9 
14} 

61 
37* 

4* 

2i 

« 

5 3-16 

2 

7 3-16 
104 

8i 
20 

9* 

3+ 

U 



179* 



Bushels.. 



1,228 
261 
654 
423 
626 

1,066 
214 
315 
699 
347 
139 
459 

1,155 
874 
619 
855 
312 
117 



o 

I 



3 

! 



10,363 



--1 



Counties in Maumee Valley. 



Average acreage and product for 
twelve years, from 1858 to 1869, 
inclusive. 



Allen 

Anglaize . 
Crawford . 
Defiance . . 

Fulton 

Hancock.. 
Henry.... 

Lucas 

Mercer 

Ottawa ... 
Paulding . 
Putnam... 
Sandusky . 

Seneca 

Van Wert. 
Williams . 

Wood 

Wyandot . 

Totals 



Meadow. 



Acres. 



10,922 

7,475 

19,731 

8,278 

13,323 

14,763 

4,722 

13,095 

7,554 

4,955 

2,728 

7;828 

13,340 

23,480 

6,186 

11,076 

12,399 

13,530 



195,385 



Tons hay. 



11,614 

8,403 

25,676 

9,580 

17,485 

19,065 

7,648 

17,329 

8,307 

8,104 

3,284 

8,950 

17,217 

28,995 

6,968 

13,891 

16,761 

18,745 



248,022 



Tons hay 
per acre. 



1.06 
1.12 
1.30 
1.15 
1.31 
1.29 
1.61 
1.32 
1.11 
1.63 
1.20 
1.14 
1.29 
1.23 
1.12 
1.25 
1.35 
1.33 



1.27 



Flax. 



Average acreage and product for 
eight years, from 1862 to 1869, 
inclusive. 



Acres. 



2,447 

1,209 

447 

246 

51 

1,415 

97 

601 

2,667 

3 

109 

306 

45 

143 

1,944 

769 

511 

109 



12,578* 



Bushels 
seed. 



14,391 

6,314 

3,123 

1,592 

353 

9,802 

518 

443 

14,706 

14 

558 

1,753 

405 

991 

10,191 

5,865 

3,473 

542 



75,034 



Pounds 
fiber. 



5,164 

2,849 

2,316 

6,942 

2,452 

5,057 

4,207 

9,494 

2,935 

679 

2,073 

1,214 

3,073 

1,433 

931 

22,049 

50,402 

822 



124,092 



Potatoes. 



Average acreage and product for 
ten years, from 1860 to 1869, 
inclusive. 



Cheese. 



Acres. 



570 
699 
868 
721 
803 
749 
540 

1,356 
610 
483 
255 
666 

1,371 

1,148 
421 
704 

1,046 
646 



13,656 



Bushels. 



41,943 
36,333 
68,426 
58,411 
65,520 
61,920 
46,333 

119,777 
33,414 
38,118 
19,457 
38,864 

110,979 
96,747 
26,317 
64,853 
89,573 
46,110 



1,063,095 



Average 
bushels 
per acre. 



73.58 

51.98 

73.99 

81. 

81.59 

82.67 

85.80 

88.33 

54.77 

78.91 

76.30 

58.35 

80.94 

86, 

63.46 

92. 

85.63 

71.36 



77.84 



Av. for ten 
yrs., from 
'60 to '69, 
inclusive. 



Pounds. 



12,148 
1,805 
5,108 
9,751 

60,498 

10,565 
5,949 

13,062 
6,848 
3,547 
973 
2,933 
3,611 
7,969 
4,440 

10,431 
9,300 
4,172 



173,110 



CO 
GO 



o 

8 

Q 



C 

a 

o 





Butter. 


: — ~ : — : , t — i^ ~ 

Tobacco. 


SORGHO. 


Maple Sugar. 


Counties in Manmoo Valley, 


Aver, for ten years, 
from 1860 to 1869, 
inclusive. 


Aver, acreage and products for seven 
years, from 1863 to 1869, inclusive. 


Average acreage and products 
for eight years, from 1862 te 
1869, inclusive. 


Average for eight y'rs, 
from 1862 to 1869, 
inclusive. 




Pounds. 


Acres. 


Founds. 


l^junds of 

tobacco per 

aoro. 


Acres. 


Pounds 
sugar. 


Gallons 
syrup. 


Pounds 
sugar. 


Gallons 
syrup. 


Allen 


329,493 
196,601 
407,652 
260,269 
354,962 
482,011 
171,089 
182,144 
222,097 
96,668 
79,423 
221,890 
282,724 
522,904 
193,035 
402,911 
348,866 
259,510 


10 
17 

63-7 
96 

51-7 

57-10 

4* 
19 
127-10 

6 

45-7 
11 



94-7 
14 2-7 

64-7 

9 

83-7 


5,522 
7,532 
3,341 

61,755 
4,254 
1,243 
2,351 

10,026 
5,698 
1,150 
2,123 
4,153 
1,996 
4,532 

10,412 
2,563 
2,150 
2,867 


552 
443 
519 
630 
827 
218 
522 
527 
448 
191 
450 
377 
332 
473 
728 
390 
238 
340 


330 

336 

150| 

281 

204 

250 

210 

103 

352 

83J 

90 
223* 
287 
274 
1091 . 
195 
316 
122 


203 
214 

82 
4 
218 
340 
480 
277 

69 
356 

63 

53 

41 

54 

14 
8J 
536 
699 


25,386 
20,286 
12,362 
30,336 
20,301 
18,386 
16,785 
9,973 
27,560 
6,370 
6,953 
17,535 
27,873 
25,964 
15,952 
15,959 
30,752 
10,620 


46,970 
29,502 
42,143 
31,152 
10,884 
106,003 
10,413 

2,224 
20,915 

3,291 
10,911 
28,038 
14,006 
57,668 
17,183 
52,300 
22,337 
24,296 


3,578 
1,673 
3,621 








669 




538 




6,473 




1,290 




72 




1,401 




345 




790 




1,485 
956 






3,492 




908 




2,124 


Wood 


1,617 




3,151 






Totals 


5,014,249 


254 


133,668 


526 


3,917 


3,711 


339,353 


530,233 


34,183 







o 
2 

a 

02 



3 



8 

o 

H 

o 



OS 

CO 



Counties in tie Manmee Valley. 



Allen 

Auglaize .. 
Crawford.. 
Defiance .. 

Pulton 

Hancock .. 
Henry .... 
Lucas ..... 

Mercer 

Ottawa ... 
Paulding . . 
Putnam ... 
Sandusky . 

Seneca 

Van Wert . 
Williams ., 

Wood 

Wyandot. 



Totals. 



Grapes and Wine. 



Average acreage and products for three years, 
from 1867 to 1869, inclusive. 



Acres 

planted in 

1869. 



2 7-10 
1* 



2* 
2H 
14-10 
123 



141 



4-10 



5i 

8 

104 



204 



*Whole No. 
of acres in 
vineyard. 



27f 
51 
27 
f 

1 

3f 

4 
49 

6 
829 
i 

24 
92f 
31£ 

11-12 

6 2-9 

4 

1* 



1,138 



Pounds of 

grapes 
gathered. 



2,733 
870 
4,357 
5,571 
3,754 
3,757 
3,654 
17,810 
3,914 
863,267 
1,093 
2,483 
3,852 
6,880 
2 406 
2,802 
5,906 
2,217 



937,326 



Gallons of 

wine 

pressed. 



97 
111 

77 
375 
345 
323 
426 
8,591 
304 
16,504 

53 
144 
148 
706 

19 

86 
415 
240 



Orchards. 



Average acreage and products for three yearB, from 
1867 to 1869, inclusive. 



28,964 



Acres. 



3,553 
2,014 
3,965 
2,371 
3,735 
4,781 
2,080 
3,505 
2,396 
1,200 
810 
2,173 
4,739 
5,588 
1,959 
3,897 
3,517 
4,288 



56,571 



Apples — 
bushels. 



139,152 

69,976 

204,508 

62,690 

118,660 

206,733 

37,994 

69,865 

55,864 

22,050 

14,515 

64,831 

148,192 

222,339 

34,136 

80,309 

96,742 

72,520 



1,721,076 



Peaches- 
bushels. 



2,946 
1,287 
2,584 
7,725 
8,816 
5,932 
7,372 
4,597 
1,180 
1,217 
1,108 
4,619 
10,804 
3,020 
2,774 
3,808 
8,155 
2,981 



80,925 



Pears — 
bushels. 



871 
281 
987 
563 
299 
697 
248 
175 
281 
203 
95 
169- 
363 
1,493 
301 
283 
633 
793 



8,735 



CO 

o 

o 



s 

o 
t-" 
o 

s 

m 

n 



o 

o 

w 



' Imperfect returns in regard to acres. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



391 



PEIZB CROPS m THE MAUMEE VALLEY. 
PRIZE WHEAT CROPS. 



Counties. 


Names. 


Acres. 


Bu. per acre. 


Tear. 




H. T. Rinehart 


8 
7 
5 
8* 
2 
1 
2 
22 
2 
2 
4f 


20i 

m 

31.32 

44 

32i 

38J 

40J 

25 

19i 

28f 

36.9 


1866 




Do 


1867 






1869 






1851 






1853 




T.Hawkins--"- 


1852 




John Maidlaw .... 


1856 






1853 


Van Wert 


H. H. McCoy 


1866 






1867 




John Will * 


1860 









PRIZE CORN CROPS. 



Counties. 



Names. 



Allen. 



Auglaize . 
Crawford. 



Hancock 

Henry... 
Mercer .. 

Putnam . 
Williams 



Jas. Cunningham. . 

A. Kessinger 

J. & C. S. Dickey . 

A. Standiford 

Aaron Osman 

B.E. Graham 

Philip Reed 

C. Bitter 

Col. Robinson 

C. Keller 

Linus Ross 

E.Barritt 

S. S. Caldwell 

Joseph Kerr 

Abel Dewalt 

Abram Eckart 

Abel Dewalt 

J. H. Cox 

A. J. Ensign 

J. R. S. Hasler .... 

: Dan'l Gonchee 

; D. Hewett - 

J. Van Heming . . , 

Wm. Hays 

W. Dine 

John Maidlaw . . . 
Do 
Do 

Kersey Raley 

John Will 



I 



Acres. 


Bu. per acre 


Year. 


2 


110i 


1852 


1 


85J 


» « 


1 


73| 


it 


1 


94 


1853 


1 


84i 


u 


3 


80* 


1869 


5 


114* 


1870 


3 


123i 


it 


3 


87 


1849 


3 


88J 


1851 


1 


126 


1852 


3 


129i 


1853 


3 


124J 


« 


1 


128 


1859 


1 


117i 


(C 


1 


117 


(C 


1 


131 


1860 


1 


152£ 


n 


1 


138 


it 


1 


160 


a 


2 


72* 


1853 


1 


95f 


1855 


2 


137i 


1853 


1 


97f 


1852 


2 


83i 


1870 


1 


88£ 


1858 


1 


109 


1859 


1 


88i 


1860 


2 


75 


1861 


1 


96 


1859 



392 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



PRIZE POTATO CROPS. 



Counties. 


Names. 


Acres. 


Bu. per acre. 


Year. 


Crawford 


John Burnside 


i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 


300 
200 
376 
208 
294 
168 
162 


1852 
1853 
1856 
1859 






Putnam .... 








Sandusky 

Van Wert -• 


J. T. Shultz 


1853 


A. -F.. Hoffman , 


1866 




Do 


1867 









PRIZE OATS CROPS. 



Counties. 


Names. 


Acres. 


Bu. per acre. 


Year. 




A. P. Rinehart 


10 
1 
6* 

a 


46i 
64 
51.4 
67.2 


1866 


Crawford 




1852 


Mercer 




u 




John Will 


1859 









PRIZE CROP OF BUCKWHEAT. 



County. 


Name. 


Acres. 


Bu. per acre. 


Year. 






1 


34* 


1849 









PRIZE HAY CROPS. 



County. 


Names. 


Acres. 


Tons. 


Year. 




J. G. Stough 


1 
1 


3i 
6 63-100 


1853 






1860 









GEOLOGICAL. SUBVEY OF OHIO. 



393 



MABKET FACILITIES. 

The facilities for shipping agricultural products to market is certainly 
a feature not to be overlooked in an agricultural survey of any region. 
Next in importance to the fertility of the soil of a country is the facility 
with which the products of that fertility may be placed at the disposition 
of the consumers. The Maumee Valley is as well provided with facilities 
for the transportation to market of the products of the field and forest as 
any other portion of the State, in proportion to its population. There 
are 497 miles of railway in active operation in the valley, and, perhaps, 
200 miles projected and in course of construction. The railways in opera- 
tion are distributed as follows : 

Allen county 43 miles — Viz: 26 miles Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne & Chicago; 17 miles 

Dayton & Michigan. 
12 " Dayton & Michigan. 
35 " Viz : 20 Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne & Chicago; 8 C. C. & C. ; 

. 5 A. & G. W. ; 2 C. C. & C. I. 
14 " Toledo, Wabash & Western. 
24 " Air Line. 

26 " Viz : 15 Findlay & Fremont ; 11 Findlay & Carey. 
20 " Toledo, Wabash & Western. 

53 " Viz : 17 Air Line; 20 T. W. & W. ; 10 Mich Sonthern; 9 
Toledo & Detroit ; 2 Dayton & Michigan ; 2 Lake Shore. 
Xone. 
10 miles — Lake Shore. 



Auglaize county.. . 
Crawford county.. 

Defiance county.. . 

Fulton county 

Hancock county. . . 

Henry county 

Lucas county 



Mercer county ... 
Ottawa eounty — 
Paulding county . 
Putnam county . . . 
Sandusky county. 

Seneca county . - . 
Van Wert county. 
Williams county . 

Wood county 

Wyandot county . 



19 " Toledo, Wabash & Western. 

20 " Dayton & Michigan. 

53 " Viz: 11 Fremont & Findlay; 84 Lake Shore; 14 Cincin- 
nati & Sandusky. 

36 " Viz : 10 Fremont & Findlay; 26 Cincinnati & Sandusky. 

26 " Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne & Chicago. 

25 " Air Line. 

41 " Viz : 34 Dayton & Michigan ; 7 Lake Shore. 

40 " Viz : 20 Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne & Chicago ; 15 Cincinnati 
& Sandusky; 5 Carey & Findlay. 



497 miles. 



The valley comprises 7,554 square miles ; the number of miles of rail- 
way in operation throughout this area is equal to one mile of railway to 
every 15.2 square miles of territory. In addition to 80 miles of Bay and 
Lake Shore enjoyed by Lucas, Ottawa and Sandusky counties, the follow- 
ing counties, viz: Allen, Auglaize, Defiance, Henry, Lucas, Paulding, 
Putnam and Van Wert, have 139 miles of canal. Every one of the coun- 
ties bounding the valley on the east and south have one or more lines of 



394 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



railway traversing them, so that agricultural products are not a drag for 
want of facilities for transportation, as they once were in this valley, and 
that, too, within the memory of others than u the oldest inhabitant." 

The following table exhibits the annual average uumber of acres in 
cultivated crops in the Valley; also the average annual products and 
estimated average value of them. The Valley produces annually 15,689,- 
675 bushels of such articles grown on the farm as are measured by the 
bushel, and 3,458 tons of articles other than hay, the quantity of which 
is determined by weight, together with 328.577 tons of hay. These pro- 
ducts become valuable in proportion as they may be sent cheaply and 
quickly to the highest market : 



Wheat 

Corn 

Eye 

Barley 

Buckwheat 

Oats 

Potatoes 

Sweet potatoes. 

Clover 



Flax .... 

Meadow . 
Tobacco . 

Sorgho . . 
Grapes .. 



Orchards 



Total acres in cult'n. 

Maple sugar 

Maple syrup 

Butter 

Cheese 



Acres. 



219,868 

249,390 

7,582 

7,774 

11,855 

101,913 

13,656 

179* 

77,658 

12,578 

195,385 
254 

3,917 
1,138 

56,571 



959,718* 



Bushels. 



2,658,455 

7,082,333 

79,865 

127,069 

167,777 

2,576,609 

1,063,095 

10,363 

; 37,338 

i 80,555 

i 75,034 

• 124,092 

" 248,022 

133,668 

; 3,711 

> 339,353 
[ 937,326 

> 28,964 
I 1,721,076 

80,925 
1 8,735 



seed. 

tors of hay. 
hush els seed, 
pounds fiber, 
tons of hay. 
pounds, 
pounds sugar, 
gallons syrup, 
pounds of grapes 
gallons of wine, 
bushels apples, 
bushels peaches, 
bushels pears. 



Bu. per acre, 



12.09 

28.41 
10.53 
16.34 
14.40 
25.28 
77.84 



1.27 
526 



Annual average value of farm crops. 

530,233 pounds. 

34,183 gallons. 

5,014,249 pounds. 

173,110 pounds. 



Total annual average of farm and dairy products . 
Value of annual product per acre 



Value. 



$3,324,318 

2,832,933 

59,448 

95,301 

83,888 

772,982 

531,547 

15,544 

224,028 

483,330 

112,551 

1,240 

1,984,176 

10,693 

371 

135,741 

4,686 

14,482 

516,322 

80,925 

17,470 



111,301,976 

42,418 

17,091 

752,137 

17,311 



$12,130,933 



$12 64 



No rational or well regulated system of agriculture in Ohio can dis- 
pense -with live stock. Live stock, or domestic animals, compact many 
agricultural products, and very greatly reduce their bulk and weight 
without reducing the value, whilst, on the other hand, they not unfre. 
quently greatly enhance the value. A crop of corn is sent to New York 
in the shape of sugar-cured hams or mess pork at considerably less cost 



GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY OP OHIO. 595 

for freight than the same crop of corn, in the ear, could be transported — 
grass-fed fat cattle can be shipped to New York for a much smaller amount 
of freight than the crop of grass which fattened the cattle. In both cases — 
the swine and the cattle — the droppings, or manure, from both are left at 
home upon the farm, not only to enrich but to ameliorate and mellow the 
soil for future crops. The following table exhibits the number and value 
of the live stock in the valley for a period of 13 years, with the exception 
of dogs : 



05 

CO 
05 



Counties in Maumee Valley. 



Hohses. 



Average number and value 
for thirteen years, from 1858 
to 1870, inclusive. 



Number. 



Value. 



Mules 



Average number and value 
for thirteen years, from 1858 
to 1870, inclusive. 



Number. 



Value. 



Cattle. 



Average number and value for 
thirteen years from 1858 to 
1870, inclusive. 



Number. 



Value. 



H 
O 

O 
Q 






o 

O 
W 



Allen 

Auglaize ... 
Crawford .. 
Defiance ... 
Fulton .... 
Hancock... 

Henry 

Lucas 

Mercer 

Ottawa 

Paulding... 

Putnam 

Sandusky . . 

Seneca 

Van "Wert.. 
Williams .. 

Wood 

Wyandot . . 

Total 



7,125 
6,218 
8,234 
4,557 
4,787 
9,631 
3,091 
4,393 
5,981 
2,685 
1,779 
5,097 
7,968 
10,881 
3,997 
5,775 
6,525 
6,445 



$333,473 
303,564 
466,925 
220,808 
184,354 
419,726 
123,398 
210,387 
290,041 
141,914 
83,628 
223,242 
387,392 
585,655 
184,138 
288,643 
281,672 
382,713 



160 

284 
79 
36 
46 

126 
26 
46 
80 
7 
24 
73 
41 
69 
61 
35 
75 

176 



$7,375 
14,135 
4,567 
1,781 
1,729 
5,566 
1,008 
2,637 
3,666 
468 
1,378 
2,990 
2,074 
3,796 
3,439 
1,639 
3,134 
7,840 



15,473 
13,455 

18,685 

11,380 

15,738 

22,153 

7,377 

8,509 

12,220 

5,406 

5,340 

13,567 

16,728 

21,622 

9,786 

13,792 

15,927 

14,681 



$141,496 
141,161 
220,582 
111,999 
125,437 
208,706 

71,930 
104,844 
111,058 

78,778 

62,560 
125,752 
180,951 
227,886 

98,524 
160,021 
170,700 
196,030 



105,169 



45,100,673 



1,444 



$69,222 



241,839 



$2,538,415 



Counties in Maumee Valley. 



Allen 

Auglaize. 
Crawford 
Defiance 
Fulton .. 
Hancock 
Henry ... 
Lucas ... 
Mercer .. 
Ottawa . . 
Paulding 
Putnam . 
Sandusky 
Seneca ... 
Van Wert 
"Williams , 

Wood 

Wyandot 



Sheep. 



Average number and value 

for thirteen years, from 1858 

to 1870, inclusive. 



Number. 



35,869 
23,480 
77,210 
19,099 
32,994 
57,424 
10,254 
13,910 
20,862 
15,741 
4,717 
20,668 
42,081 
94,961 
15,596 
34,444 
28,540 
75,206 



623,056 



Value. 



$56,676 
35,455 

178,480 
32,732 
41,795 
94,563 
16,343 
21,076 
32,581 
27,542 
7,368 
33,048 
68,344 

192,510 
24,699 
58,870 
41,969 

186,125 



$1,150,176 



Hogs. 



Average number and value 

for thirteen years, frdm 1858 

to 1870, inclusive. 



Number. 



337,437 



Value. 



26,672 


$50,827 


22,984 


45,835 


28,380 


73,097 


15,205 


28,019 


10,995 


19,193 


34,363 


67,987 


8,780 


14,513 


7,134 


12,980 


27,642 


47,993 


7,629 


16,067 


7,213 


11,629 


19,854 


35,245 


20,597 


43,929 


29,163 


69,986 


17,578 


29,730 


17,033 


35,861 


15,921 


26,587 


20,294 


52,129 



081,607 



Dogs. 



Average num- 
ber for eight 
yrs., from 1862 
to 1869, inclu- 



1,915 

1,893 

1,819 

1,328 

1,095 

2,311 

892 

970 

1,894 

564 

628 

1,417 

1,391 

2,116 

1,322 

1,357 

1,474 

1,378 



% 
O 

o 

s 

SQ 

n 

O 

o 
W 

M 

o 



25,764 



-4 



398 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



The following table exhibits the Dumber of animals, together with the 
assessed and the approximate market value of the domestic animals in 
the valley. 

If it is assumed that 25 per cent, of the entire number of domestic 
animals may be sent to market annually ; that the valley disposes of an 
annual average of $5,411,119 worth — being equal to $5.63 per acre for 
every cultivated acre of the average series. 





No. of 
animals. 


Assessed 
value. 


Approximate 
market value. 




105,169 
1,444 
241,839 
623,056 
337,437 
25,764 


$5,100,673 

69,222 

2,538,415 

1,150,176 

681,607 


$10,516,900 
115,520 




Cattle 


7,255,170 




1,246,112 




2,530,777 










Totals 


1,334,709 


$9,540,093 


$21,664,479 





This is, in very brief terms, the status of the Maumee Valley: the 
underlying rocks planed down ; the surface of these rocks is obscured — 
first, by a glacial deposit ; second, by a deposit of the Erie clays ; third, 
by an iceberg deposit. On all of these deposits a vast lake rested, and 
deposited in places more or less sediment. The entire Maumee Valley 
may be regarded as a large farm, formed from the bottom of the lake, the 
ponds, marshes and swamps left by the retiring waters of which are not 
yet "dried up." This farm consists, then, of a soil more uniform in its 
chemical and physical characters than any soil extending over such an 
area formed from underlying rocks possibly could have. The farm con- 
sists of 4,834,813 acres, which, in 1870, was divided into — 

Acres. 

Forest 2,845,690 

Plow-land 1,415,123 

Meadow 188,380 

Clover 103,586 

Pasture , 282,034 

Total 4,834,813 



GEOLOGICAL STJBYEY OF OHIO. 



399 



Allen 

Auglaize .. 
Crawford . 
Defiance .. 
Fulton .... 
Hancock .. 

Henry 

Lucas 

Mercer 

Ottawa .. 
Paulding . 
Putnam ... 
Sandusky 

Seneca 

Van Wert 
Williams . 

Wood 

Wyandot . 



Counties. 



Acres of j 
plow land Meadow 
in 1870. I in 1870. 



86,638 
88,158 

138,368 
58,912 
73,758 

111,542 
45,816 
53,603 
84,649 
25,755 
21,443 
61,651 

110,841 

171,591 
51,142 
68,390 
78,085 
84,781 



11,749 

8,631 

15,383 

7,363 

11,901 

14,208 

6,063 

12,621 

7,809 

6,448 

3,985 

9,020 

10,595 

18,599 

8,483 

8,226 

14,821 

12,475 



Pasture 
in 1870. 



Totals ! 1,415,123 



188,380 



23,360 
10,159 
11,498 
10,317 
13,995 
39,010 
2,973 

V,e52 

10,150 

2,909 

.10,453 

14,209 

23,171 

9,875 

28,708 

16,633 

50,702 



282,034 



Clover. 



4,772 
2,819 
9,593 
7,117 
8,784 
9,214 
2,957 
2,990 
4,358 
911 
658 
3,300 
9,060 

13,391 
2,684 

12,724 
4,360 
3,894 



103,586 



The forest is very valuable. The growth of many species of forest trees 
is immense — many an oak or walnut being worth as much as an entire 
acre costs. The oaks are worked up into cooper stuff; the hickories and 
ashes into material for agricultural implements an d machines ; the beech and 
some other species are sawed for building and other general purposes. The 
elms in all probability will be found to be far superior to pine for Nichol- 
son or wooden block pavements. The walnuts, cherries and poplars are 
nsed for furniture, whilst from the undergrowth the supply of hoop-poles 
is almost exhaustless. 

The soil, when thoroughly drained and otherwise properly ameliorated, 
will be found to be fully equal in fertility to that of the far-famed Scioto 
and Miami vallies. There is deposited on this farm all the natural fer- 
tilizers necessary for many ages to insure remunerative crops, namely, 
vast deposits of marl, muck, peat, gypsum and calcareous tufa. The 
statistical tables demonstrate its natural fertility under such conditions as 
would render many really productive soils infertile. The tables of prize 
crops demonstrate what increased crops improvement in the condition of 
the soil produces. 

Whilst this soil is well adapted for a system of mixed agriculture, it is 
at the same time well adapted for dairying, and it is possible that future 
generations may convert it into agf eat fruit and dairy region, to the exclu- 
sion of a mixed system of agriculture. Wherever the soil has become suffi- 
ciently dry the Kentucky blue grass becomes the predominating grass. 



400 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

All the cultivated grasses succeed very well in this valley. The fruits 
grown in this valley have no superior in the State ; the climate north of 
the water-shed being more favorable for them than that south of it. 

The population has nearly quadrupled since 1840, and is now increasing 
in a greater proportion. Active, energetic, enterprising, thrifty and indus- 
trious as the population of this valley is, it cannot fail, with a proper 
application of science and art to agriculture, to become the favorite agri- 
cultural region of the State. 



PART Y. 

REPORT OF CHEMICAL DEPARTMENT, 

By T. G. WOEMLET. 



Prof. J. S. Newberry, State Geologist : 

Sib: — I herewith furnish a Eeport of the Chemical Deparnment of the Survey, setting 
forth the methods employed for the principal analyses required, and giving in condensed 
form, the results of most of the analyses made. 

It is with pleasure I state that it was only possible to perforin the number of analyses 
here presented, through the constant and untiring labors of my assistants, Mr. Henry 
Weber and Mr. Leo Mees, tha former of whom has been in the Laboratory since its open- 
ing for State workj July 1st, 1869; and the latter, since April 1st, 1870. 

I may state that there is now in the Laboratory sufficient material waiting examination 
to require our constant attention for at least several months. 

Very truly yours, 

THEO. G. WORMLEY. 

Columbus, Ohio, November 10th, 1871. 



OOALS 



SECTION 1. PROXIMATE ANALYSIS. 

In the examinations of coals, a comparatively large representative 
sample, including -as far as practicable a vertical section of the sample 
and excluding the surface coal, was reduced to a very fine powder, and 
the whole thoroughly mixed. In most instances, separate analyses w r ere 
made of the different layers forming the coal deposit. 

In the proximate analysis of the coal, the constituents always deter- 
mined were : water or moisture ; ash ; volatile combustible matter ; and the 
fixed carbon; also, the sulphur present in the coal. In many instances, 
the amount of permanent gaseous" matter evolved from the coal, was also 
determined. For these determinations, the following quantities are 
weighed off from the thoroughly mixed powder : 

10 grains for estimation of moisture and asli. 
5 " " " volatile matter and fixed carbon. 

5 " " " sulphur. 

It might perhaps be objected that some at least, of the quantities thus em- 
ployed, were too small for the p i irpose ; but, obviously, if the powdered mass 
be thoroughly mixed, it will be of uniform composition. A number of com- 
parative experiments with five grains, fifty grains and one hundred grains 
of the powdered coal, for the determination of the percentage of volatile 
matter and fixed gaseous matter, showed practically, and in some instances 
identically, the same results for these different quantities. 

1. Determination of Moisture and Ash. — The ten grains of powdered 
coal, weighed off in a small glass boat of known weight, are placed in a 
water-oven at 212° F., for one hoar. The boat with its contents is then 
quickly transferred to a small, perfectly dry and warm glass tube, the 
mouth of which is then closed with a rubber stopper, the weight of the 
stopper and that of the tube being also known. When the temperature 
of the tube and its contents has fallen to that of the surrounding air, the 
stopper is withdrawn for a moment to permit the atmospheric pressure 
to re-establish itself — then replaced and the whole weighed. The loss of 
weight of the coal, will represent the amount of water or moisture 
expelled. 



404 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

The residue, after the expulsion of the water, is transferred to a light 
porcelain crucible and gently heated, till the volatile matter has entirely 
escaped, after which the crucible is placed upon its side and a piece of 
heavy platinum foil so placed as to reach some distance within the lower 
portion of the month of the crucible, and thus conduct a current of air 
upon the carbonaceous mass, which is then maintained at a red heat until 
the carbonaceous matter is entirely consumed. The color of the ash is 
now noted, and its weight determined. 

2. Volatile Matter and Fixed Carbon. — The powder, placed in a porcelain 
boat, is heated in a combustion tube connected with a bulbfcd delivery 
tube bent at an angle of about forty-five degrees and made to dip in 
water and open under a graduated tube filled with water, the heat being 
gradually increased to redness and continued till no more bubbles of gas 
make their appearance. 

On cooling of the apparatus, a quantity of water equal in volume 
to the air expelled from the combustion tube, will ascend into the bulbs 
of the delivery tube. The temperature is noted before the operation of 
coking is commenced and again when the apparatus has perfectly cooled. 
As soon as the temperature is fully equalized, the volume of gas collected 
in the graduated tube is read off, care being taken to immerse the tube 
into the water until the liquid within and without the tube stand upon 
the same level. The tube is now emptied and the water that ascended 
into the bulbed delivery tube tansferred into it and the volume noted. 
On deducting this volume from the total volume of gas that collected in 
the graduated tube, the difference will represent the volume of permanent 
gas evolved from the coal operated upon. The proper corrections are 
now made for any difference of temperature observed, and the final vol- 
ume calculated at a temperature of 60° F. If the quantity of gas, ex- 
pressed in cubic inches, evolved from five grains of the coal, be multi- 
plied by 0.8101, the product will represent the number of cubic feet per 
pound of coal. 

The combustion tube, for the above process, may be of hard glass, such 
as employed in organic analysis; but, especially if a large number of an- 
alyses have to be made, an iron tube is preferable. The tube should be 
carefully burned out after each operation. The iron tubes employed had 
an internal diameter of five eights of an inch and a length of about 
twelve inches. When introducing the powdered coal into the tube, it is 
well to have a small wire attached to the eye of the boat, to facilitate its 
introduction and withdrawal after the operation. The most convenient 
method of heating the tube, is by means of a gas furnace, consisting of a 
series of Bunsen burners. The furnace employed consisted of twenty- 
five burners, and permitted two analyses of this kind, to be carried on at 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 405 

the same time. On placing the tube in the furnace, after the introduc- 
tion of the coal, it is so arranged that it projects about four inches beyond 
the end of the furnace. The projecting portion of the tube is wrapped 
in a piece of cloth, which, during the operation, is kept wet by water 
allowed to fall upon it drop by drop. During the process of coking, care 
is required in the management of the heat, especially towards the end of 
the operation, to prevent the redistillation of a portion of the tarry mat- 
ter that has condensed in the outer end of the combustion tube. 

The delivery tube is connected to the combustion tube by means of a 
hard rubber stopper.* The capacity of the bulbs of the delivery tube 
should, obviously, be about two-thirds that of the combustion tube. 

If it be desired to purify the evolved gas, one hundred grains of the 
coal are employed, and, as first advised by Dr. Richardson, the products 
from the combustion tube are first passed through a small Wolfe's bottle, 
then through a tube containing chloride of calcium; next through a 
Liebig's bulb apparatus, containing a solution of caustic potash, in which 
some oxide of lead has been dissolved ; then through a tube partly filled 
with dry caustic potash and partly with solid chloride of calcium ; and, 
finally, it is collected in a graduated bell-jar, in which it is measured. 

The residue remaining in the porcelain boat, after the process of coking, 
is transferred to an equipoised watch-glass and weighed. The loss 
of weight experienced by the coal will represent the total amount of 
volatile matter. On deducting from this amount, the quantity of moisture 
present, as already determined, the difference will represent the amount 
of volatile combustible matter present in the coal. 

So, also, on deducting the amount of ash present in the coal from the 
weight of the residue remaining in the boat, the difference will represent 
the amount of fixed carbon. 

3. Sulphur. — For the determination of the sulphur present in the coal, 
the following method was generally pursued. Four parts of carbonate of 
soda and twelve parts of nitrate of potash, both salts being free from 
sulphur, are separately weighed out. About one-half of the carbonate 
of soda, and two-thirds of the nitrate of potash, are introduced into a 
small, thin, porcelain dish, which is deeply imbedded in a sane* -bath, just 
sufficiently large to receive it, and the mixture is then heated to fusion. 
The balance of the soda and potash salts, finely pulverized, and the given 
quantity of powdered coal, are very thoroughly mixed in a glass mortar, 
and small portions of the mixture added at a time to the fused mass in 
the dish, with constant stirring, until the whole is added, and the carbon- 

* Rubber stoppers, or corks, may readily be cut from pieces of rubber of the proper 
thickness, with a thin, sharpened tube, even of tin, by wetting the sharpened end with 
water, or, better still, with alcohoL 



406 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 

aceous matter is entirely destroyed. This operation will, ordinarily, in 
the case of bituminous coals, require about half an hour. 

When the above mass has cooled, the heat being withdrawn gradually 
. — in order to save the dish-»-it is covered with pure water and allowed to 
digest until the soluble matter is entirely taken up ; the solution is fil- 
tered, the filtrate acidulated with hydrochloric acid, an i heated in a 
beaker on a sand-bath until effervescence has entirely ceased ; then, while 
still hot, an excess of chloride of bavium solution is added, and the mix- 
ture allowed to cool and stand for twenty-four hours. The precipitate 
thus obtained is collected upon a filter of known ash, v ashed, and ignited 
in a platinum crucible. In order to purify the sulphate of baryta, the 
ignited residue in the crucible, is treated with a drop or two of hydro- 
chloric acid and a little water, the mixture warmed, and the liquid de- 
canted upon a very small moistened filter, placed in the funnel of a 
small Bunsen filtering apparatus ; * the residue is washed with a fresh 
portion of- water, and the washings decanted in a" similar manner. The 
washed filter, with any contents, is added to the residue in the cruci- 
ble, ignited, and the whole weighed. The weight of pure sulphate of 
baryta obtained from the sulphur of five grains of coal, when multiplied 
by 2.746, will represent the percentage of sulphur in the coal. 

Sulphur in Coke. — The sulphur present in coke may, under certain cir- 
cumstances, be determined in the same manner as just described for its 
determination in coal ; if, however, the coke is very hard, this method 
will not answer. Under these circumstances, the pulverized coke may be 
mixed directly with the whole of the carbonate of soda and nitrate of 
potash, and the mixture heated to fusion in a covered platinum crucible, 
care being taken that the heat is gradually applied. 

BemarTcs in regard to the Moisture. — The relative amount of moisture 
found in the coals examined from this State, varied from 1.10 per cent, to 
9.10 per cent, of the coal. As a general rule, the coals from the northern 
portion of the State contain, relatively, less moisture than those from the 
southern portion. 

On exposing these coals, in their freshly powdered state, to a tempera- 
ture of 212° F., they quickly lose in weight, and this loss generally reaches 
its maximum within an hour or less, after which, if the heat be continued, 
the weight remains constant, or very slowly increases. 



* In this operation, as well as in many other nitrations, it is most convenint to exhaust 
the flask of the Bunsen apparatus, by means of the mouth, through a small rubber tube 
the end of which is then closed by a short glass rod, or by a Moines compression-cock. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



.407 



In parallel experiments upon two coals, Eos. 1 and 2, the following re- 
sults were observed : 



10 grains of the powder, heated at 212° F., for i hour, lost, in grains 
u ' tt a 1 " " " 

" " " li hours, " " 

a tt a o tt a a 

a tt tt 5 it a tt 



No. 1. 



No. 2. 



0.78 


0.73 


0.765 


074 


0.77 


0.73 


0.77 


0.715 


0.77 


0.702 



It is a singular fact, true at least of most Ohio coals, that at a temper- 
ature of 240° F., the powdered coal generally loses less in weight, in a 
given time, than at a temperature of 212°. If, therefore, a coal be thor- 
oughly dried at 212°, and then be exposed to a heat of 240°, it will gen- 
erally quickly increase in weight, due to the absorption of oxygen. When, 
however, the coal is heated at 240° in an atmosphere of carbonic acid gas, 
the loss is generally a little greater than that experienced at 212°. 

The foregoing may be illustrated by the following results obtained from 
the lower and second layers of the Straitsville coal, and a sample of coal 
from Jackson county, the quantities for the different experiments being 
weighed out from the respective samples at the same time : 





Bottom. 


Sec'nd layer. 


Jackson Co. 


1 hour at 212° — loss, percent 


8.10 


8.90 


8.50 






1 hour at 240° — loss, percent 


7.90 
7.90 
7.50 
7.50 


8.30 
8.70 
8.40 
8.35 


8.10 


2 hours " " " 




g « it tc CC 


8.00 


K CC tc tc tt 








1 hour at 240° in carbonic acid gas..... 


8.50 
8.35 


9.10 
8.90 


8.35 


3 hours " " " 


8.50 







Similar experiments were made upon a sample of Youghiogheny coal, 
with the following results : 



At 212° for 



At 240° for 



At 240° in carbonic acid. 



1 hour — loss, per cent.. 0.90 



1 hour — loss 1.10 

3 hours— " 0.95 



1 hour — loss 1.05 

3 hours— " 1.03 



On withdrawing the heat, the powdered coal immediately begins to re- 
absorb moisture, and — at least when it contains several per cent, in its 



408 



GEOLOGICAL STJBVEY OF OHIO. 



original state — soon increases three or four per cent, in weight ; after this 
it increases more slowly, until nearly the whole of the original weight is 
regained. After thus regaining nearly the whole of its weight, it again 
begins to slowly part with a portion of its moisture. 

These transitions in weight are not always continually progressive, 
since, during the process of re-absorption, the coal may temporarily lose a 
portion of the moisture absorbed ; and, on the other hand, during the 
process of drying, it may for a time regain a portion of the moisture lost. 
These interruptions seem to be due, in part at least, to changes in the 
hygroscopic condition of the atmosphere. 

.From a number of experiments upon this subject, the fcllowing may be 
cited: 

Two coals, which on exposure to a temperature of 212° for 1 hour, lost 
respectively 7.70 and 7.40 per cent, in weight, regained, after withdrawal 
of the heat, in 2 hours, 2.80 and 3.10 parts of the weight thus lost ; in 5 
hours, 4.20 and 4.50 parts; and in 20 hours, 4.70 and 5.10 parts. 

A more extended series of experiments with the lower and second lay- 
ers of the Straitsville coal, gave the following results. During the period 
of observation, the powdered coal was preserved under a small bell glass : 





Lower. 


Seo'nd layer. 


Lost at 212°, for 1 hour 


8.10 


8.90 








5.00 
4.10 
4.40 
3.60 
3.90 
2.90 
1.80 
2.30 
2.60 
3.00 
3.50 
3.95 
4.30 
3.50 


5.70 


]£ >( « a « « 


4.50 


QA It it tt tl it 


4.90 


2 days " " " " 


3.95 


4 << ii « tt tt 


4.30 


r it It tl it u 


3.10 


a tt ' tt tt tt tt 


1.95 


7 tt tt tt tt it 


2.20 


Q tl It tl it t. 


2.85 


in It il it tt it , 
■f-i tl tl tl ll 11 


3.35 
3.70 


JO It ll tl It It 


4.35 


jo ll ll ll it tl 


4.70 


15 " " " " " 


3.90 







It thus appears in these instances, that the re-absorption reached its 
maximum in about six days — when the whole of the moisture, excepting 
1.80 parts in one instance, and 1.95 parts in the other, was re-absorbed — 
after which the powders slowly parted with a portion of the moisture ab- 
sorbed during this period. 

In like manner, powdered coal which has not been heated, when ex- 
posed to the air, sooner or later parts with a portion of its moisture. 
The three following coals, the first and second from Jackson county, and 



GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY OP OHIO. 409 

the third from Wayne county, having been examined in their freshly pow- 
dered state, the balance of the respective powders was carefully preserved 
in paper and examined at the expiration of two months, with the follow- 
ing results : 





1. 


2. • 


3. 




8.70 
5.10 


7.50 
4.50 


350 




2.00 








3.60 


3.00 


1.20 







Analyses of the powders thus preserved, indicated that the only 
change that had taken place was tae loss of moisture, the combustible 
volatile matter and fixed carbon being relatively increased in proportion 
to the loss of moisture. 

After a longer period, however, the loss of moisture is attended by a 
change in the nature of the volatile combustible matter. Thus, the analy- 
ses of two coals, the powders of which had been carefully preserved for 
seven months, indicated not only less moisture, but absolutely less vola- 
tile combustible matter than they contained at the time of the first exam- 
ination, the fixed carbon being increased above its relative proportion 

It is well known that masses of coal when exposed to the action of the 
atmosphere may very soon undergo change. For this reason, in the se- 
lection of samples for analyses, they should be fresh, and the surface coal 
should be rejected. 

Ash of Goals Examined: — The relative proportion of ash found in the 
bituminous coals of the State thus far examined has varied from 0.77 of 
one per cent., found in a coal from Jackson county, to 17.10 per cent., 
present in a coal from Holmes county. The mean average of ash found 
in eighty-eight bituminous coals from that portion of the State south of 
the line of the Central Ohio Railroad was 4.718; that of sixty-four similar 
coals north of said line was 5.120 per cent. 

The mean average ash of the one hnndred and fifty-two Ohio bitumin- 
ous coals examined was 4.891 per cent. Of these one hundred and fifty- 
two coals, the ash of ten each exceeded 10 per cent. Omitting these 
coals from the list, the average amount of ash present in the remaining 
coals amounts to 4.280 per cent. 

The mean average per centage of ash found in eleven Ohio cannel coals 
examined was 13.827 per cent. 

Volatile Combustible Matter. — The amount of volatile combustible mat- 
ter found in the different bituminous coals examined varied from about 
28 per cent, to something over 40 per cent, of the native coal. 



410 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



The amount of fixed gaseous matter evolved from coal is not always in 
direct proportion to the amount of volatile combustible matter present. 
Thus, a coal which contained only 27.70 per cent, of volatile combustible 
matter evolved 3.32 cubic feet of fixed gas per pound, whilst another, 
which contained 38.80 per cent, of volatile combustible matter, evolved 
only 3.03 cublic feet per pound. 

We herewith exhibit in a tabular form the relative proportion of vol- 
atile combustible matter present in and the amount of fixed gaseous mat- 
ter evolved from a number of different coals, the list embracing the 
extremes Of results observed : 



Volatile com- 


Fixed gas — cubic 


Volatile combustible 


Fixed gas — cubic 


bustible matter. 


feet per pound. 


matter. 


feet per pound. 


27.70 


3.32 


35.20 


3.42 


28.45 


3.44 


36.75 


3.16 


28.90 


3.36 


37.20 


3.12 


29.10 


3.12 


38.00 


3.65 


29.20 


3.11 


38.80 


3.03 


30.70 


3.51 


38.80 


3.16 


31.60 


3.54 


39.25 


3.35 



The amount of fixed gaseous matter here represented . is something 
below that obtained in the practical manufacture of illuminating gas. A 
fair average sample of Toughiogheny coal furnished us only aboct 3J 
cubic feet of gas per pound, whereas, in the ordinary manufacture of 
illuminating gas, this coal, as is well known, yields about four cubic feet 
of gas per pound. 

This difference seems to be due in part to the re-distillation of tarry 
matters which condense in what is known as the "stand-pipe" of gas 
works, from which they drip back into the retort and there undergo re- 
distillation, with the evolution of a fresh quantity of fixed gas. It may 
also be partly due to the increased temperature at which the gas is 
usually measured. We have found by experiment that if the tarry mat- 
ter evolved from a coal be only in part re-distilled, the amount of fixed 
gas obtained from the coal may be increased in some instances even as 
much as 20 or 25 per cent. In regard to the effects of temperature, it is 
well known that a difference of five degrees changes the volume of a gas 
about one per. cent. 

Fixed Carbon. — The per centage of fixed carbon found in the bitumin- 
ous coals of the State varied from 34.10 to 65.90, the former being the 
amount found in an upper coal from Holmes county, and the latter that 
present in a sample of Steubenville shaft coal. 



GEOLOGICAL, STJBVEY OF OHIO. 411 

The average per centage of fixed carbon found in sixty-four bituminous 
coals from the northern portion of the State was 56.267 ; that of eighty- 
eight similar coals from the southern portion, 57.158. The average 
amount of fixed carbon found in the one hundred and fifty-two bitumin- 
ous coals examined was 56.782 per cent, of the native coal. 

Sulphur. — The average proportion of sulphur present in the Ohio bitu- 
minous coals examined was 1.551 per cent. ; that of the coals from the 
lower half of the State being 1.229 per cent., and that of the coals from 
the upper half 1.836 per cent. 

The smallest amount of sulphur found in these examinations was in a 
sample of coal from Columbiana county, in which it amounted to only 
0.11 per cent, of the coal. 

It has generally been assumed that in the process of coking about 
one-half of the sulphur present in the coal passes off with the volatile 
matter. This, however, is by no means always the case, since in some 
instances very nearly the whole, even to the merest trace, of the sulphur 
may be thus evolved, whilst in others very little of the sulphur may 
escape with the volatile products. 

Thus, in the lower and second layers of the Straitsville seam of coal 
there are present, respectively, 0.49 and 0.93 per cent, of sulphur, of 
which there remain in the coke only 0.082 and 0.015 parts; that is, of the 
0.49 parts of sulphur present in the first-mentioned coal, about 0.41 parts 
pass off with the volatile matter, whilst of the 0.93 parts present in. the 
second named, about 0.90 parts are eliminated in the process of coking. 
Again, the lower part of a coal from Jackson county contains 0.91 per 
cent, of sulphur, the whole of which, to the merest trace, is evolved with 
the volatile matter. The upper part of this seam of coal contains 0.68 
per cent, of sulphur, of which 0.30 parts remain in the coke. 

On the other hand, a sample of Jackson county hill coal contained 0.57 
per cent, of sulphur, of which 0.43 remained in the coke. So, also, a 
sample of Briar hill coal, from Toungstown, contained 0.56 per cent, ot 
sulphur, of which 0.46 parts were retained by the coke. A sample oi 
Youghiogheny coal examined, contained 0.98 per cent of sulphur, 0.66 ot 
which remained in the coke. 



412 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



These results may be exhibited as follows : 





Straitsville. 


Jackson County. 


6 
O 

a 
o 
ta 


1 


a 


Xocality. 


Lower. 


Second 
Seam. 


Lower. 


Upper. 


1. 

p 

iS 




0.49 
0.082 


C.93 
0.015 


0.91 
0.007 


0.68 
0.30 


0.57 
0.43 


0.56 
0.46 


0.98 
0.66 







These facts show that in determining the relative value of a given coal, 
at least so far as the sulphur is concerned, either for gas-making or fur- 
nace purposes, it is not enough to m know, simply, how much sulphur it 
contains in its native state, but we should also know how much of the 
sulphur will be evolved during the process of coking. For example, the 
second coal given above, if employed for gas-making, would yield about 
0.90 per cent., of the coal, of sulphur, with the volatile products ; whilst, 
on the other hand, in the case of the Briar hill coal examined, only about 
0.10 per cent, of sulphur would be eliminated in the process of coking. 

On the other hand, in the application of these respective ccals, in the 
raw state, for furnace purposes, in which the coal is coked before coming 
in contact with the hot iron, the first would, during the process of coking, 
part with very near the whole of its sulphur, whilst the other would 
retain in the coke about 0.46 per cent, of sulphur, calculated upon the 
raw coal. Thus, then, so far as sulphur is concerned, a given coal may 
be well suited for furnace purposes, but objectionable for gas-making ; 
whilst another, with even a greater percentage of sulphur, may be better 
suited for gas-making, but objectionable for furnace use. 

In the report for last year, Prof. Andrews drew attention to the fact 
that our analyses had shown, contrary to the usually received opinion, 
that the sulphur present in coals was not always, at least, wholly in com- 
bination with iron. A number of additional examinations have been 
made, all of which confirm this view. 

A sample of Straitsville coal contained 0.57 per cent, of sulphur, of 
which 0.26 were left in the coke. Of iron, the coal contained, only 0.075 
per cent. This amount of iron would require, to form bisulphuret of the 
metal, only 0.086 parts of sulphur, thus showing that about 0.48 of the 
0.57 parts of the sulphur present in the coal, were in some other combina- 
tion than with iron. 

Again, another sample of coal containing 0.98 per cent, of sulphur, of 
which 0.66 parts remained in the coke, contained only 0.086 per cent, of 
iron, which would require only about 0,097 parts of sulphur, leaving about 
0.90 parts of sulphur uncombined with iron. 



GEOLOGICAL SUEVEY OF OHIO. 413 

The following table exhibits the amount of sulphur and of iron found 
in several different coals, and the proportion of the sulphur that could 
have been combined with iron : 

Sulphur in coal 0.57 

Iron in coal 0.075 

Sulphur required by iron . . 0.086 

We will now append, in tabular form, the composition of the various 
Ohio coals thus far examined. 



1.18 0.98 2.00 


0.91 


0.86 


0.57 


0.74 


4.04 


.742 .086 .425 


.122 


.052 


.102 


.102 


2.05 


.848 .097 .486 


.139 


.06 


.116 


.116 


2.343 



TABLE I.— BITUMINOUS COALS. 
Proximate composition, including Sulphur. 






Locality. 



Perry county, McGinnis' bank, lower part 

" " " upper part 

Perry county, B .Saunders' bank, upper seam •.. 

" " " lower seam 

Washington county sandstone coal 

Washington county limestone coal 

Nelsonville coal, W. B. Brooks 

Straitsville coal, upper part, S. Beard 

Perry county, McGinnis', upper part, upper seam... 
" " middle part, upper seam 

" " lower part, upper seam . . 

" " middle seam 

" " lower seam 

Briar Hill coal, Chestnut Eidge 

Blue Chippewa coal, Canton, Ohio 

Perry county, Stallsmith's coal 

Zanesville, O., Caldwell's coal 

Jackson-Shaft coal 

Jackson Hill coal 

Sunday Creek, Sands' bank, No. 1, from bottom 

No. 2 
" " No. 3, " 

" " No. 4, 

" " No. 5, " 

" " No. 6, 

" " No. 7, 









3 U 


a 














o 














sa 


£> 








en 43 


s 




3 a 


c3 


. 


a 
xi 




02 60 


'3 


XI 

GQ 
-4 


eS -+a 

"3 s S3 


4> 


S3 

4^ 

o 
H 


a 




1.244 


7.55 


1.94 


35.61 


54.90 


100 


1.05 


w 
o 


1.241 


8.15 
dried at 


2.66 


27.46 


61.73 


100 


0.78 


o 

2 


1.294 


212° 


2.80 


41.70 


55.50 


100 


2.56 


1.300 


5.60 


2.03 


29.92 


62.45 


100 


0.81 






dried at 












1.352 


212° 
dried at 


12.95 


37.50 


49.55 


100 


3.26 




1.244 


212° 


6.20 


38 20 


55.60 


100 


2.18 


W 


1.259 


6.80 


2.46 


33.28 


57.36 


100 


0.74 


ui 


1.288 


5.05 


8.88 


28.67 


57.40 


100 


0.99 




1.248 


5.35 


6.96 


30.48 


57.21 


100 


1.22 


1.247 


6.00 


2.44 


32.15 


59.41 


100 


0.498 


o 


1.307 


7.60 


9 98 


29.65 


52.77 


100 


0.68 


1.239 


7.20 


1.07 


32.29 


59.44 


100 


0:73 


o 


1.291 


7.90 


3.18 


34.67 


55.25 


100 


0.98 


W 


1.284 


3.60 


1.16 


32.58 


62.66 


100 


0.85 


o 


1.247 


6.95 


3.18 


32.38 


57.49 


100 


0.88 




1.254 


3.80 


4.14 


40.41 


51.85 


100 


2.62 




1.252 


6.15 


4.41 


30.97 


58.47 


100 


0.41 




1.282 


7.75 


2.03 


31.27 


58.95 


100 


0.53 




1.336 


7.60 


3.79 


30.96 


57.65 


100 


6.49 




1.272 


6.65 


3.83 


36.22 


53.30 


100 


2.00 




1.318 


5.65 


7.07 


30.01 


57.27 


100 


0.67 




1.274 


6.10 


4.93 


33.43 


55.54 


100 


1.46 




1.287 


5.85 


5.32 


35.21 


53.62 


100 


0.51 




1.311 


6.00 


2.92 


39.10 


51.98 


100 


0.51 




1.348 


6.55 


11.26 


29.72 


52.47 


100 
100 1 


0.47 




1.288 


8.15 


3.44 


33.43 


54.98 


0.64 





Muskingum county, J. Porter's miuo 

Hay denville mine, bottom seam 

" middlo seam 

" " upper seam 

Cambridge, O., Williams', G inches from top 

" " 20 inches from top 

" " centre of souui : 

" " G-10 inches from bottom 

Jackson county, Enoch Canter 

Harrison township, Stevens' cut 

Jackson Furnace coal 

Vinton county, Austin Thompson , 

Salineville, strip voiu 

" big vein, lower bonch 

" big vein, top bench 

" lowest seam 

Waynesburgh, Stark county, K. D. Hyming 





dried at 












1.294 


212° 


7.70 


38.60 


53.70 


100 


2.74 


1.271 


6.45 


2.25 


32.74 


58.56 


100 


1.19 


1.258 


5.30 


1.09 


30.12 


63.49 


100 


0.64 


1.340 


5.45 


9.36 


29.88 


55.31 


100 


1.63 


1.294 


2.50 


4.34 


31.59 


61.57 


100 


2.48 


1.299 


3.10 


7.32 


27.90 


61.68 


100 


2.94 


1.295 


3.00 


6.94 


32,69 


57.37 


100 


3.96 


i.a:«3 


3.00 


3.98 


35.60 


57.42 


100 


1.06 


1.298 


8.55 


5.20 


25.25 


61.00 


100 


0.58 


1.319 


4.40 


5.75 


34.20 


55.65 


100 


0.63 


1.29(i 


5.30 


3.10 


32.60 


59.00 


100 


0.78 


1.262 


6.80 


1.50 


30.80 


60.90 


100 


1.08 


1.299 


1.70 


4.50 


34.30 


59.50 


100 


1.62 


1.277 


1.10 


1.95 


35.70 


61.25 


100 


0.86 


1.280 


1.40 


4.45 


34.60 


59.55 


100 


2.11 


1.304 


1.65 


7.20 


, 37.25 


53.80 


100 


2.03 


1.262 


2.60 


2.40 


36.10 


68.90 


100 


1.94 



a 

o 



p 



8 






TABLE II —BITUMINOUS COALS 
Proximate Composition, including Sulphur and Fixed Gas. 



C5 



Locality. 



Jackson county Shaft coal, H. F. Austin . 



Vinton county, Dr. Wolfs coal, No. 1 

" " No.2 

Pigeon Creek, Scott's coal, bottom of seam 

" " • middle " 

" " top " 

Lawrence county, Oak Hill, bottom of lower vein 

" " top " 

" Oak Eidge, upper part 

Sheridan coal, near bottom of vein 

" two-thirds up from bottom 

Jackson county, Pine Hill 

Lawrence county, Haskin's, Greasy Eidge 

Jackson, McClintock's bank, bottom vein 

" " middle " 

" " top " 

Vinton Furnace, Shaft coal, bottom " 

" " middle " 

Sunday Creek, Grisby's farm, bottom of middle seam . 

" " top 

Cincinnati Furnace coal 

Vinton county, E. P. Stokely's coal 

" J.CoiFs coal 

Tuscarawas county, Mineral Point, Tunnel seam 

Summit county, Greentown, coal No. 2, (mixed) 

Tuscarawas county, New Castle 



02 



1.281 
1.317 
1.280 
1.305 
1.284 
1.300 
1.292 
1.333 
1.347 
1.384 
1.275 
1.301 
1.296 
1.345 
1.285 
1.295 
1.319 
1.321 
1,281 
1.277 
1.307 
1.350 
1.277 
1.348 
1.375 
mixed 
1.369 



S 



7.10 
7.40 
7.50 
5.40 
9.10 
8.35 
8.85 
5.65 
5.15 
5.35 
5.05 
5.65 
3.70 
3.45 
6.60 
6.80 
8.40 
4.60 
4.90 
3.80 
3.80 
5.30 
3.90 
5.10 
3.20 
3.25 
3.20 






2.46 
4.31 
1.60 
6.20 
1.20 
1.35 
0.85 
6.75 
9.90 

15.90 
U 

4.20 
5.05 
6.40 
2.40 
3.50 
8.00 

10.60 
6.60 
4.60 
6.30 
4.85 
3.05 
9.25 
4.15 
2.95 
7.95 



8a 



£ s 
>& 



30.70 
35.00 
32.20 
28.20 
31.60 
29.45 
29.75 
35.15 
36.85 
32.05 
33.35 
32.65 
28.10 
36.75 
29.60 
30.80 
25.60 
29.00 
30.70 
38.80 
37.00 
36.50 
35.90 
27.50 
39.70 
38.75 
33.00 



a 
o 






59.74 
53.29 
58.70 
60.20 
58.10 
60.85 
60.55 
52.45 
48.10 
48.80 
59.80 
57.50 
63.15 
53.40 
61.40 
58.90 
58.00 
55.80 
57.80 
52,80 
52.90 
53.35 
57.15 
58.15 
52.95 
55.05 
55.85 



o 



Pt 
CO 



to -£ 

.a-g 



100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



0.91 

2.73. 

0.63 

0.66 

0.82 

0.77 

0.67 

1.35 

2.28 

2.22 

1.00 

1.89 

1.40 

2.55 

0.70 

0.96 

0.82 

1.30 

0.65 

3.59 

4.89 

1.31 

2.00 

1.11 

3.64 

173 

2.26 



3.24 

" aT.il 

3.11 
3.05 
2.90 
2.98 
2.97 
3.32 
3.40 
3.48 
3.48 
2.67 
3.16 
3.16 
3.32 
2.83 
2.92 
2.99 
3.03 
3.08 
3.24 
2.92 
2.75 
3.31 
3.81 
2.24 



Holmes county, Strawbridge coal 

Chapman coal 

Holmes county, Saunder's coal, lowest bench 
" " middle " 

to » " top " 

Summit county, Johnson's shaft, Blook coal . 
" Franklin Coal Co., coal No. 1 

Holmes county, Daggin vein, bottom coal — 



coal, lower benoh. 

" Bennington & Druard, coal No. C 

" Smith's bank, upper bench 

" " lower " 

" Taylor's ooal 

" Adam Lear's coal 

" Mast's bank, bottom coal 

" " top " 

" " N, E. corner Hardy township. 
Columbiana county, Dyke's coal, top bench 

" " " lower benoh 

" " Acker coal, No. 456 

" " " No. 462 

New Lisbon, W. Nelson's mine 

Stark county, John Farber, upper bench „ 

" " lower " 

Wayne county, Geo. Matthews mine 

Stark county, Waynesburgh Coal Co 

" Hanak's bank 

" Langston's bank 

Wayne county, Kirkendale's coal 



1.370 


2.15 


1.381 


5.90 


1.395 


2.75 


1.369 


5.10 


1.328 


2.75 


1.256 


2.70 


1.271 


3.40 


1.248 


6.65 


1.428 


4.20 


1.345 


2.30 


1.335 


4.30 


1.312 


3.85 


1.269 


7.30 


1.277 


3.85 


1.282 


4.20 


1.359 


5.05 


1.305 


3.85 


1.266 


1.35 


1.286 


1.70 


1.293 


2.00 


1.343 


1.85 


1.250 


1.70 


1.263 


2.90 


1.294 


3.60 


1.279 


3.90 


1.294 


3.60 


1.429 


3.60 


1.305 


2.60 


1.314 


3.20 



16.50 

12.45 

9.65 

4.20 

.8.05 

2.00 

1.80 

4.10 

17.10 

10.60 

15.40 

12.00 

3.40 

2.90 

7.00 

C.80 

5.80 

2.50 

1.71 

2.55 

9.55 

1.70 

2.70 

4.45 

3.20 

5.10 

2.65 

5.65 

8.60 



28.65 
33.50 
43.75 
39.00 
42.95 
37.30 
36.10 
34.35 
22.40 
29.30 
45.70 
40.15 
34.90 
34.65 
32.20 
33.95 
33.95 
34.15 
42.70 
34.00 
28.55 
35.90 
38.30 
34.80 
37.10 
36.00 
38.40 
36.00 
39.00 



52.70 
48.15 
43.K> 
51.70 
46.25 
58.00 
58.70 
54.90 
56.30 
57.80 
34.10 
44.00 
54.40 
58.60 
56.60 
54.20 
56.40 
62.00 
53.85 
61.45 
60.05 
60.70 
56.10 
57.15 
55.80 
55.30 
55.35 
55.75 
49.20 



100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



2.13 


3.40 


2.49 


2.83 


6.19 




2.26 


3.40 


4.85 




0.93 


3.08 


0.80 




0.90 


2.87 


0.54 


2.24 


4.42 


2.87 


1.62 


2.67 


1.83 


2.32 


2.14 


3.20 


2.66 


2.96 


3.34 


3.32 


2.03 


2.96 


2.06 


3.24 


99 


3.24 


1.45 


2.92 


1.26 


2.99 


0.11 


3.16 


0.77 




1.93 


3.40 


2.52 


3.08 


2.81 


3.24 


1.93 


3.08 


1.72 


3.16 


1.63 


3.16 


3.10 


2.64 



o 

o 

s 

i 



o 



o 






TABLE III.— BITUMINOUS COALS.. 

Proximate Composition, including Sulphur present and amount left in'GoTce, amount of fixed gas evolved, and Iron present. 



CO 



Locality. 



Hocking county, Ward's Dank, lower seam 

■" " " " middle seam 

" " Clark's bank, bottom of upper seam .... 

" " Ward's bank, middle of upper seam 

" " Clark's bank, 2d from top of upper seam . 

" " " " top of upper seam 

Washington county, Bear Creek coal. 

Jackson county, Anthony's bank 

Gallia county, Jacob Webster, top seam 

" " " " middle seam 

" " " " bottom seam 

Jackson county, Stephenson Hill coal.... 

" " Star Furnace shaft coal 

Nelson-yille, Brook's bank, middle of lower seam 

" " " center of " 

" top of " 

New Straitsville, lower seam , 

" " 2d " , 

" " 3d " 

" " 4th " , 

Jackson county, Jacob Sell's lower seam , 

" " " " upper seam 

New Lisbon Coal Co., Coal No. 5 , 

Columbiana county. Wm. and Jno. Burt's mine 

" " Durk & Burson's " 

" " Isaac Dike's mine 



5 

o 



ft 



.278 
.290 
,257 
,284 
,287 
,274 
,325 
,239 
.307 
,295 
.309 
,281 
267 
285 
272 
,284 
260 
.281 
262 
.276 
,298 
,271 
,474 
270 
260 
.267 



a 



7.15 
6.80 
5.85 
6.15 
5.80 
3.05 
2.00 
5.25 
4.05 
6.00 
5.15 
8.70 
7.50 
6.20 
6.65 
5.00 
7.70 
7.40 
7.20 
5.30 
8.50 
8.65 
1.15 
1.10 
1.50 
1.85 



•a 



2.41 

2.05 
1.93 
4.88 
7.63 
11.05 
5.24 
1.50 
7.60 
4.65 
4.60 
1.50 
4.16 
2.70 
1.90 
9.05 
2.60 
2.95 
5.15 
7.95 
2.35 
0.77 
4.65 
4.40 
3.80 
2.30 



S3 



sa 



t>£ 



35.28 
36.16 
37.10 
33.22 
35.42 
38.39 
33.76 
29.75 
34.35 
31.20 
29.65 
28.30 
30.90 
31.30 
33.05 
32.80 
30.70 
29.20 
30.10 
31.00 
32.20 
28.45 
40.45 
35.30 
33.40 
32.75 



o 






55.16 
54.99 
53.12 
55.75 
51.15 
47.51 
59.00 
63.50 
54.00 
58.15 
60.60 
61.50 
57.50 
59.80 
58.40 
53.15 
59.00 
60.45 
57.55 
55.75 
56.95 
62.13 
53.75 
59.20 
61.30 
63.10 



o 



100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



Sulphur — 



1.35 
1.07 
1.42 
1.88 
1.01 
4.04 
3.33 
0.98 
1.15 
0.86 
0.82 
0.57 
0.74 
0.97 
0.41 
0.94 
0.49 
0.93 
0.57 
1.18 
0.91 
0.68 
3.51 
3.21 
1.17 
1.36 



■a -3 



0.75 
0.74 
0.48 
0.94 
0.47 
1.96 
1.80 
0.37 



0.07 
0.43 
0.74 
0.22 
trace. 



0.082 

0.015 

0.26 

0.082 

0.007 

0.30 

2.06 



0.62 

0.78 



ft q 






1.31 
1.30 
0.85 
1.56 
0.81 
3.35 
2.82 
0.57 



0.11 
0.68 
0.34 
0.13 
trace. 



0.13 

0.023 

0.41 

0.128 

0.11 

0.54 

3.52 



0.95 
1.19 



ft 

DO +3 

a <s> 
bc<g 

©.2 
to © 



3.00 
3.48 
3.07 
3.24 
2.67 
2.51 



3.24 
2.81 
3.51 
3.11 
3.08 
3.01 
3.44 
3.44 



3.00 
2. 



0.72 

0.53 

0.36 

1.33 

0.085 

2.05 

0.38 



0.102 
0.102 



0.075 
0.742 
0.122 
0.052 
1.86 



Columl>iiMiii county, Booth & Kinto's mine 

" " Isaac Booth's mine 

" " Carbon Hill coal ..' 

" " Joy, Rook & Burnett's mine . 

YonghoigUcny coal 

Athens county, Mookor linn 

Cambridge, A. Nicholson's, bottom of seam 

« " middle of " 

" " top of " 

Baylies' Run, bottom 

" middle 

" top 

Youngstown, Veatoh's mine 

Steubenville, shaft ooal 

Book Run. Muskingum Valley Coal Co., bottom .. 

" " " " top 

Coshocton oounty. Prosser's Vein, lower benoh 

" " " " upper " .... 

Stark oounty, Lawrence Coal Co", lower " .... 

" " " " nppcr " .... 

Mahoning county, Walworth's abaft 

Coshooton county, Homo Co.'s miuo 

Holmes oounty, Motos' mine 

Coshocton county, Coal l'ort, nppor bench 

" " Keith's now mine 

" " Wm. Parker 

Waynesburg, 5 milos wost 

tJriehsvillo, Andreas Mine 

New Lisbon Coal Co,, top 

" " " middle 

" " " bottom 



1.402 

1.270 

1.280 

1.302 

1.309 

1.338 

1.318 

1.283 

1.272 

1.301 

1.264 

1.381 

1.260 

1.305 

1.322 

1.264 

1.296 

1.253 

1.253 

1.269 

1.323 

1.303 

1.300 

1.357 

1.339 

1.296 

1.322 

1.294 

1.301 

1.291 

1.205 



1.60 
1.40 
1.60 
1.40 
0.90 
4.30 
4.20 
3.90 
3.80 
5.00 
4.80 
4,50 
2.47 
1.40 
2.15 
4.80 
3.70 
4.30 
7.00 
5.60 
3.90 
3.80 
7.20 
3.60 
4.00 
3.80 
7.00 
3.20 
1.30 
1.30 
1.55 



2.90 

3.60 

4.00 

5.00 

3.3i 

0.20 

6.10 

3.80 

3.00 

7.40 

3.40 

3.40 

1.45 

1.80 

8.80 

1.90 

2.20 

1.40 

1.00 

3.90 

6.60 

1.90 

0.60 

6.20 

5.10 

2.90 

2.70 

4.00 

4.4r 

(5.40 

l.r 



34.60 
32.80 
29.90 
36.80 
28.90 
34.80 
31.60 
29.70 
34.70 
32.30 
35.20 
37.50 
3183 
30.90 
39.25 
36.50 
36.10 
■ 38.00 
31.00 
30.30 
29.10 
37.00 
32.10 
37.20 
36.20 
38.80 
30.80 
34.20 
37.10 
38.00 
40.85 



60.90 
62.20 
04.50 
50.80 
66.85 
54.70 
58.10 
02.(50 
58.00 
55.30 
56.60 
54.60 
64.25 
65.90 
49.80 
56.80 
58.00 
56.30 
01.00 
60.20 
00.40 
57.20 
54.10 
53.00 
54.70 
54.50 
59.50 
58.00 
57.15 
54.30 
56.05 



100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



1.49 
1.07 
2.80 
2.00 
0.98 
2.14 
1.26 
1.04 
1.11 

l.sr 

1.26 
2.90 
0.56 
0.98 
2.73 
1.74 
2.77 
1.61 
0.49 
0.19 
0.82 
1.75 
3.76 
3.34 
2.69 
1.12 
0.65 
1.54 
1.95 
1.87 
2.65 



0.74 

1.208 

0.97 

1.05 

0.60 

1.19 

0.42 

0.65 

0.83 

0.42 

0.69 

1.89 

0".48 

0.38 



0.65 
0.90 
0.38 

traoo. 

trace. 
0.00 
0.11 
1.86 
2.08 
0.80 
0.82 

traoe. 



1.26 



1.19 
1.83 
1.41 
1.69 
0.81 
1.95 
0.65 
0.94 
1.34 
0.07 
1.15 
3.25 
0.73 
0.56 



1.10 
1.47 
0.05 

trace. 

traco, 
0.89 
0.18 
3.05 
3.51 
1.34 
1.42 

traoe 



2.04 



3.08 



3.60 
3 3( 

SM 
2.98 
3.58 
3.27 
3.42 
3.12 
3.11 
3.26 
3.35 
3.42 
3.42 
3.65 
3.42 
3.50 
3.12 
3.42 
2.85 
3.08 
3.23 
3.16 
3.50 
3.20 



0.425 
0.086 



s 

o 
o 

s 



3 



o 



o 






TABLE IV.— CANNEL COAL. 



o 



Locality. 



Licking county, Flint Ridge, Cannel coal 

Jackson " Jackson Gillard, " " 

" " Jacob Sells' " " 

Canton, O., Cannel coal 

Holmes county, Strawbridge seam, Cannel coal 
" Seam No. £, " " 

" " Gloscen Cannel coal 

" " Cannel coal, Gloscen's vein 

Licking connty, Flint Eidge, Jndge Barr 

Coshocton " Jno. Taylor's Cannel coal 






1.298 
1.276 
1.292 
1.200 
1.394 
1.293 
1.292 
1.388 
1.431 
1.418 



I 



(Dried 
at 212°) 
4.30 
6.40 
3.05 
1.65 
1.30 
3.90 
2.45 
2.60 
1.35 



19.95 

6.25 

5.20 

6.00 

16.35 

15.90 

5.65 

9.90 

13.20 

19.70 



OB' 



36.80 
37.70 
38.40 
31.45 
37.35 
41.60 
40.50 
44.75 
40.20 
36.35 



s 



43.25 
51.75 
50.00 
59.50 
44.65 
41.20 
49.95 
42.90 
44.00 
42.60 






100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



■a 

02 



1.31 
1.25 
1.27 
3.09 
1.70 
1.55 
155 
2.58 
1.34 
1.89 









3.05 
3.44 
3.81 
2.31 
2.35 
2.92 
2.75 
2.93 
3.42 



o 

£ 

Q 

It" 



O 

O 


o 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 421 



SECTION 2.— ULTIMATE ANALYSIS OF COAL. 

The sample is prepared in the same manner as already described for 
proximate analysis of coal, and from the freshly pulverized mass there 
are weighed out : 

5 grains for determination of carbon, hydrogen and ash. 
10 " " moisture and nitrogen. 

5 " " sulphur. 

Carbon, Hydrogen and Ash. — A number of experiments were made to 
determine the carbon, by burning the coal by means of oxide of copper, 
and with ehromate of lead, as in the ordinary method of carbon deter- 
minations, but the results, especially in the case of the more dense coals 
and with cokes, were not satisfactory. We then adopted the method of 
burning them in an atmosphere of oxygen gas, in connection with oxide 
of copper, which is not only more satisfactory, but, also, much more expe- 
ditious, at least when a number of analyses are required. 

For this purpose, an iron tube about 40 inches in length and having an 
internal diameter of half an inch, may be employed. To charge the tube, 
place in it a plug of recently ignited asbestos, about twenty-six inches 
from its mouth; upon this fill the tube for about eight inches with pure 
oxide of copper, and upon this introduce another plug of asbestos ; now 
nil in about eight inches of ehromate of lead, and upon this place a third 
asbestos plug ; finally, introduce three or four inches of copper turnings. 
The object of the ehromate of lead is to retain any sulphurous acid formed 
during the operation. A few gentle taps are given the tube, while in a 
horizontal position, to clear a passage for the gas. 

The charged tube is now so placed in a gas furnace that it projects 
about six inches beyond the end of the furnace. To the outer, or ante- 
rior, end of the tube, an unweighed chloride of calcium tube is attached ; 
the inner end of the tube is connected with the supply of oxygen gas. 

The oxygen employed must, of course, be perfectly free from carbonic 
acid and moisture. For this purpose, it is passed through a charged 
potash apparatus, then through a U-tube filled with small fragments of 
pumice stone moistened with sulphuric acid, and finally through a chloride 
of calcium tube, from which it is conducted, by means of rubber tube, to the 
combustion tube, the end of which is closed by a perforated rubber cork, 
carrying a small glass tube to which the rubber tube is filled. 

■ The combustion tube being thus connected, it is moderately heated and 
a slow current of the dried oxygen passed through it, until its contents 
are perfectly dry, when it is allowed to cool. 



422 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

The powdered coal, contained in a small porcelain boat, is now intro- 
duced through the inner end of the tube and pushed up to within half an 
inch or less, of the asbestos plug. To facilitate the introduction and 
withdrawal of the boat, a copper wire of the proper length, is attached to 
the eje of the boat. The boat being introduced, the inner end of the 
tube is again connected with the supply of oxygen. The chloride of cal- 
cium tube attached to the outer end of the combustion tube is now re- 
placed by one that has been accurately weighed; and this, in its turn, is 
connected with a properly filled Liebig's potash apparatus. It is well to 
have the potash apparatus connected with a small chloride of calcium 
tube, of known weight, to arrest any moisture that might be carried out 
of the apparatus by the gas passing through. 

It is now essential to ascertain that all the joints of the apparatus are 
perfectly tight. For this purpose, the stop-cock of the gasometer is 
opened sufficiently to cause a few bubbles of gas to pass through the 
potash bulbs. If, on closing the cock, the column of liquid in the outer 
limb of the apparatus remains permanently at a higher level than that in 
the inner, the joints may be considered sufficiently closed. 

Heat is now applied to the anterior part of the tube and gradually 
carried back along the tube as far as the anterior portion of the oxide of 
copper. To prevent the charring of the cork, a narrow slip of moistened 
cloth may be placed around the end of the tube, care being taken that the 
end of the tube be not so far cooled as to cause the condensation of mois- 
ture. One or two burners are now opened under the inner portion of the 
tube at some inches back of the portion occupied by the boat. 

When these portions of the tube are red hot, a feeble current of oxy- 
gen is turned into the tube, and the heat gradually approached to the 
boat, both from before and behind. As soon as the coal begins to coke, 
the bubbles of gas cease to pass through the potash apparatus, the car- 
bonic acid formed being absorbed by the potash solution. The supply of 
oxygen is now increased to a pretty rapid current, care being taken, how- 
ever, that it be not forced through the potash bulbs. When the volatile 
matters of the coal have been about consumed, that portion of the tube 
containing the coal is heated to redness and the heat continued until the 
coke is entirely consumed, and the oxide of copper reduced by the opera- 
tion is completely reoxidised. 

The complete combustion of the coke, is marked by the gas suddenly 
ceasing to appear in the potash apparatus. When the reduced copper 
has been completely reoxidised, the g%s again appears and now passes 
through the potash solution. 

As soon as the reduced copper has been reoxidised, the heat is with- 
drawn and the supply of oxygen reduced to just sufficient^ compensate 



GEOLOGICAL STJBVEY OP OHIO. 423 

for the contraction of the gas within the tube daring the operation of 
cooling, when it is entirely cut off. 

When the tube has sufficiently cooled, the potash apparatus and chlor- 
ide of calcium tube are detached, and the mouth of the tube closed with 
the unweighed chloride of calcium tube before employed. The openings 
of the potash apparatus and of the chloride of calcium tube, should 
always, when not attached to the apparatus, be closed with small rubber 
plugs. When the potash apparatus and chloride of calcium tube have 
completely cooled, they are again carefully weighed. 

The increase in weight of the potash apparatus, with that of the small 
chloride of calcium tube attached, will represent the amount of carbonic 
acid evolved, from which the amount of carbon is readily calculated. The 
increase in weight of the chloride of calcium tube, will represent the 
amount of water formed, from which the hydrogen is calculated. 

The amount of ash present in the coal operated upon, is determined 
by carefully withdrawing the boat and weighing it, first with its contents, 
and then alone. 

The combustion tube is now ready for a second operation, simply by 
introducing afresh supply of coal. 

Moisture and Nitrogen. — The moisture present in the coal is determined 
in the manner already described, when considering the proximate analyses 
of coals. 

The nitrogen is determined by* heating the dried coal, which has served 
for the estimation of the moisture, with soda-lime, and collecting the 
ammonia, formed by the nitrogen present, in a solution of oxalic acid of 
known strength. 

For this purpose, the dried coal is intimately mixed, in a warm mortar, 
with a quantity of warm soda-lime sufficient to half fill the combustion 
tube about to be employed. 2sow introduce into the combustion tube a 
layer of about two inches of recently heated soda-lime, then the mixture 
of soda-lime and coal, rinse out the mortar with a fresh portion of soda 
lime and add this to the tube, and finally fill the tube to within about two 
inches of its mouth with soda-lime and introduce a plug of asbestos. A 
few gentle taps are now given the tube, to clear the beak of the tube and 
form a passage for the gas. 

Two hundred fluid-grains of a decinormal solution of oxalic acid are now 
measured off into a small beaker, and drawn from this, as far as practi- 
cable, into a Wills bulb apparatus. Any liquid adhering to the tube of 
the apparatus, is washed back into the beaker, which is put aside in a 
safe place. 

The bulb apparatus thus charged is connected with the combustion 
tube by means of a tightly fitting rubber cork, and the tube then so placed 



424 GEOLOGICAL STJEVEY OP OHIO. 

in a combustion furnace that it projects about one and a half inches be- 
yond the end of the furnace. 

The tube is now heated to redness, the heat being first applied to the 
anterior end and gradually carried back along the whole length of the 
tube. During the combustion, care should be taken to keep up a regluar, 
but not too rapid, evolution of gas. When the evolution of gas has com- 
pletely ceased and the liquid within the bulb begins to recede, the tip end 
of the tube is broken off, and a volume of air equal to two or three times 
the capacity of the tube, is drawn through the apparatus, in order that 
the last traces of ammonia may be brought in contact with the oxalic acid 
solution. 

The heat is now withdrawn, the bulb apparatus detached, and its 
contents washed back into the beaker. A few drops of a neutral solution 
of litmus are now added to the liquid, and the amount of free oxalic acid 
remaining in the solution, determined by titrating the mixture back with 
a decinormal solution of soda. Every 100 fluid-grains of the oxalic acid 
solution neutralized during the combustion, represents 0.14 grains of 
nitrogen. 

Preparation of the Decinormal Solutions. — A normal, or standard solution 
of oxalic acid, is prepared by dissolving 63 grains (one equivalent) of the 
pure, dry crystallized acid in pure water and diluting the solution to ex- 
actly 1000 fluid-grains. 

For the preparation of a normal solution of soda, a freshly-made solu- 
tion of caustic soda, free from carbonic acid, is diluted first to a density 
of about 1.05, which corresponds to about 3.6 per cent, of soda. 100 fluid- 
grains of the normal oxalic acid solution are now measured out into a 
beaker, a few drops of a neutral tincture of litmus added, and then the 
soda solution gradually added, from a burette, with constant stirring of the 
mixture, till the last drop causes a permanent, faint blue coloration. The 
strength of the soda solution is now read off, and it is then so diluted that, 
when tested, in the manner just described, 100 fluid-grains exactly corres- 
pond to a similar quantity of the acid solution. 

The decinormal solutions of oxalic acid and soda, are formed by diluting 
100 fluid-grains of the respective normal solution to exactly 1000 fluid- 
grains. 

Sulphur. — The surphur is determined in the manner already described, 
in the consideration of the proximate analysis of coal. 

The carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and ash, having been deter- 
mined, the oxygen present in the coal, is determined by difference. 



ULTIMATE COMPOSITION OF COALS. 



Carbon 

Hydrogen 

Nitrogen 

Sulphur 

Oxygen 

Ash 

Totals 

Moisture, included in above 
Composed of {Hydrogen^-. 



75.00 
5.80 
1.51 
0.64 

15.96 
1.09 



100 



5.30 
0.59 
4.71 



73.80 
5.79 
1.62 
0.41 

16.58 
1.90 



100 



0.65 
0.74 
5.91 



71.48 
5.47 
1.26 
0.57 

16.07 
5.15 



100 



7.20 
0.80 
6.40 



81.27 
5.66 
1.66 
6.98 
7.08 
3.35 



100 



0.90 
0.10 
0.80 



70.46 
5.69 
1.82 
0.91 

18.77 
2.35 



100 



8.50 
0.94 
7.56 



73.48 
5.48 
1.40 
0.68 

18.19 
0.77 



100 

8.65 
0.98 
7.69 



79.28 
5.92 
1.62 
2.00 
6.18 
5.00 



100 



1.40 
0.15 
1.25 



78.99 
5.92 
1.58 
0.56 

11.50 
1.45 



100 

2.47 
0.27 
2.20 



10 



81.24 
5.71 
1.72 
0.98 
8.55 
1.80 



100 



1.40 
0.15 
1.25 



50.56 
6.43 
1.23 
0.33 

34.85 
6.60 



100 

10.40 
1.15 
9.25 



11 



100 



12 



82.31 


70.42 


0.55 


6.50 


.... 


1.65 


2.24 


1.34 


«... 


6.89 


14.90 


13.20 



100 



2.60 
0.29 
2.31 



a 

o 

8 

I 

I 



§ 



H 



No. 1, Haydenvillo Mine, middle seam. 
" 2, Nelsonville, O., Brooks' Bank, middle of oentre seam. 
" 3, New Straitsville, Perry county Straitsville Mining Co., 3d scam. 
" 4, Youghoigheny coal — from Columbus Gas Works. 
" 5, Jackson Co., Pigeon Creek, Jacob Soils' lowor seam. 
" 6, " " n ' " " " npper " 



No. 7, Columbiana county — Joy, Rock & Burnett's Mine.- 
" 8, Youngstown, O., Briar Hill ooal, Veatoh's Mine. 
" 9, Steubenville, Shaft ooal. 
" 10, Peat — Coventry Peat Co., Summit county. 
" 11, Coke from " Big vein" coal, Salineville, 0. 
" 1,2, Cannel coal, Flint Ridge, Judge Barr's, Licking county. 






426 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



SECTION 3. ANALYSIS OP COAL ASH. 

For the preparation of the ash, a quantity of the coal sufficient to fur- 
nish at least 50 or 60 grains of ash, is burned in a muffle, or large Hessian 
crucible, placed obliquely in the furnace, at about the lowest temperature 
at which the carbon can be consumed. Excessive heat not only retards 
the burning, but also tends to volatilize any alkalies present in the coal. 
When the ignition is completed, the ash is finely pulverized and thor- 
oughly mixed. There will be required, of the ash : 

20 grains for estimation of silica, iron, etc. 

5 " " " " sulphuric acid. 

5 " " " • " sulphur. 

10 " " " " chlorine. 

10 " " " " alkalies. 

Silicic Acid. — The 20 grains of ash are intimately mixed with two parts 
each of pure carbonate of soda and of carbonate of potash, and the mix- 
ture fused in a platinum crucible, first over a Brunsen burner, then over 
a blow-pipe flame. The crucible, with its contents, is then placed in a 
small beaker, covered with water, an excess of Hydrochloric acid added, 
and the mixture allowed to digest. When the fused mass has become 
disintegrated, the mixture is transferred to an evaporating dish, a few 
drops of nitric acid added, and the solution evaporated to dryness on a 
water bath. The residue is moistened with a few drops of hydrochloric 
acid, allowed to digest half an hour, then treated with four or five fluid 
ounces of Water, the mixture gently heated, the liquid filtered, and the 
contents of the filter well washed with water, the washings being col- 
lected with the first filtrate. The contents of the filter, when ignited, 
will represent the amount of silicic acid present in the ash. 

The above filtrate and washings may now be diluted to exactly 4,000 
fluid-grains. 

Sesquioxide of Iron. — From 1,000 fluid-grains of the above solution, the 
iron may be determined volnmetrically, by means of a solution of sub- 
chloride of copper of known strength, as pointed out hereafter in the anal- 
ysis of iron ores. 

Alumina. — The alumina may be determined from 1,000 fluid-grains of 
the above solution, by the method of Weeren, as detailed hereafter. (See 
iron ores). 

Lime and Magnesia. — From the remaining 2,000 fluid-grains of the 
above solution, the iron and alumina are precipitated by acetate of soda, 
(see iron ores) the solution filtered, and the lime and magnesia deter- 
mined in the filtrate, in the usual manner. 



GEOLOGICAL STXBVEY OF OHIO. 427 

Phosphoric Acid. — The foregoing precipitate, caused by the acetate of 
soda, is dissolved by nitric acid, and the phosphoric acid precipitated 
from the solution by means of a nitric acid solution of molybdate of am- 
monia. (See iron ores). 

Sulphuric Acid. — For the determination of the sulphurie acid, 5 grains 
of the ash are boiled for about half an hour, with two or three ounces of 
water containing a few drops of hydrochloric acid. The sulphuric acid 
is then precipitated from the filtered solution by excess of chloride of 
barium, and the precipitated sulphate of baryta washed, dried and ignited 
in the usual manner. 

Stdphur. — Five grains of the ash are fused in a platinum crucible, with 
a mixture of 2 parts of carbonate of soda and 2 parts of nitrate of pot- 
ash ; the fused mass is digested with warm water, and the solution fil- 
tered. The filtrate is acidulated with hydrochloric acid, and any sulphuric 
acid present precipitated by chloride of barium. 

From the amount of sulphate of baryta thus obtained, deduct the 
amount obtained in the preceding operation, and from the difference cal- 
culate the amount of sulphur present as such. 

Chlorine. — This is determined by boiliDg 10 grains of the ash, for about 
half an hour, with two or three ounces of water containing a few drops 
of nitric acid. The solution is filtered and the chlorine precipitated, from 
the cold filtrate, by excess of nitrate of silver. After the addition of the 
re-agent, the mixture is moderately heated, to facilitate the separation of 
the precipitate. 

Soda and Potash. — Ten grains of the ash are fused with 1 part of chlo- 
ride of ammonium and 8 parts of carbonate of lime, and the fixed alka- 
lies determined in the manner pointed out hereafter in the analysis of 
fire clays. 



ANALYSES OF COAL ASHES. 



#* 
§ 





1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5 


6. 




Pr. cent, 
of ash. 


Pr. cent, 
of coal. 


Pr. cent, 
of ash. 


Pr. cent, 
of coal. 


Pr. cent, 
of ash. 


Pr. cent, 
of coal. 


Pr. cent. 
of ash. 


Pr. cent, 
of coal. 


Pr. cent, 
of ash. 


Pr. cent, 
of coal. 


Pr. cent, 
of ash. 


Pr. cent, 
of coal. 




58.75 
2.09 

35.30 
1.20 
0.68 
1.08 
0.13 
0.24 
0.41 
trace. 


3.026 
0.108 
1.819 
0.062 
0.035 
0.056 
0.007 
0.013 
0.022 
trace. 


55.10 

13.33 

27.10 

1.85 

0.27 

1.00 

0.41 

0.58 

0.22 

trace. 


4.380 
. 1.060 
2.155 
0.147 
0.022 
0.079 
0.033 
0.046 
0.018 
trace. 


49.10 
3.68 

38.60 
4.53 
0.16 
1.10 
2.23 
0.07 
0.14 
trace. 


1.645 
0.123 
1.293 
0.152 
0.005 
0.037 
0.075 
0.002 
0.005 
trace. 


44.60 
7.40 

41.10 
3.61 
1.28 
1.82 
0.29 
0.58 
0.03 


1.048 
0.174 
0.965 
0.085 
0.030 
0.043 
0.007 
0.014 
0.0007 


37.40 
9.73 

40.77 
6.27 
1.60 
1.29 
0.51 
1.99 
0.08 


0.2880 
0.0749 
0.3139 
0.0483 
0.0123 
0.0099 
0.0039 
0.0153 
0.0006 


46.52 

12.15 

36.80 

1.59 

0.12 

1.86 

0.25 

0.10 

0.35 

trace. 


2.326 




0.608 




1.840 




0.079 




0.006 




0.093 




0.012 




0.005 




0.018 




trace. 














Total 


99.88 


5.148 


99.86 


7.940 


99.61 


3,337 


100.71 


2.3667 


99.64 


0.7670 


99.74 


4.987 







No. 1. New Straitsville, Perry co., Straitsville Mining Co., 3d layer, 

2. " " " " " 4th layer. 

3. Youghiogheny coal, Columbus Gas Works. 



No. 4. Jackson co., Pigeon Creek, Jacob Sells, lower layer. 

5. " " " upper layer. 

6. Columbiana co., Joy, Rook and Burnett's Mine. 



s 

o 
o 

2 



1 



o 
o 



o 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



429 



Composition of the Aqueous extract of Goals. 

1,000 grains each of the following coals were finely pulverized and 
digested at the boiling temperature for five hours, with 5,000 fluid grains 
of pure water. The aqueous solution contained for 100 parts of coal : 



Sesquioxide of iron. 
Lime 



Potash and soda . 
Phosphoric acid . 
Sulphuric acid... 
Chlorine 



Total. 



0.0008 
0.0120 
0.0128 
0.0100 
0.0025 
0.0096 
0.0052 



©.0529 



2. 



0.0170 
0.0180 
0.0083 
0.0095 
trace. 
0.0364 
undetermined. 



0.0892 



No. 1. Straitsville Mining Co., New Straitsville, 3d layer. 
No. 2. Straitsville Mining Co., New Straitsville, 4th layer. 



IRON OEES. 



METHOD OP ANALYSIS. 

Before proceeding with the analysis of the ore, the specific gravity of 
an average portion may be determined. This is most conveniently done 
by means of Nicholson's hydrometer. 

Preparation of the sample. — A comparatively large quantity of the ore, 
so taken as to represent the average quality of the sample, is coarsely 
powdered in a steel (not iron) mortar, and the whole intimately mixed. 
About 100 grains or more of the mixture are now finely pulverized in the 
mortar, after which a portion of the mass, not less than fifty grains, is 
thoroughly ground in an agate mortar. The ground powder is then dried 
at 212° F. 

Of the dried powder there will be required : 

25 grains for solution. 

10 grains for estimation of hydratic water and sulphur. 

10 grains for estimation of carbonic acid, when present. 

1. Determination of SUiea. — Treat 25 grains of the dried powder with 
excess of pure hydrochloric acid, and allow the mixture to digest for 
some hours, or longer if required to effect solution. This digestion may 
be done either in a flask, or, which will save evaporation of the liquid 
necessary to wash out the flask, in an evaporating dish kept covered with 



430 GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY OF OHIO. 

a glass plate. Solution of the mineral may be hastened by gently heating 
the mixture. 

In the case of some ores it is exceedingly difficult, or even impossible, 
to effect complete solution of the iron by means of hydrochloric acid 
alone. Ores of this character may be fused with about three times their 
weight of anhydrous carbonate of soda, the fused mass digested in water, 
and the solution acidulated with hydrochloric acid. 

The acid mixture obtained by either of these methods is new evaporated 
to dryness on a water bath, first adding, in case any of the iron exists as 
protoxide, 30 or 40 drops of nitric acid. Moisten the dry residue with 
hydrochloric acid, add sufficient water, filter and thoroughly wash the 
residue, taking care to preserve the filtrate and washings. The contents 
of the filter may now be dried, ignited and weighed. This weight will 
represent the amount of silica present. 

The above filtrate and washings may now be diluted to exactly 2500 
fluid-grains. Bach 100 fluid-grains will then correspond to 1 grain of the 
dried ore, less the silica. 

(A). Treat 1000 fluid grains of the diluted filtrate (=10 grains of ore) 
in a beaker, With a solution of carbonate of ammonia until the mixture is 
perfectly neutral and the precipitate produced by the last drop of the 
reagent very slowly disappears. The mixture will now have a deep claret 
color. Now heat the mixture on a sand bath to the boiling temperature 
and add excess of a fresh solution of acetate of soda, to precipitate the 
iron, alumina and phosphoric acid. Then diminish the heat somewhat 
and allow the precipitate to subside, when, if the operation has been suc- 
cessful, the supernatant liquid will be perfectly colorless. As soon as the 
precipitate has subsided, and while the mixture is still hot, decant the 
clear liquid upon a filter, wash the precipitate in the beaker With hot 
water, then transfer it to the filter and again wash with hot water. 

The filter will now contain the iron, alumina and phosphoric acid pres- 
ent in the ore, whilst the filtrate will contain any manganese, lime and 
magnesia present. 

2. Phosphoric Acid. — Dissolve the contents Of the filter, while still 
moist and on the filter, in diluted nitric acid, collecting the solution in a 
small beaker; concentrate the solution to 200 or 300 fluid grains, then 
add excess of a nitric acid solution of molybdate of ammonia containing 
1 part of molybdie acid in 25 parts of liquid ; 100 fluid grains of such 
solution will precipitate about 0.325 grains of phosphoric acid, corres- 
ponding to 1.25 per cent, of the ore. Now gently warm the mixture to 
about 100 deg., and then allow it to stand from 12 to 24 hours. To make 
sure that the whole of the phosphoric acid has been precipitated, a drop 



GEOLOGICAL STJBTEY OP OHIO. 431 

or two of the clear liquid is gently warmed in a small test tube with sev- 
eral drops of the molybdic acid eolation. 

Collect the phosphoric acid precipitated on a filter, and wash it with 
water containing a little of the molybdic acid solution, then dissolve it, 
on the filter, in diluted ammonia, and wash out the beaker, in which the 
phosphoric acid had been precipitated, with water containing a little am- 
monia, which is also passed through the filter. The ammoniacal solution 
is now heated in a small beaker to the boiling temperature, the phos- 
phoric acid precipitated by the ordinary magnesian mixture (prepared 
according to Fresenius), and the whole allowed to stand 24 hours. The 
precipitate is then collected on a filter and washed with water containing 
a little ammonia, then dried and ignited, when the phosphoric acid will 
remain as pyrophosphate of magnesia. On multiplying the weight of the 
ignited precipitate by 6.396, the product will represent the per cent, of 
phosphoric acid present in the ore. 

3. Manganese. — Concentrate the filtrate, from the precipitate produced 
by acetate of soda, on a sand bath to about 1000 fluid grains, then trans- 
fer it to a small flask, add ammonia in excess, then excess of a yellow 
solution of sulphuret of ammonium, to precipitate the manganese as 
sulphuret ; cork the flask and allow it to stand until the precipitate has 
completely subsided. Collect the precipitate on a filter and wash it with 
water containing sulphuret of ammonium, reserving the filtrate and 
washings for the determination of lime and magnesia. Dissolve the 
washed precipitate in water containing sufficient hydrochloric acid to 
effect solution, and to the clear solution add excess of carbonate of soda, 
which will precipitate the manganese as carbonate ; heat the mixture to 
the boiling temperatuae for a few minutes, allow the precipitate to sub- 
side, then collect it on a filter, wash, dry and ignite. The ignited residue 
will contain the manganese as protosesquioxide. 

4. Lime. — Treat the above filtrate and washings, obtained from the 
salphuret of manganese precipitate, with slight excess of hydrochloric 
acid, and heat the mixture until it no longer evolves the odor of sulphur- 
etted hydrogen. Filter off the separated sulphur, treat the filtrate with 
slight excess of ammonia, then heat it quite hot, and to the hot solution 
add excess of oxalate of ammonia. Allow the mixture to cool and stand 
for from 12 to 24 hours, that the oxalate of lime may completely subside ; 
collect the precipitate on a filter and wash it, reserving the filtrate and 
washings for the determination of any magnesia present. 

Dry the washed precipitate, and separate it, as far as practicable, from 
the filter ; burn the filter, with any adhering salt, and moisten the ash 
with carbonate of ammonia solution, then gently heat, to expel any excess 
of the ammonia salt added. Now add any of the precipitate separated 



432 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

from the filter to the contents of the crucible, and carefully heat to very 
dull redness, until the whole of the lime salt is converted into carbonate 
of lime. The crucible is then allowed to cool, and the weight of its con- 
tents determined. 

5. Magnesia. — Evaporate the above filtrate, from which the oxalate of 
lime was separated, to about 1000 fluid-grains, and, when cold, render it 
strongly alkaline with ammonia ; then add excess of phosphate of soda, 
to precipitate the magnesia as ammonia phosphate of magnesia. Allow 
the mixture to stand until the precipitate has completely separated, which 
will require from twelve to twenty-four hours. Collect the precipitate on 
a filter of known ash, wash it with water containing ammonia, then dry, 
ignite and weigh. 

If the weight of the pyrophosphate of magnesia thus obtained, be 
multiplied by 7.567, the product will represent the percent, of carbonate 
of magnesia in the one, when present as such. 

(B). 6. Alumina. — The small amount of alumina usually present in 
iron ores may be estimated by means of hyposulphite of soda, as first 
advised by Chancel. In the presence of larger quantities of alumina, 
however, this method is not satisfactory, at least not according to our 
experience, as will be pointed out hereafter. 

For this purpose 500 fluid-grains of the original solution (=5 grs. of ore) 
are rendered perfectly neutral with carbonate of soda ; then a solution of 
hyposulphite of soda (1 : 5) is added in just sufficient quantity to reduce 
the peroxide of iron present, when the mixture becomes colorless ; a drop 
or two more of the carbonate of soda solution are now added, and then 
slight excess of the hyposulphite of soda. The mixture is now heated and 
kept at about the boiling temperature, in a covered beaker on a sand- 
bath, for several hours, a little water being occasionally added, if necessary, 
to compensate for that evaporated. 

The alumina will now be precipitated in the form of a granular powder, 
together with some sulphur resulting from the decomposition of the re- 
agent ; the alumina may, however, carry down a little sulphuric acid. The 
hot solution is filtered and the precipitate washed with hot water, then 
dried, ignited and weighed. 

(C). 7. Iron. — 250 fluid-grains of the original solution may be em- 
ployed for the determination of the iron present. This may be estimated 
volumetrically, either (a) by means of a standard solution of sub-chloride 
of copper, as advised by Winkler ; or (b) by a standard solution of per- 
manganate of potash, as first proposed by Marguerite. 

(a). Sub-chloride of copper method. — To apply this method, dilute the 
250 fluid-grains, of the original solution, with from ten to twenty parts of 
water (1 to 2 of iron in 5000 liquid), add three or four drops of a solution 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 433 

of sulphocyanide of potassium (1:100), then add the standard solution of 
sub-chloride of copper from a burette, until the red color of the solution 
has entirely disappeared and a permanent turbidity of sub-sulphocyanide 
of copper appears, the mixture being freely stirred during the operation. 

Knowing the strength of the sub-chloride of copper solution employed, 
the amount of iron present is readily calculated. It is, of course, neces- 
sary that all the iron present be in the state of sesqui-chloride before 
titration. 

The standard copper solution is prepared by dissolving sheet-copper in 
nitric acid, expelling the excess of acid by heat, and dissolving the residue 
in water containing hydrochloric acid. This solution is mixed in a capa- 
cious flask with a quantity of common salt something more than equal the 
weight of the copper salt present, and some slips of copper added. The 
liquid is then boiled until the solution is nearly colorless, and all the 
chloride of copper has been changed to sub-chloride. The flask is then 
corked, allowed to cool, and then the solution diluted with water contain- 
ing hydrochloric acid, until about 160 fluid-grains correspond to one grain 
of iron, its exact strength being carefully determined by titration with a 
solution of iron of known strength each time it is used. 

The solution should be preserved in a bottle containing a spiral of thick 
copper wire, the bottle being tightly closed and excluded from the light. 
For use it is convenient to have a portion of the solution in a bottle 
mounted similar to an ordinary wash bottle, keeping the apertures well 
closed when not in use. 

(6). Permanganate of potash method. — This method requires the iron to 
be present in the form of a proto-combination. For this purpose treat 250 
fluid-grains of the iron solution with excess of sulphuric acid, and evaporate 
the mixture to dryness on a water-bath, to entirely expel the chlorine ; 
re-dissolve the residue in water containing sulphuric acid; then place the 
solution in a long-necked flask provided with a tightly-fitting cork and 
bent tube, suspend in the liquid, by means of a platinum wire, a piece of 
zinc free from iron, and conduct the hydrogen evolved into water, to pre- 
vent the ingress of air into the flask. Allow the decomposition to proceed 
until the liquid has become colorless, and the whole of the iron has been 
reduced to the state of protoxide. The action of the zinc may be hastened 
by the application of a gentle heat. 

When the reduction is complete, withdraw the zinc and wash it, by 
means of a wash-bottle, adding the washings to the contents of the flask, 
which again close, and allow to cool. As soon as the solution has cooled, 
it is, if not already so, rendered very strongly acid with dilute sulphuric 
acid ; then, if necessary, it is so diluted as to contain about one grain of 



434 GEOLOGIOAIi SURVEY OP OHIO. 

iron in 1000 fluid-grains of liquid. A solution of permanganate of potash 
of known strength is now added, from a burette, to the liquid in the flask 
until the last drop occasions a distinct red coloration. From the amount 
of the permanganate solution required, the quantity of iron present is 
readily determined. 

From the per cent, of metallic iron indicated by either of the above 
methods, the amount of sesquioxide of the metal present in the ore, if it 
exists wholly as such, is readily determined by multiplying the amount of 
iron found by ten and dividing the product by seven. 

If the iron exists partly in combination with c*bonic acid, the quantity 
of the latter is determined, and after satisfying any lime and magnesia 
present in excess over the phosphoric acid found, the amount of iron re- 
quired by the remaining carbonic acid may be calculated as protoxide and 
any excess of iron put down as sesquioxide. It is readily admitted that 
this arrangement may not always represent the true form of combination 
of these different constituents.' 

Gravimetric method. — If it be desired to estimate the iron gravimetri- 
cally — which is sometimes necessary, and always, perhaps, more satisfac- 
tory — the filtered liquid from which the alumina was precipitated by 
hyposulphite of soda, may be gently boiled with slight excess of nitric 
acid, to decompose any excess of the hyposulphite added and peroxide the 
iron present ; the solution is then filtered, and the sesquioxide of iron pre- 
cipitated from the filtrate by ammonia. The precipitate is now collected, 
washed, ignited and weighed. Since, however, as intimated above, the 
hyposulphite of soda may fail to precipitate the whole of the alumina 
present, the precipitate produced by ammonia may contain some of that 
base, and thus the amount of sesquioxide of iron be over-estimated. 

A number of comparative experiments were made with the method of 
precipitating alumina, in the presence of iron, by means of hyposulphite 
of soda, the conditions being variously changed in regard to degree of 
dilution and in other respects ; but in all cases, when a not inconsiderable 
quantity of alumina was present, the filtrate would become turbid, from 
the separation of fresh portions of alumina, as often as it was heated. 
When the solution was left slightly acid before the addition of the re- 
agent, the precipitation of the alumina was less complete and the precip- 
itate carried down more sulphuric acid, than when a perfectly neutral 
solution was employed. 

From these experiments, the three following, in which the solution was 
first neutralized, may be cited. The first column of the table gives the 
amount of alumina present in the solution; the second, the length of 
time the mixture was heated ; third, the weight of the precipitate after 
ignition over a Brunsen burner ; and the fourth, its weight after expul- 



GEOLOGICAL STXBVET OP OHIO. 



435 



sion of the sulphuric acid, by ignition over blow-pipe flame. The second 
portion of the table gives the results of the examination of the filtrate 
obtained from the precipitate : 





Heated 
for: 


Wt. of 
precipit'e. 


Wt. after 
sulphuric 
acid ex- 
pelled. 


Filtrate. 


Quantity of 
alumina present. 


Heated 
for: 


Wt. of 
precipit'e. 


Wt. after 
sulphuric 
acid ex- 
pelled. 


Total 
alumina 
recov'd. 


1. 0.048 grains .- 

2. 0.48 " .. 

3. 1.44 " - 


9 hours. 
9 hours. 
9 hours. 


0.043 

0.50 

1.468 


0.042 

0.42 

1.29 










6 hours. 
6 hours. 


0.07 
0.095 


0.055 0.475 
0.095 j 1.385 



From these experiments, it would appear that the method was not 
adapted for the precipitation of alumina when the solution contains over 
about half a grain ; and even then, it requires prolonged digestion for its 
complete separation. It would also appear that the precipitate first pro- 
duced may carry down a quantity of sulphuric acid about equal to the 
alumina left in the solution, which, in fact, we found to be the case in 
several instances. In cases in which this method is adapted, it is very 
convenient, on account of the ease with which the granular precipitate is 
washed, and the facility with which the iron may be recovered from the 
filtrate. 

For the separation and estimation of iron and alumina, we have found 
the following method, first in principle advised by Weeren, very satis- 
factory : 

Place the solution in a flask, and add sufficient tartaric acid to prevent 
the precipitation of the iron and alumina by ammonia; now add chloride 
of ammoninm, then excess of ammonia, and finally excess of sulphuret of 
ammonium, to precipitate the iron as sulphuret. Tightly cork the flask, 
which should be filled to the neck, and allow it to stand until the precip- 
itate has subsided and the supernatant liquid has become perfectly clear 
and colorless. Xow transfer a portion, of the clear liquid to a filter, 
placed in a ground-edged filtering funnel, close the mouth of the funnel 
with a glass plate pierced in its center with a small opening, through 
which pass the stem of a small funnel-tube sufficiently long to reach near 
the bottom of the filter ; through this small funnel add the balance of the 
liquid and the precipitate, and wash the precipitate with water contain- 
ing sulphuret of ammonium. In this manner" the precipitate may be 
transferred and washed without at any time being brought in direct con- 
tact with the air. It is well, however, to collect the washings separately, 
in case any of the iron should become oxydized and color the liquid. 



436 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

By this method, the whole of the iron will be collected upon the filter, 
in the form of sulphuret; whilst any alumina present will be in the 
filtrate. 

To recover the iron, dissolve the precipitated snlphuret in hydrochloric 
acid containing a little nitric acid, heat the mixture until complete oxida- 
tion has been effected, then filter the solution, and precipitate the iron 
from the filtrate by ammonia. The precipitated sesquioxide of iron is 
then washed, dried, ignited, and weighed. 

To recover the alumina from the above filtrate and washings, concen- 
trate the liquid, in a porcelain dish, to a small volume, then transfer it to 
a platinum dish, add excess of about equal parts of carbonate of soda 
and nitrate of potash, cautiously evaporate to dryness on a sand-bath, 
and fuse the residue, to destroy the carbonaceous matter. Dissolve the 
fused mass in water containing a little hydrochloric acid, filter if neces- 
sary, add chloride of ammonium, then excess of ammonia to precipitate 
the alumina, which dry, ignite, and weigh. 

8. Combined Water. — When the ore is a pure hydrated sesquioxide, the 
combined water may be estimated by heating 10 grains of the powder, 
thoroughly dried at 212°, to dull redness for ten or fifteen minutes, when 
the loss of weight will indicate the amount ' of hydratic water present. 
When the ore contains any of the iron in the form of carbonate, or there 
are present any earthy carbonates, the combined water should be esti- 
mated directly, by heating the dried powder in a hard glass tube, in a 
slow current of perfectly dry air, and collecting the expelled water in a 
chloride of calcium tube of known weight. 

9. Sulphur. — Fuse the 10 grains of the dried ore employed for the esti- 
mation of the combined water, with twice its weight each of carbonate 
of soda and nitrate of potash, in a platinum crucible ; extract the fused 
mass with water, filter, acidulate the filtrate with hydrochloric acid, and 
digest on a sand-bath until the oxides of nitrogen are entirely expelled, 
then precipitate the sulphuric acid present by chloride of barium. When 
the precipitate has completely subsided, collect it on a filter, wash, and 
ignite, with the filter ; wash the residue, first with a few drops of diluted 
hydrochloric acid, then with a little water, and again ignite. If the 
weight of the sulphate of baryta thus obtained be multiplied by 1.373, 
the product will represent the per cent, of sulphur present in the ore. 
It must be borne in mind that the sulphur may be present in the ore, in 
part at least, in the form of sulphuric acid. When it exists in this form, 
the amount of the acid is determined, and also the total quantity of sul- 
phur present, and the excess of the latter, over that required for the 
sulphuric acid, calculated. 



GEOLOGICAL SUEVEY OF OHIO. 437 

10. Carlonic Acid. — This, when present, is very readily determined, 
from 10 grains of the dry ore, by means of Rose's carbonic acid appara- 
ratus, the weight of the charged apparatus being carefully ascertained, 
and its weight again determined after the entire expulsion of the car 
bonic acid, the last portions of which are removed from the apparatus by 
drawing a proper quantity of air through it. 

In the case of some carbonated ores, it requires fully twenty-four hours, 
or even longer, for the complete elimination of the carbonic acid. The 
end of the exit tube should be so fused as to leave only a very narrow 
passage for the escape of the carbonic acid, and the apparatus should be 
occasionally weighed until it no longer loses its weight. In an experi- 
ment in which the results were very closely observed, the apparatus did 
not reach its maximum loss until the end of forty hours ; its weight then 
remained about constant for several days, varying at most only a few 
hundredths of a grain. 

We will now append, in tabular form, the results of the analyses of the 
iron ores thus far examined. Of 82 Ohio ores examined, 35 were hydra- 
ted sesquioxides ; 43 carbonates, and 4 black-band ores. The amount of 
metallic iron found in the sesquioxides varied from 37.17 to to 61.52 per 
cent., the mean average of 30 samples being 47.82 per cent. In the ores 
classed as carbonates, the metallic iron varied from 21.48 to 45.09 per 
cent., the mean average being 33.65 per cent. The mean average iron 
found in the black-band ores was 31.06 per cent. 



438 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



TABLE I.— IRON OEES. 

Hydrated Sesquioxides. 



Specific gravity 

Combined water 

Silicious matter 

Sesquioxide of iron 

Alumina 

Oxide of manganese . . . 

Phosphate of lime 

Carbonate of lime 

Phosphate of magnesia 
Carbonate of magnesia 
Sulphur 

Total 

Metallic iron. . ., 

Phosphoric acid 



2.529 



10.10 

12.44 

64.59 

2.60 

5.90 

2.95 

00 

1.00 

00 

00 



99.58 

45.20 
1. 



2. 



2.653 



13.42 

24.40 

60.75 

00 

trace, 

trace. 

0.89 

00 

trace. 

0.38 



99.84 

42.53 
trace. 



3. 



3.708 



2.78 

26.14 

60.75 

3.30 

trace. 

trace. 

2.32 

00 

4.69 

trace. 



99.98 

42.53 
trace. 



4. 5. 



2.685 



8.40 

38.06 

49.34 

0.90 

1.40 

0.75 

00 

0.75 

0.11 

trace. 



99.71 

34.54 
0.76 



2.796 



11.70 

26.64 

56.75 

1.40 

1.40 

1.46 

00 

00 

0.75 

00 



100.10 

39.73 
0.67 



4.554 



1.20 
10.60 
78.90 

7.70 



00 
"66 
0.25 



55.23 
00 



3.260 



7.80 

0.37 

66.87 

trace 

2.92 

7.81 

12.62 

00 

1.47 

trace. 



99.61 

46.81 
3.5£ 



3.018 



10.60 
1.55 

78.75 
2.64 
0.80 
2.88 
00 
0.98 
0.63 
0.12 



98.95 

55.12 

1.85 



2.714 

8.90 

25.60 

59.03 

*2.15 

2.40 

1.10 

00 

0.70 

00 

trace. 



99.88 

41.31 
1.21 



* Alumina, 1.56; Phosphate of Alumina, 0.59. 



No 


. 1. 


a 


2. 


a 


3. 


u 


4. 


u 


5. 


11 


6. 


u 


7. 



Ore two miles south-west of Jackson C: H. 

Hocking county, Union Furnace, supposed to eontain phosphorus. 

Guernsey county, Batesville, upper seam. 

Jackson county, G. W. Parsons' conglomerate ore. 

Holmes county, Washington township. 

Washington county, Dutton's farm. 

Vinton county, lands of Vinton Furnace Company. 



" 9. Perry county, Latta farm, Great Vein Mining Company. 



TABLE II.— IRON ORES. 
Hydraied SesqitioxUlen. 



Vinton county, Wm. Craig's ore 

MoArthur, E. Time's black ore 

Star Furnace, limestone oro No. 1 

" " blook ore No. ;i 

Buckeye Furnace, Dr. Williams' best limestone ova 

" " " good " 

" " " dark roil " 

" " " shaly " 

Vinton Station, Pat McAllister's limestone ore, bottom block 
" " " " middlo "■ 

" •' " " top " 

" '• " fine block ore 

" " " little line block oro 

" " " rod block oro 

Lawrence county, Vesuvius Furnace, limestone ore 

Jackson county, J. Anthony, ore on blue limestone 

New Lisbon, II. C. Bowen, shell of oro 

Tuscarawas Iron and Coal Co., calcined mountain ore 

" " " " shell ore 

Millorsbnrgh, oro ovor Saunders' coal 

Tuscarawas Iron and Coal Co., calcined black band oro 

Fossill ore, Wisconsin 



S P 

CO M) 



2.814 
3.182 
3.268 
2.774 
2.980 
2.868 
2.983 
2.704 
2.709 
2.307 
3.333 
3.018 
2.287 
2.682 
3.066 



3.211 
3.311 
4.076 
2.272 
3.411 
3.031 



7.50 

10.20 

10.50 

.11.30 

10.40 

11.90 

7.40 

11.10 

12.65 

8.90 

7.50 

7.75 

11.60 

8.75 

5.60 

12.20 

10.55 

2.65 

2.28 

11.4E 

0.25 

9.85 



la* 

Sa 



6.49 

21.71 

5.90 

9.16 

5.84 

1.02 

3.44 

23.64 

17.26 

22.16 

(5.04 

10.04 

13.08 

43.46 

2.00 

7.64 

11.25 

13.08 

8.46 

30.18 

17.02 

5.39 



1 

u 

oa 3 



83.74 
65.00 
79.70 
74.63 
79.40 
72.01 
87.89 
62.69 
65.65 
60.86 
79.37 
78.74 
72.43 
45.95 
77.70 
72.20 
71.88 
42.50 
75.00 
50.96 
75.00 
71.26 



n 

'a 



0.70 
0.20 
0.04 
1.20 
0.40 
0.40 
00 
0(1 

o.or 

00 

00 

0.30 

00 

00 

00 

3.20 

1.20 

trace. 

0.60 

2.8(1 

0.60 

4.80 



traoe. 
0.95 
1.15 
1.15 
1.9C 
l.Of 
0.10 
0.07 
1.40 
3.95 
1.75 
1.75 
1.10 
0.50 
1.90 
2.15 
1.90 
2.20 
1.85 
1.20 
1.65 

traco. 



g 
II 



0.12 

0.39 
0.97 

[0.52 
0.40 
9.75 

trace. 

traco. 

0.55 

0.12 

2.9!: 

00 

0.51 

0.20 

12.76 

1.30 

1.96 

31.85 

5.94 

1.30 

2.80 

4.1 



3 S 

o a 



0.30 
0.7C! 

0.52 
0.76 
0.68 
1.59 
0.62 
0.75 
1.28 
0.83 
0.56 
0.64 
83 
0.50 
traco, 
0.72 
0.31 
5.63 
3.64 
0.76 
1.48 
0.97 



1 
-a 

& 

00 • 
©rrf 

P-4 CS 



0.95 
00 
0.38 
0.83 
0.64 
0.46 
0.41 
0.75 
0.21 
2.52 
0.91 
0.22 
0.25 
0.97 
00 
0.83 
0.51 
0.05 
1.26 
0.64 
0.77 
3.23 



u 
I 
1 



0.06 

traoe, 

trace, 

trace. 
0.12 
0.14 

trace. 

trace. 
0.10 

trace. 
00 
00 

trace. 

trace. 

trace. 
0.21 
0.08 
0.22 
0.12 

trace. 

traco. 
0.10 



13 



99.86 
99 29 
99.16 
99.55 
99.88 
99.52 
99.86 
99.00 
99.15 
99.34 
99.68 
99.44 
99.84 

100.33 
99.9C 

100.45 
99.64 
98.23 

99.ir 
99.29 
99.57 
99.77 



58.62 
45.50 
55.79 
52.24 
55.58 
50.83 
61.52 
43.88 
45.95 
42.60 
55.5(5 
55.12 
50.70 
32.17 
54.39 
50.54 
50.32 
29.75 
52.50 
35.67 
52.50 
49.90 



o 



3 

o 
o 

B 

o 



OS 



TABLE III.— IRON ORES. 
Carbonates. 



© 





>> 

bo 

O 

Br 
OQ 


43 
4* 
03 

a 

m 



_o 
[o 

ic 


a 
o 

u 

o 

■s 

a 
o 

-2 

cS 
O 


o 

*3 

'3 

o 

In 

as R 


a 

1 
pi 

i— 1 


■ 

SO 

a 

o 

3 » 
O a 


1 

O 

o 

43 

33 

O 

A 


o5 
.| 

o 

« 

43 

cS 

a 
o 

■g 

H 

o 


O 

c ■ 

43 13 

li 
Si 




u 

43 

□ 

a 

o 
O 


"3 

43 

o 
H 


a 
2 


T3 

• tH 

O 

c3 

■a 

o 
.4 

ft 

m 

i 


Gebhatt's Station, ore in conglomerate shales 


3.321 
3.31? 

3.439 
3.583 
3.585 
3.1^5 
318" 


14.60 

18.17 

26.32 

7.52 

15.42 

0.62 

9.00 

6.62 

18.86 

31.64 

61.92 

28.02 

9.66 

11.94 

10.72 

18.80 

22.72 

18.84 

33.68 

13.28 


42.58 
64.70 
40.91 
68.44 
63.27 
58.39 
66.01 
68.53 
35.51 
38.74 
18.82 
42.34 
E9.79 
56.23 
54.59 
36.98 
47.48 
55 36 
32.29 
52.07 


10.50 

9.18 

24.37 

13.51 

7.72 

22.79 

5.35 

5.31 

17.48 

6.66 

5.83 

12.18 

10.02 

12.34 

20.91 

23.13 

15.81 

13.53 

18.44 

25.40 


1.50 
0.60 
0.60 
0.59 
0.75 
3.03 
1.40 
1.90 
2.10 
0.20 
0.30 
0.90 
0.80 
0.50 
00 
00 
2.00 
0.90 
1.00 
0.10 


trace. 
1.40 
1.05 
0.13 
1.55 
3.10 
3.45 
3.10 
0.25 
3.35 
0.14 
1.15 
0.40 
1.70 
0.80 
1.50 
0.80 
1.25 
1.50 
0.40 


13.40 
0.24 
trace. 
0.76 
0.87 
1.24 
4.19 
7.11 
9.02 
0.71 
0.61 
2.49 
1.11 
1.74 
1.13 
7.97 
6.55 
1.53 
0.32 
0.06 


10.04 
4.60 
4.20 
6.12 
5.40 
6.00 
4.05 
4.63 
6.67 
8.16 
1.86 

11.78 
8.59 
6.23 
7.46 
2.16 
2.72 
1.30 
1.19 


2.73 
1.97 
2.65 
2.11 
3.44 
3.12 
2.27 
1.44 
3.63 
4.81 
2.19 
2.87 
6.39 
5.33 
5.45 
2.12 
1.74 
5.14 
1.59 
0.64 


0.10 

trace. 
0.15 
0.12 
0.95 
0.43 
0.35 
0.18 
0.96 
0.16 
1.20 

trace. 

trace. 

trace. 

trace. 

0.07 

0.14 

0.78 

00 


4.65 

""66 
1.10 

3.77 

6.25 
4.85 
8.11 

8.76 

0.78 
00 

1.89 

00 

00 

*8.73 

6.12 


100.00 
99.96 

100.10 
99.33 
99.70 
99.24 
99.92 
98.99 
99.86 

100.08 
99.94 
99.91 
99.95 
99.15 
99.83 
99.83 
99.33 
99.41 
99.63 
99.26 


26.69 
37.18 
36.81 
41.89 
38.91 
44.14 
35.61 
36.01 
29.46 
23.23 
12.30 
28.97 
35.88 
35.88 
40.99 
34.03 
34.00 
36.19 
28.50 
42.91 


6.14 
0.11 


Lawrence Co., Vesuvius Furnace, blue limstone ore 


trace 
0-35 
0.38 


" " brown " 


0.57 




1 99! 


" No. 2 


3.529 
2.360 
3.000 
3.666 
3.207 
3.188 
2.539 
3.275 
3.692 
3428 
3.298 
3.296 


3.26 


" No. 3 


413 


" block ore No. 4 


0.32 


" Little Beaver black band ore 

Aster Farm, kidney ore in black band 


0.28 
1.14 


New Lisbon, McClymond ore over coal . . 


0.51 


Washingtonville, Whittler's nodular ore 


0.79 


Wayne Co., ore above Kirkendale's coal 


0.52 


Holmes Co., ore under Mote's coal No. 2 


3.64 


" " " in ravines 

" " Uhl'scoal 


3.00 
0.70 




015 


" Ellison 


3.692 


0.03 







8' 

o 
o 

s 



o 

W 



"Organic matter. 



TABLE IV.— IRON ORES. 

Carlonatoa. 



Locality. 


3 

CJ 

m 


8 

a 

00 

B 

o 

I 


a 
1 

«M 
O 

a 

■a 
§ 

1 


•8 
•3 
P 

m H 
a) 9 


si 




bo 

"S 

o § 


6 
J 

■s 

■a 
§ 


B 

«H 

o 

1 

□ 

,2 cB 

TO rt) 

o a 


1 
o 

1 

P. 

00 

1 


Pi 

"3 

02 


ti 

<o 
<u 
■oS 
P 

.a 
1 

o 


■a 

■8 


§ 
o 

3 


Vinton county, Wm, Craig's oro, lower 5 in. of 15 in. soam 
G-ephart's Station, just above Conglomerate ore 


3.516 
3.000 
3.1C9 
3.551 
4.872 
3.375 
3.245 

"3.058 
3.342 

3.184 
3.339 
3.254 
3.132 

2-984 
3.22fi 


3.93 
57.58 
11.47 

7.54 
31.5C 

8.84 
23.36 

8.56 

9.20 
12.23 

8.96 
26.22 
15.00 

1.72 
17.28 
45.30 
19.02 


70.10 
10.20 
64.09 
73.38 
34.01 
55.99 
48.44 
25.68 
68.08 
70.68 
64.17 
27.99 
32.40 
3C.33 
38.38 
32.00 
51.78 


11.16 
26.66 
13.98 

9.66 
13.55 
13.91 
13.16 
46.65 

7.60 

"V.66 
19.84 
21.57 
34.05 
19.59 
8.43 
11.00 


0.0 
traco 
trace 
0.24 
2.60 
0.30 
0.80 
1.00 
1.60 
0.40 
2.60 
2.90 
5.30 
0.60 
1.10 
0.60 
1.20 


trace 
0.70 
0.65 
2.00 
0.45 
0.55 
0.25 
1.45 
2.80 
1.65 
1.35 
0.90 
1.60 
0.40 
0.90 

traco 
2.55 


4.10 
trace 
3.31 
2.50 
9.25 
4.70 
4.90 
3.57 
5.20 
7.00 
7.35 
8.75 
15.15 
7.86 
8.93 
6.50 
5.70 


6.17 
0.48 
5.50 
2.04 
1.40 
2.38 
0.81 
5.60 
4.76 
5.54 
6.50 
5.41 
3.52 
5.37 
6.13 
3.40 
1.82 


0.42 
0.07 
0.10 
0.21 
0.89 
0.53 
0.06 
0.38 
0.59 
0.01 
0.86 
1.53 
4.37 
0.57 
0.99 
0.48 
0.70 


0.03 

0.59 
0.36 
0.12 
*8.33 
0.16 
2.53 
0.18 
0.17 
0.18 
0.14 
0.40 
2.20 
0.02 
0.09 
0.22 


1.77 
4.10 

1.24 
3.25 
3.33 
3.20 
4.38 

2.C5 

5.46 

"8.75 
6.10 
3.39 

5.88 


98,18 
99.87 
99.69 
99.17 
97.08 
98.86 
95.14 
99.80 
100.03 
100.33 
99.57 
99.13 
99.32 
98.45 
99.42 
99.35 
99.93 


42.00 
23.62 


Jackson county, Star Furnace, Blue oro 


40.68 


" " " • '< Kidnoy ore 


42.29 


Buckeye Furnace, Dr. Williams, Blue carbonate 


25.91 


" " earthy Blue carbonate 


36.77 
32.59 


Zaleski Furnace ore, exposed 2 years! 

New^Lisbon, H. C. Bowen, nucleus of oro 

Summit county, Greentown, on limestone over Coal No. Si 

Columbiana county, Lesley's Bun 


45.09 
38.21 
34.18 
30.31 
27.40 


Wayne county, in Coal Measures 


30.74 




41.80 


Tuscarawas county, Fairfield Mountain oro 


32.23 


New Lisbon, Daniel ] Iarbaugh 


21.48 




32.56 



8 

o 



$ 



o 



o 



Sulphuric acid (Sulphur=3.33). 






442 



GEOLOGICAL SUKVEY OP OHIO. 



TABLE 5.— IKON ORES. 
Carbonates. 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




3.540 


3.833 


2-.675 


3.200 


3.600 


3.118 








39.62 
15.07 

7'.07 
0.60 
0.38 
6.95 
24.21 
0.48 
0.18 
3.70 
1.74 


40.67 

8.54 
0.54 

i'.oe 

1.33 

21.72 

20.80 

0.75 

040 
I 4.19 


19.48 
4.01 

62"60 
7.15 

L55 


37.22 
3.64 

1.20 
0.60 
2.40 
2.16 
18.82 
27.00 

440 
2~56 


37.36 

13.30 

4.30 

2*90 

2.77 

5.32 

28.10 ' 

Trace 

Trace 

5.70 

0.25 
























































Totals 


100 
41.37 


100 
37.59 


17*99 


100 
31.50 


100 

38.87 






27.04 







No. 1, Perry county, Henry Hazleton's first layer. 
" 2, " " " " second" 

" 3, " " " " third " 

" 4, Snow Fork, James Hawkin's farm, below Nelsonville coal. 
" 5, Perry county, Ed. Davison's land, on top of Maxville limestone. 
" 6, " " Henry Welch's landed layer.., 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



413 



TABLE 6.— IROX OEES. 
Black-band Ores. 



Specific gravity 

Volatile matter 

Silicious matter 

Carbonate of lime 

Sesquioxide of iron 

Alumina 

Oxide of manganese .. 

Phosphate of lime 

Carbonate of lime 

Carbonate of magnesia 
Sulphur 

Totals 

Metallic iron 

Phosphoric acid 



2.494 



30.50 

11.84 

43.26 

8.94 

Trace 

1.00 

Trace 

1.8: 

2.03 

0.18 



2.321 I 2.341 



:e I 



21.10 

26.22 

34.69 

10.42 

0.70 

1.70 

1.07 

2.00 

1.84 

0.11 



99.62 
27.12 
Trace 



99.85 

24.06 

0.49 



11.70 

30.32 

39.31 

9.50 

i'io 

1.20 
2.86 
2.50 
0.31 



99.00 

25.63 

0.55 



3.371 



16.28 

4.30 

20.59 

53.54 

0.30 

1.80 

Trace 

1.78 

1.36 

Trace 



99.95 
47.42 
Trace 



Xo. 1, Mahoning county, Mineral Point, Black-band ore. 
" 2, Tuscarawas " Canal Dover, " " 

" 3, " " Fairfield, " " 

" 4, Holmes " John Simmons, 8 ft. vein. 



FUEXAOE SLAGS. 

The chemical analysis of furnace slags, or cinders, may be conducted 
in essentially the same manner as that of iron ores. Twenty-fire grains 
of the finely pulverized slag are fused with two parts of carbonate of 
soda and two parts of carbonate of potash, and the fused mass employed 
for the determination of the silica, iron, alumina, manganese, lime, mag- 
nesia and phosphoric acid. 

Ten grains of the powder are fused with two parts of carbonate of 
soda and two parts of nitrate of potash, for the determination of any 
sulphur present. 

For the determination of the fixed alkalies, if present, ten grains of the 
powder are fused with carbonate of lime, in the manner pointed out here- 
after, under the examination of fire-clays. 



FURNACE SLAGS. 



*■ 

H* 

*■ 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 




54.50 

trace. 

15.60 

3.10 

28.00 

1.94 

trace. 

0.53 


52.00 

8.88 
18.40 

2.20 
16.24 

1.25 
trace. 

0.48 


52.50 

trace. 

18.40 

2.40 

21.78 

1.65 

trace. 

1.12 


30.00 

65.04 

.1.20 

1.60 

0.20 

trace. 

1.24 

trace. 


29.60 

*67.02 

2.40 

trace. 

0.44 

trace. 

.0.54 

trace. 


34.80 
0.56 

23.00 
1.15 

38.19 
1.37 
0.32 
1.01 


39.12 
0.35 

22.40 
1.10 

34.78 

1.66 

0.25 

trace. 


44.68 
0.55 

22.40 
1.30 

29.23 
1.08 
0.24 
0.05 


51.75 
1.57 

19.97 
1.70 

19.81 

1.95 

0.43 

trace. 

2.42 


37.30 
0.85 

20.36 
trace. 

26.54 

12.38 
0.04 
1.24 
0.61 


41.50 




2.25 




21.90 








25.31 




7.03 








0.50 




1.50 






















Totals 


100.67 


99.45 


98.85 


99.28 
50.59 


100.00 
52.65 


99.90 


99.86 


99.53 


99.90 


99.32 


99 79 


Metallic iron. 

























No. 



1. Bnekeyc Furnace, cinder No. 1, best. 

2. " " " 2, poorest. 

3. " " " 3, yellow — contains sulphur. 

4. Ironton Rolling Mill, fix cinder. 

5. " " flue cinder. 

6. Star Furnace cinder, producing No. 1 grey iron. 



64.67 protoxide plus 2.35 metallic. 
No. 



7. Star Furnace cinder, producing No. 2 iron. 

8. " " " mottled iron. 

9. Washington Furnace cinder, produced in making mill iron. 

10. Newberg Furnace, slag No. 1. " 

11. " " 2. 



O 

o 

M 

Q 

xn 



O 

o 

n 

o 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 445 



FIEE-CLAYS. 



METHOD OF ANALYSIS. 



An average portion of the clay is reduced to very fine powder, and 
dried, at 212° F. Of the dried powder, there will be required 10 grains 
for the determination of the silicic acid, and the metals present ; and 10 
grains for the estimation of the combined water and fixed alkalies. 

Silicic acid. — Fuse 10 grains of the dry powder with twice its weight 
each of carbonate of soda and carbonate of potash; treat the fused mass 
with water, add excess of hydrochloric acid, .and allow the mixture to 
digest. Now add a few drops of nitric acid, evaporate the liquid to dry- 
ness, moisten the residue with hydrochloric acid, add sufficient water 
to take up the soluble matter, and gently heat the mixture. Filter the 
solution, and wash the residue, which then dry, ignite, and weigh. The 
weight of the ignited residue, will represent the amount of silicic acid 
present. 

Alumina and iron. — The above filtrate, with the washings, is divided 
into two equal parts, from both of which the alumina and iron are pre- 
cipitated by acetate of soda, in the manner directed in the analysis of 
iron ores. The respective precipitates are then collected and washed. 
The contents of one of the niters are dried, ignited, and weighed, when 
the weight will represent the total amount of alumina and iron present. 

The precipitate upon the other filter, whilst still moist, is dissolved by 
means of hot diluted hydrochloric acid, and the diluted solution filtered, 
if necessary, and the iron present, determined volumetrically, by means 
of a standard solution of sub-chloride of copper. By now deducting the 
iron thus found, from the total amount of alumina and iron present, the 
difference will, of course, represent the quantity of alumina present. 
Since the amount of iron present in fire clays, is always very small, gen- 
erally not exceeding a trace, this method for the determination of alumina, 
may be considered satisfactory. 

Lime and magnesia. — The two above filtrates are united, concentrated 
to a proper volume, and any lime and magnesia present, determined in 
the usual manner. 

Combined water. — Heat 10 grains of the dried powder to dull redness, 
in a platinum or porcelain crucible, for ten or fifteen minutes, or longer if 
necessary, when the loss of weight will indicate the amount of combined 
water present. 

Soda and potash. — The alkalies are most conveniently and satisfactorily 
determined according to the method of Prof. J. Lawrence Smith. For 



446 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

this purpose, the 10 grains of clay employed for the determination of the 
combined water, are intimately mixed in a mortar, with one part (10 
grains) of pure chloride of ammonium, after which 8 parts of carbonate 
of lime, free from fixed alkalies, are gradually added, and the whole 
thoroughly mixed. 

The mixed mass is transferred to a large platinum crucible, and care" 
fully heated, until the salts of ammonia have been expelled; the crucible 
is then covered, and the heat gradually increased, until the lower three- 
fourths of the crucible are red hot, at which temperature it is kept for 
forty or fifty minutes, when the heat is withdrawn. If the heat be 
pushed too high, some portion of the alkalies may volatilise. The mass 
should not be fused, but «nly sintered together. 

The sintered mass is transferred to a glass mortar, moistened with 
water, and then rubbed with the pestal, until it has become perfectly dis- 
integrated. The whole is now washed into a beaker, and the crucible and 
its lid, well washed, the washings being added to the contents of the 
beaker ; the mixture is gently boiled, on a sand-bath, for about a half an 
hour, and the solution filtered. The filtrate is treated with excess of car- 
bonate of ammonia, then concentrated to about 300 fluid-grains, after 
which some more carbonate of ammonia and a little caustic ammonia are 
added, to precipitate the last traces of the lime. The cooled solution is 
filtered, the filtrate collected in a platinum dish, a few drops of sulphuric 
acid added, and the liquid evaporated to dryness, on a water-bath. 

The residue, in the dish, is now cautiously heated over a direct flame, 
until the salts of ammonia have volatilised ; it is then moistened with a 
solution of carbonate of ammonia, after which it is heated to quite dull 
redness, to expell the excess of the ammoniacal salt and convert the bi- 
sulphates of the fixed alkalies into proto-sulphates. When treated in 
this manner, the residue still contains, besides the proto-sulphates of the 
alkalies, about 0.03 of a grain of sulphate of magnesia, if this base was 
present in the clay. It is rather troublesome to separate this small 
quantity of the magnesian salt, especially if it be desired to determine 
the respective quantities of the fixed alkalies. 

The respective quantities of the potash and soda, may be determined 
by dissolving the residue in water, acidulating the solution with hydro- 
chloric acid, and precipitating the sulphuric acid, by means of chloride of 
barium, and determining its quantity. If a deduction of 0.03 grain was 
made for sulphate of magnesia, a corresponding deduction must, of 
course, also be made from the amount of sulphuric acid found. The 
quantities of the respective alkalies may then be readily deduced by the 
following formulae : 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



447 



x = KO 

y = laO 

s = SO s 

a = Sum of alkalies. 

x = a X 2.9135 — s X 2.258 
2/ = — a X 1.9135 + s X 2.258 



Fire-Clays Examined. 



Cambridge, under A. Nicholson's coal 

Scioto county, Sciotoville, top of 3} ft. vein 

" " 3 to 6 " 

" " top of 21 " 

Summit county, Magadore 

Tuscarawas county, Mineral Point 

" " Port Washington ;.. 

Daniel Harbaugh's clay No. 1 

New Lisbon, D. Harbaugh's clay No. 2 

" Robinson's Farm 

Fredericksburg, Alexander's clay No. 1 

» " " No. 2 

Tuscarawas county 

Niagara, Highland county 



QQ 



60.55 
61.90 
57.90 
54.15 
59.30 
70.70 
49.20 
59.95 
60.70 
52.10 
58.25 
58.30 
69.80 
52.50 
45.60 



27.50 
22.80 
26.60 
23.30 
24.10 
21.70 
37.80 
33.85 
37.20 
38j50 
27.19 
30.74 
22.76 
34.78 
38.40 



3 
2 2 



^•s 



trace. 

trace. 

trace. 

trace. 

trace. 

trace. 

trace. 

trace 

trace. 

trace. 

.3.26 

2.46 

1.09 

0.27 

trace. 



0.50 
0.05 
0.25 
1.25 
0.80 
0.40 
0.40 
2.05 
1.55 
1.60 
1.10 



^ "5> 



■a 

a . 
o o 



1.36 
0.70 
0.60 
trV 
1.15 
0.37 
0.10 
0.55 
0.36 
0.51 
0.97 



2.10 
0.90 
1.15 
0.90 
0.95 






a* 



7.90 
12.90 
13.00 
10.30 
13.25 

5.45 
11.70 

5.34 



7.25 
8.55 
6.80 
4.80 
11.70 
16.20 



99.91 
99.25 
99.50 
99.90 
99.55 
98.62 
99.20 
99.94 
99.81 
99.96 
99.32 
98.30 
98.45 
99.25 
100.02 



Brick Clays Examined. 





1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. j 6. 

i 




44.93 

18.37 

2.33 

24.08 
4.77 
1.30 
2.10 


34.92 
21.38 
3.10 
28.13 
8.03 
1.40 
2.50 


35.56 
19.64 
3.00 
29.18 
7.04 
0.80 
2.35 


43.17 

26.20 

trace. 

11.44 

5.45 

3.50 


59.40J 59.10 




30.20' 27.62 




trace.! 2.38 




1.07 0.53 




1.10 
4.95 


2.65 




4.60 














Total 


97.88 


99.37 


*97.57 


99.76 


*96.72 


*96.88 







F Balance undermined. 



No. 1. Milwaukee brick clay. 

" 2. Clarke county brick clay. 

" 3. Clay used by Miamisburg Paint Company. 

" 4. Clinton clay. 

" 5. Williamsburg, Hecker and Burnet's clay, over limestone. 
6. " " " fireclay. 



448 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

LIMESTONES. 

METHOD OF ANALYSIS. 

For the determination of the constituents of limestone, treat five grains 
of the finely powdered sample, in a flask placed obliquely, with excess of 
concentrated hydrochloric acid, and when there is no longer any efferves- 
cence, transfer the contents of the flask to an evaporating dish, and 
evaporate the liquid to dryness, on a water-bath. Moisten the residue 
with hydrochloric acid, add sufficient water, and, when solution has been 
effected, filter the liquid and wash, ignite and weigh any remaining tili- 
cious matter. 

Treat the above nitrate with a little chloride of ammonium, if neces- 
sary, then add excess of ammonia and moderately heat the mixture. 
Allow the precipitated alumina and iron to subside, then collect the pre- 
cipitate on a filter, wash, dry and ignite. Since the amount of alumina 
and iron present in limestones is usually quite small, they may, for all 
practical purposes, be estimated together. 

To the foregoing filtrate, concentrated to about 1000 fluid-grains, add a 
little ammonia, then about 150 fluid-grains of a solution of oxalate of 
ammonia (1:24) and allow the mixture to stand at least twelve hours. 
The precipitated oxalate of lime is collected on a filter, washed, and con- 
verted into carbonate of lime in the usual manner. 

The filtrate from the oxalate of lime precipitate, is concentrated, if nec- 
essary, and from the cold solution, rendered strongly alkaline by ammonia, 
the magnesia is precipitated by excess of phosphate of soda. When the 
precipitate has fully separated, it is collected, washed, and ignited. If 
the weight of the ignited precipitate be multiplied by 15.135, the product 
will represent the per cent, of carbonate of magnesia present in the lime- 
stone. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 
Limestones Examined. 



449 



Muskingum county, J. H. Roberts' Buff Limestone . 
Hocking county, Union Furnace Blue Limestone... 

Cambridge, Scott's Limestone 

Yellow Springs Limestone 

Miami Valley Blue Limestone 

Valuable for general masonry, southern Ohio 

Ciinton Rock, sample A 

Clinton Rock, sample C 

"Clinton," of Adams county 

Brown's Limestone, Clinton, hot Lime 

" Cliff," of West Union, Adams county 

Moore's Quarry, below Springfield 

Bierley's Quarry, Greenville 

Gard's Quarry, Greenville 



Northrop's Quarry.... 

Yellow Springs Limestone 

Fire-stone, Preble county 

Eaton, Preble county 

Lexington Limestone, Wright's 

Fire-stone, Fayette county, Boater's Qaarry. 

Comiferous, Sandusky, Hartshorn's 

" Bellefontaine, Scarfs 



Niagara, Sidney, Dugan's , 



Clinton, Ludlow Falls, Smith's 

Niagara Limestone, Trimbles', Hillsboro 

Water Lime Group, Buckskin Creek, Ross county. 

Xenia, McDonald's Quarry 

Frey's best Limestone, Springfield 

Peticrew'8 best Limestone, Springfield 

Holcomb's best Limestone 

Caprock, Peticrew's Quarries, Springfield 

" Frey's " ,? 

Bottom roek, Frey's " " 

Tuscarawas coal, Iron Co. used at furnace 



SQ-3 



a <d 

9 ° 

a'ii 



15.20 

36.89 

30.20 

0.40 



0.40 
'1.50 
0.85 
2.00 
trace. 
18.80 



«ri ® U 



4.40 
9.20 
3.60 
2.00 



1. 

0.90 

0.40 

1.60 

0.40 

2.20 



4.80 


4.60 


2.20 



2.70 



5.40 
0.35 
9.40 
1.60 
6.00 
2.70 
2.80 
2.70 
trace. 
0.20 
0.30 
13.30 
0.10 
2.20 
0.10 
1.30 
0.10 
1.40 
1.50 
3.10 
1.00 



1.40 
0.80 
4.40 
2.20 
2.30 
3,30 
1.30 
2.10 
1.60 
0.50 
120 
2.00 
1.00 
2.00 
0.20 
1.80 
1.70 
2.70 
1.00 
0.30 
3.30 



o 
o 

a 
o3 



49.80 
52.60 
64.60 
54.75 
91.50 
54.25 
84.40 
86.30 
93.00 
95.60 
42.80 

46.40 

44.60 

51.30 

51.70 
51.10 
85.21 
49.75 
54.10 
52.40 
65.80 
55,10 
55.00 
55.00 
54.40 
91.30 
35.57 
55.00 
84.50 
54.70 
55.40 
55.10 
53.90 
54.70 
53.70 
93.70 



Jf 



30.65 

1.21 

1.20 

42.23 

5.06 

43.23 

12.98 

11.34 

3.04 

3.93 

34.79 

47.53 

50.11 

45.72 

45.26 
41.12 
13.5ff 

35.87J 

41.77; 

38.73i 
27.95! 



o 



100.05 
99.90 
99.6o 
99.83 



40.11 
39.74' 
42.92 
44,58! 

6.511 
49.00: 
43.74/ 
11.16' 
44.93 
41.48 
43.05 
41.90 
42.37 
43.13 

1.82 



99.68 
99.78 
98.89 
99.64 
99.93 
98.59 

98.83 

99.31 

99.21 

99.66 
99.02 
99.92 
99.42 
99.67 
99.43 
99.75 
99.31 
99.54 
99.52 
99.68 
99.81 
99.87 
99.84 
99.86 
99.93 
99.98 
99.95 
99.90 
99.57 
100.23 
99.82 



29 



Limestones containing Silicates. 



en 

o 





1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10. 


11. 


12. 


13. 




19.10 


1.00 


1.00 


5.40 


• 5.20 


0.72 

1.00 

54.90 

43.35 


1.00 

1.44 

1.30 

53.67 

42.42 


1.30 
2.17 
0.55 
90.03 
5.71 


1.45 

2.98 

1.00 

49.70 

44.87 


0.69 
,2.88 

0.90 
49.76 
45.77 


36.60 
5.69 
8.28 

49.35 


7.10 

1.00 

86.60 

1.89 

1.45 


3.90 


Silicates of lime and magnesia - 
Alumina and sesquioxide of iron 


7.70 


8.56 
47.70' 
19.40 

2.50 


6.80 

88.80 

1.20 

1.80 


1.00 

94.20 

0.76 

2.90 


2.00 

88.00 

1.51 

2.90 


1.80 
79.65 
10.30 

2.30 


0.70 
50.90 


Carbonate of magnesia 


39.77 


















Totals 


97.35 


99.60 


99.86 


99.81 


99.25 


99.97 


99.83 


99.76 


100.00 


100.00 


99.92 


98.04 


99 63 







No. 1. Buff limestone, Pigeon Branch Whipple's run, Washington 

connty. 

No. 2. Gray limestone, lower part of vein, Star Furnace. 
No. 3. " upper " " 

No. 4. Blue limestone, Star Furnace. 

No. 5. Limestone found below peat bed. 

No. 6. Cedarville, best Cincinnati limestone. 



No. 7. Water Lime Group, Greenfield, Highland county, Ohio. 

No. 8. Dayton Limestone. 

No. 9. Greenfield limestone, Wright's. 

No. 10. Leesburg limestone, Pope's. 

No. 11. Concord, Muskingum county, lowest limestone. 

No. 12. Gray limestone, flecker & Burnett, Millersburg. 

No. 13. Thompson's best Springfield limestone. 



i 

O 
g 



o 

V 

o 

W 



GEOLOGICAL STJBVEY OP OHIO. 



451 



Water Idmes Examined. 





13 




tH 




a <o 




o 




OS'S 


o 




m 


<3'R . 




-S-2 


2 S 
339 


.9 2 h 

-aj m o 


a « 
O o 




4.80 


2.60 


53.60 


38.30 


3.60 


2.20 


54.00 


39.50 


2.80 


2.90 


53.60 


40.28 


5.80 


*22.70 


60.30 


1.86 


16.76 


2.24 


46.60 


32.69 


19.40 


1.82 


44.40 


32.69 


5.00 


- 1.60 


52.80 


39.65 


29.80 


13.80 


41.20 


15.36 


30.60 


13.00 


. 40.60 


15.18 


24.00 


7.00 


37.90 


30.47 


17.40 


6.20 


51.80 


23.94 


8.60 


4.90 


80.70 


5.69 


31.20 


6.60 


37.80 


23.89 



s 



Rittenhouse cement, Fayette county, No. 4 

" " No. 5 

" " " No. 6. 

Water lime, New Lisbon, H. Bowman 

Hydraulic limestone No. 1, Toledo, Ohio 

" " No. 2, " 

" " No. 3, " 

Barnesville, Parker's cement limestone 

Cement limestone near Wornock's Station, B. & O. E.K 
Belmont county, Wegee cement, 18'-' from bottom 

" " " u near top 

Limestone 18" above cement .. 

Cement limestone, Jos. F. Hutchinson, Putterey . 



99.30 
99.30 
99.38 
99.66 
98.29 
98.31 
99.05 
100.16 
99.38 
99.37 
99.34 
99.89 
99.49 



' Alumina 8.20, plus carbonate of iron 14.50. 



ANALYSIS OP SOILS. 



SYLLABUS OP METHOD EMPLOYED. 

After a number of experiments upon different methods that may be 
pursued in the analysis of soils, we finally adopted the following, in 
which the relative proportions of the soil soluble and insoluble in hydro- 
chloric acid are first ascertained, and then the composition of these re- 
spective portions determined. The demands upon this department did 
not permit any attempt to determine the exact nature of the organic 
matter present. 

For the analysis, crush the air-dried soil in a mortar, pass through a 
sieve of l-40th inch meshes, and dry not less than about 600 grains of 
the mixed powder, at 212°, until it no longer loses in weight, which will 
generally require some days. Weigh off 600 grains for general determin- 
ation, and 10 grains for total organic matter and combined water. 

Total Organic Matter and Combined Water. — Moderately ignite the 10 
grains of dried soil, until the carbonaceous matter is entirely destroyed ; 
moisten the residue with carbonate of ammonia, then very gently ignite, 
allow to cool, and weigh. Loss of weight equals amount of organic mat- 
ter, with any combined water present. 

Digest the 500 grains of powder, with 1500 fluid-grains of pure hydro- 
chloric acid, sp. gr. 1.50, at the ordinary temperature, for forty-eight 
hours ; dilute the liquid with an equal volume of water, filter, and wash 
the residue, finally with hot water. Keserve the filter, with its contents, 
for the determination of the matter insoluble in hydrochloric acid, the 
filtrate being employed for the determination of the matter soluble in 
that acid. 

A. — Portion Soluble in Hydrochloric Acid. 

Silicic Acid. — Evaporate the filtrate to dryness, moisten the residue 
with hydrochloric acid, dissolve in water, and filter. The contents of the 
filter will represent any silicic acid present. 

Precipitate the iron, alumina and phosphoric acid, from the last filtrate, 
by acetate of ammonia, and filter,, reserving the filtrate for the estimation 
of manganese, etc.; dissolve the washed residue on the filter by the aid of 
nitric acid, and dilute the solution to 2500 fluid-grains. Of this solution, 
take for the estimation of: 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 453 

a. Phosphoric acid, 500 fluid-grains (= the extract from 100 grains of 
the soil), the acid being precipitated from the concentrated solution by 
molybdate of ammonia, and estimated in the usual manner. If only a 
very minute quantity of phosphoric acid be present, 1000 fluid-grains of 
the solution should be employed. 

o. Iron, 100 fluid-grains, which evaporate to dryness, moisten the res- 
idue with hydrochloric acid, re-dissolve in sufficient water, and determine 
the sesquioxide of iron by a standard solution of subchloride of copper. 

c. Alumina, 100 fluid-grains, precipitating the base by means of hypo- 
sulphite of soda. 

Manganese. — Neutralize the filtrate from the precipitate produced by 
acetate of ammonia, with carbonate of ammonia, precipitate the manga- 
nese by excess of sulphuret of ammonium, filter, dissolve the sulphuret 
of manganese, on the filter, with hydrochloric acid, and determine the 
metal as protosesqnioxide of manganese. If the soil contains copper, 
traces of it may remain, as sulphuret, on the filter from which the sul- 
phuret' of manganese was dissolved. 

Lime. — Acidulate the filtrate from the manganese sulphuret with hy- 
drochloric acid, heat the mixture until the odor of sulphuretted hydrogen 
has entirely disappeared, and filter. Should any sulphuret of copper sep- 
arate from the acidulated solution, before filtering saturate the warmed 
solution with sulphuretted hydrogen, to make sure the precipitation of 
the whole of the copper, which otherwise would be deposited on the pla- 
tinum dish in which the alkalies are determined. Neutralize the filtrate 
with ammonia, and precipitate the lime by oxalate of ammonia. 

Sulphuric Add. — Acidulate the filtrate from the oxalate of lime with 
hydrochloric acid, add slight excess of chloride of barium, filter, and 
determine the sulphuric acid, from the sulphate of baryta, in the usual 
manner. 

Fixed Alkalies. — Evaporate the foregoing filtrate, in a platinum dish, to 
dryness, expel the ammonical salts present by heat ; add to the residue 
finely powdered oxalic acid, moisten the mass with water, dry, and gently 
ignite. Exhaust the residue with water, and filter, reserving the contents 
of the filter for the estimation of any magnesia present. Acidulate the 
filtrate with a few drops of sulphuric acid, and, if any precipitate of sul- 
phate of baryta, again filter ; evaporate the liquid to dryness, gently ig- 
nite, add a few drops of carbonate of ammonia, and again heat. Any 
fixed alkalies present will now remain as protosulphates. 

Magnesia. — Dissolve the above magnesian residue in diluted hydro- 
chloric acid, add a drop or two of sulphuric acid, and, if a trace of baryta 
be present, filter ; treat the filtrate with excess of ammonia, and precipi- 
tate any magnesia, present, by phosphate of soda. 



454 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

Organic Matter. — The proportion of the organic matter present, soluble 
in hydrochloric acid, is deduced from the difference between the amount 
found with the insoluble matter and the total quantity present in the soil. 

B. — Portion Insoluble in Hydeoohloeic Acid. 

Dry the filter containing the matter insoluble in hydrochloric acid, care- 
fully separate as far as practicable the solid matter from the filter, which 
then ignite, add the ash to the insoluble matter, and thoroughly dry at 
212°. The weight of the dry mass will represent the proportion of matter 
insoluble in hydrochloric acid. Crush the mass in a mortar, again dry, 
and weigh out : 

25 grains for general determinations; and 

25 " " organic matter and alkalies, having previously pulverized this por- 
tion in an agate mortar. 

Silicic Acid. — Fuse the twenty-five grains, first weighed out, with fifty 
grains each of carbonate of soda and carbonate of potash, in a platinum 
crucible ; digest the fused mass in two or three ounces of water, contain- 
ing excess of hydrochloric aeid. Evaporate to dryness, moisten the 
residue with hydrochloric acid, add sufficient water, filter, wash, ignite, 
and weigh the residue, consisting of silicic acid. 

Dilute the filtrate from the silicic acid to 2,500 fluid-grains, and divide 
the liquid into two portions of 2,000 and 500 fluid-grains respectively. 
From both portions, after neutralization with carbonate of ammonia 
precipitate the iron, alumina, and phosphoric acid, by either acetate of 
ammonia or acetate of soda, filter, wash and unite the filtrates. If there 
is not sufficient iron present to carry down the phosphoric acid present, 
add a very small quantity of the sesquichloride to the 2,000 fluid grains 
of liquid. 

Phosphoric Acid. — Dissolve the precipitate from the 2,000 fluid-grains 
of solution, by the aid of nitric acid, and precipitate the phosphoric acid 
by molybdate of ammonia, having first concentrated the solution to about 
100 fluid-grains. 

Alumina. — Ignite the precipitate trom the 500 fluid-grains of liquid, 
when the residue will represent the alumina, with any traces of iron and 
phosphoric acid, present. If the amount of iron is notable, dissolve the 
residue in hydrochloric acid, and estimate the iron volumetrically. 

Manganese. — Neutralize the united filtrates, from the precipitates pro- 
duced by acetate of ammonia, by ammonia, precipitate any manganese 
present by sulphuret of ammonium, filter, dissolve the precipitate by aid 
of hydrochloric acid, and precipitate the manganese by carbonate of soda, 
Traces of copper may remain on the filter from which the sulphuret of. 
manganese was dissolved. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 455 

Lime. — Acidulate the filtrate, from the sulphuret of manganese, with 
hydrochloric acid, digest on a sand-bath until the sulphuretted hydrogen 
is entirely expelled, filter, render the filtrate alkaline by ammonia, and 
precipitate the lime, as oxalate, by oxalate of ammonia. 

Magnesia. — Treat the filtrate from the oxalate of lime, after the addition 
of ammonia with phosphate of soda, to precipitate the magnesia. 

Organic Matter. — Ignite the twenty-five grains of finely powdered 
residue in a porcelain crucible, until the organic matter is consumed, 
allow to cool, and weigh. Loss of weight equals organic matter in twenty- 
five grains of the portion insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 

Fixed Alkalies. — Moderately ignite the foregoing residue with one part 
of chloride of ammonia and eight parts of carbonate of lime, crush the 
ignited mass and digest in water until disintegrated. Filter the solution, 
add excess of carbonate of ammonia, concentrate to two or three hundred 
fluid-grains ; add more carbonate of ammonia and a little ammonia, filter, 
collect filtrate in a platinum dish, add few drops of sulphuric acid, and 
evaporate to dryness. Expel the animoniacal salts by moderate heat, then 
gently ignite ; moisten the residue with carbonate of ammonia, and again 
gently ignite. The alkalies will now remain as protosulphates. 



COMPOSITION OF SOILS EXAMINED. 



SP- 
OT 
OS 





1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


Soluble in hydrochloric acid 


14.94 






6.69 






8.42 






8.26 








5.37 
0.03 
1.97 
1.20 
0.07 
trace. 
0.50 
4.72 
1.14 
0.10 
0.075 




1.15 

0.04 
2.69 
1.53 
0.23 
trace. 
0.10 
0.14 
0.31 
0.09 
0.015 




1.19 

0.03 
3.53 
0.25 
0.14 
• trace. 
0.14 
1.28 
1.26 
0.13 
0.026 




1.70 
0.07 
2.86 
0.80 
0.20 
trace. 
0.24 
1.86 
0.18 
0.10 
0.07 




Silicic acid 


















Sesquioxide of iron 












- 






Alumina 


















Oxide of manganese 




































Phosphate of lime 


















Carbonate of lime 


















Carbonate of magnesia .■ 


















Potash and soda 




































Soluble matter found 




15.175 




6.295 




7.976 




8.08 


Insoluble in hydrochloric acid 


85.06 




93.31 




91.58 




91.74 






Orgaio matter..... 


16.36 

54.29 

9.69 

trace. 

trace. 

0.92 

0.54 

2.28 

0.11 




2.83 

75.73 

11.42 

0.45 

trace. 

0.93 

0.37 

1.48 

0.12 




2.93 

72-60 

11.72 

trace. 

trace. 

1.26 

0.26 

2.52 

0.069 




6.35 
66.13 
13.55 

0.14 

1.09 
0.57 
3.14 
0.10 






















Alumina with trace of iron 


















Oxide of manganese 








































































Potash and soda 


















Phosphoric acid 


















Insoluble matter found 




84.19 




93.33 




91.359 




91.07 






















Totals 


100 


99.365 


99.365 


100 


99.625 


99.625 


100 


99.335 


99.335 


100 


99.15 


99.15 







No. 1. — H. Bued's farm, Perrysburg township, Wood county, O. 
" 2. — Lima, railway cut east of town, Allen county, O. 



No. 3. — Lima, west bank of stream east of town, Allen county, O. 
" 4. — " cornfield north of Railroad bridge, " " 



§ 
O 
tr< 
O 

a 

a 

XIX 

% 
$ 

o 
o 

n 

o 



COMPOSITION OP SOILS— Continued. 





5 


6 


7 


8 




5.768 






3.77 






12.C1 






6.35 






1.59 
0.033 
2.58 
0.75 
0.19 
Trace 
0.20 
0.43 




0.97 
0.02 
1.37 
0.40 
0.05 
Trace 
0.09 
0.27 
0.23 
0.09 
0.052 




2.20 
0.05 
3 41 
2.09 
0.19 
Trace 
0.39 
1.41 
2.49 
0.15 
0.068 




1.92 
0.02 
2.61 
0.95 
0.06 
Trace 
0.28* 

0.21 
0.05 
0.054 
























































































































































0.09 
0.05 






































5.883 




3.542 




12.448 




6.154 




94.232 




96.23 




87.39 


"i2"58"' 

57.25 

12.93 

Trace 

Trace 

0.84 

0.87 

2.44 

0.194 


e3.65 






3.92 

74.71 

10.65 

Trace 

Trace 

0.96 

0.94 

2.76 

0.09 




2.24 

84.29 

7.34 

Trace 

Trace 

1.29 

0.47 

1.45 

0.019 




3.22 

80,39 
7.11 
0.09 

Trace 
0.82 
0.52 
1.57 
0.21 
























































































































































94.03 




97.099 




87.104 




93.93 






















Totals 


100 


99.913 


99.913 


100 


100.641 


100.641 


100 


99.552 


99.552 


100 


100.084 


100.084 







o 

1 



I 

O 



@ 



' Phosphate lime 0.08— Phosphate magnesia=0.20. 



No. 5, Sounder's Station, field N. E. of station, Shelby county, O. 
" 6, John Holster's farm, Defiance county, O. 



No, 7, About 2 miles N. W. of Heister's farm, Defiance county, O. 
" 8, S. E. corner of Section 22, Tuscarawas Tp., Stark county, O. 



If" 

-3 



COMPOSITION OF SOILS-Continued. 





9. 


10. 


11. 


12. 




5.75 






4.897 






12.61 






7.95 








0.94 
0.02 
2.70 
0.65 
0.09 
trace. 
0.14 
00 
0.51 
0.05 
0.02 




1.57 

0.03 

2.08 

0.75 

0.11 

trace. 

0.30* 

00 

00 

0.06 

0.07 




5.49 
0.06 
3.54 
1.60 
0.07 

0.31 

1.28 
0.05 
0.12 
0.03 




2.17 
0.04 
3.13 
1.10 
0.04 

0.28 
0.33 
0.65 
0.10 
0.27 




























































































































































































5.12 




4.97 




12.55 




7.867 




94.25 




95.103 




87.39 




92.05 








2.24 

79.81 

8.72 

trace. 

0.64 
0.69 
2.07 
0.11 




2.13 

83.68 

6.47 

trace. 

trace. 

0.72 

0.38 

0.76 

0.147 




14.38 

57.44 

12.55 

trace. 

trace. 

0.45 

0.27 

1.61 

0.16 




1.15 

72.83 

12.98 

0.55 

trace. 

1.69 

0.88 

1.70 

. 0.188 
























































































































































94.28 




94.287 




86.86 




91.968 








» 




* 




/ 






Totals 


100 


99.40 


99.40 


100 


99.257 


99.257 


100 


99.41 


99.41 


100 


99.835 


99.835 







OD 



O 
O 

I 

H 

o 
v 

o 
w 
3 



h Including 0.15 phosphate of magnesia. 



No. 9. S. E. corner section 22, Tuscarawas township, Stark county, top of hill east of Pigeon Run. 

" 10. N. W. corner section 17, Jackson township, Stark county. 

" 11. Eeher & Kutz's farm, near Amanda, Fairfield county, Ohio. 

" 12. Sub-soil, Prairie, west of Tontogany, "Wood county, Ohio. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



459 



COMPOSITION OF SOILS— Continued 





13. 


14. 


Total organic matter and water 

Mineral matter soluble in hydrochloric acid 


9.18 
6.31 





9.18 


*8.24 
7.99 




*8.24 


0.04 
2.03 
1.65 
0.30 
1.07 
0.91 
0.05 




0.03 
2.53 
3.34 

0.51 
0.58 
1.00 


































































6.05 






7.99 


Mineral matter insoluble in hydrochloric acid . . 


84.51 




83.77 






66.37 

14.75 

0.98 

0.76 

0.109 




66.90 

13.25 

0.95 

0-71 

0.096 
















































82.966 
1.75 




81.906 












1.80 














Totals 


100 


99.849 


100 


99.936 







*2.13 soluble and 6.11 insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 

No. 13. Prairie, west of Tontogany, Wood county, Ohio. 

No. 14. Farm of J. W. Ross, Perrysburgh, Wood county, Ohio. 



No. 15, Eeber & Kutz's farm, underneath soil No. 11, 1 foot thick. 

Organic and volatile matter 65.10 

Silicic acid 22.29 

Lime 2.36 

Magnesia 0.80 

Sesquioxide of iron 2.17 

Alumina 6.56 

Oxide of manganese 0.09 

Potash .and soda 0.53 

Phosporie acid 0.165 

Total 100.065 



460 



GEOLOGICAL. SURVEY OF OHIO. 



MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES. 



Composition of Corns examined. 
No. 1. Yellow corn. Thomas Jones, Delaware, Ohio. 



2. 


a 


3. 


it 


4. 


White corn. 


5. 


u 


6. 


tt 





1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 




10.50 
1.45 
4.40 
2.92 

61.66 
4.70 
6.90 
7.10 


10.40 
1.50 
3.95 
3.07 

63.90 
4.30 
8.10 
4.30 


9.60 
1.10 
4.20 
2 98 
62.61 
5.00 
8.80 
4.76 


10.35 
1.50 
3.80 
2.77 

64.17 
3.15 
8.60 
5,40 


9.45 
1.45 
4.30 
2.93 
67.13 
2.10 
8,00 
4.65 


9 70 


Ash 


1.85 


Oil 


4.45 


Sugar 


3.03 




64.44 




2.54 




9.10 




5.25 






Totals 


99.63 


99.42 


98.99 


99.74 


100.01 


100.36 







No. 1. Blue Limestone marl, Waynesville, O. 

No. 2. Marl, Woodstock (Lapham). 

No. 3. Waterlime — Group Marl, Sinking Springs. 

No. 4. Shell Marl, Green township, Clarke county. 



Silicious matter 

Alumina and sesquioxide of iron. 

Carbonate of lime 

Carbonate of magnesia - 

Potash and soda 

Phosphoric acid 

Water 



69.60 

10.24 

12.55 

1.91 

5.40 

0.16 



31.30 
7.40 

55.90 
1.90 
2.49 
0.06 



0.70 

1.50 

53.62 

42.94 



38.50 
6.13 

45.65 
1.32 



0.64 



Total. 



99.86 



99.05 



99.40 



0.47 
7.60 

99.67 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



461 



No. 1. Waverly sandstone, Berlin, Erie county. 

No. 2. Building rock, Sintz's quarries, Springfield. 

No. 3. Niagara Shale, Snyder's Station, used for Firestone. 

No. 4. Waverly? Hillsboro. 





1. 


2. 






91.23 
6.30 
0.55 
1.22 


7.60 

3.10 

49.70 

39.20 


S.80 : 94.10 




t-.SO 3.60 


Carbonate of lime 


38.95} 1.30 


Carbonate of magnesia...... ..... 


26.531 0.39 


Water 7 


16.70 










Total 


99.32 


99.60 


99.78] 99.39 
1 





Effervescent Salt, Lick Fori:. 

Matter insoluble in 'water 79.90 

Sulphate of magnesia 12.00 

Hydrochloric acid trace 

Balance undetermined. 

White Layer of Water Lime. 

Silicic acid 95.60 

Sesquioxide of iron 1.80 

Combined water 0.90 



Total 98.30 

Bog Manganese, Auburn, Geauga County. 

Water 11.25 

Silicions matter 2.75 

Sesquioxide of iron 1.35 

Binoxide of manganese 52.36 

Sesquioxide of manganese 18.71 

Oxide of cobalt 2.40 

Carbonate of lime - - 8.15 

Carbonate of magnesia - 2.41 



Total , 99.58. 

Coke of Coal No. 6, Andreas Mine, UrichsvUle, 0. 

12.90 

Carbon 8455 

Sulphur 2.85 

Total 100.00 



Ash. 



462 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 



Ferruginous Shale, Canal Dover, Tuscarawas county. 

Water combined 4.00 

Silicious matter . 86.34 

Sesquioxide of. iron 8.79 

Oxide of manganese 0.10 

Carbonate of lime 0.60 

Carbonate of magnesia - Trace. 

Phosphoric acid - 0.17 

Total 100.00 

Total iron 6.15 per cent. 



No. 1. Cleveland shale, Bedford, Ohio. 

No. 2. Ohio Black Slate, Chillicothe cemetery. 

No. 3. Waverly Black Slate, Bocksville, Adams county. 

No. 4. 16 feet slate, 137 feet above base of Waverly. 





1 


2 


3 


4 


Water ...... 


1.10 

87.10 
6.90 
4.90 


















8.40 


i6.20 


21.40 


Fixed carbon 












Total 


100.00 

















No. 1. Mineral from Springfield, Ohio. 
No. 2. Metallic ore, Yellow Springs, Ohio. 





1 


2 




98.90 
1.10 


95.29 




4.71 






Total 


100.00 


100.00 







PART VI. 

SKETCHES OF THE GEOLOGY OF GEAUGA MD HOLMES 

COUNTIES. 

By M. O. EEAD. 



Dr. J. 8. Newberry, Chief Geologist: 

Sib — I have the honor to transmit herewith Sketches of the Geology of Geauga and 

Holmes Counties. Fuller reports upon these counties will be prepared for the final report 

of the Geologieal Survey. 

Your obedient servant, 

M. C. BEAD, 

Local AafiUt. 



GEAUGA COOTTY. 



TOPOGRAPHY. 



The geological formations of Geauga county, while simple and easily 
understood, afford an interesting example of the manner in which the 
geology and topography of a country determine the pursuits of the in- 
habitants and the boundaries of separate communities. A line, defining 
the western, northern and eastern limits of the Conglomerate, defines also 
the western, northern and eastern limits of the county as accurately as it 
could be laid out without dividing townships. These boundaries were 
fixed with no reference to the geology, but the latter has formed the tastes, 
determined/the pursuits of the inhabitants, and grouped them into a civil 
community. The same causes have so determined the direction of the 
water courses, that, after a little examination of the county and adjacent 
territory, a student of its geology will find that an ordinary map will 
designate, with great accuracy, the limits of the Conglomerate, which is the 
characteristic feature of the elevated table lands composing the county. 
The Cuyahoga and Grand Eivers, and the streams emptying into them, 
above Cuyahoga Falls and Parkman, will be found, in every instance, to 
have their sources and beds on or above the Conglomerate, while all other 
streams in the county have their sources below the Conglomerate, or so 
near its margin, if above it, that the general southern inclination of the 
rocks is counteracted by the agencies which have thinned down, or cut 
into ravines, the outer margin of this deposit. The waters of these streams 
also differ greatly. Those above the Conglomerate having their sources 
in swamps and ponds, are rendered foul and turbid by the vegetable and 
animal remains with which they are charged. Those of the others, derived 
largely from springs at the base of the Conglomerate, are thoroughly 
filtered, freed from organic matter, and rendered clear and sparkling, but 
are often charged with minerals, especially iron, sulphur and lime. 

SOIL. 

The debris of the clay shales, mingled with the Drift, has formed the 
basis of a strong, tenacious clay soil, especially adapted to grazing, and 
the county has, from this cause, and not from the choice of its inhabitants , 
become noted for the abundance and excellence of its dairy products. 
30 



460 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

The elevated position of the county, added to the peculiarities of the 
soil, has especially fitted it for the production of fruits, particularly of 
apples, pears, quinces and grapes, and these are now largely cultivated, 
notwithstanding the isolated position of the county, and the want of all 
means of transportation to market, except the ordinary carriage roads. 
Were it connected by railroads with the larger markets of the country, 
fruit-growing would soon become the principal business of its agriculturists. 

GEOLOGICAL FORMATION. 

Coal-measures. — In the centre of the county, a narrow and thin deposit 
of the Coal-measures caps the hills along the east bank of the Cuyahoga, 
extending from the south line of the county to the point where that stream 
comes around to the south of Burton village. Here this deposit crosses 
the Cuyahoga, underlies Burton village, extending to the northern part of 
the township, with an iselated patch at the north-east corner of Newberry 
township. In no part of the county is there a promise of any important 
amount of coal. In Troy township, the Coal-measure sandstone is separ- 
ated from the Conglomerate by the coal shales, which are, in places, very 
thin, and rarely exceed a thickness of six feet. In the southern part of 
the township, coal has been obtained in small quantities from a seam too 
thin to be profitably worked. Yet at this point it is probably thicker than 
in any other part of the county on the east side of the Cuyahoga. At 
Burton, the coal shales and the seam of coal are thicker — the rocks of the 
Coal-measures reaching a thickness of 125 feet ; and if the village is to 
remain without railroads, further exploration of the coal seam,' by shafting 
or drifting, is advisable, as there are indications of coal in sufficient quan- 
tities to be profitably mined for local consumption. There is, however, no 
probability of a supply sufficient to warrant its shipment elsewhere, or to 
enable the owners to compete, even in the Burton market, with coal from 
the main coal-fields of the State, in the event of a railroad being built. 
Near the north-east corner of Newberry township, coal of very good quality, 
about two feet thick, has been disclosed in sinking a well on Mr. Frank 
Stone's farm, and at a depth of about ten feet from the surface. Here a 
thin stratum of shale covers the coal, not thick enough to constitute a safe 
roof; but to the west and north-west, the surface of the land rises, and 
over a small area it is possible that a sufficient cover may be found to allow 
of the coal being taken out. The quantity, however, is not large, and 
what coal there is must be sought near the summit of the hill. A series 
of springs is found low down in the ravines, and the opinion is entertained 
by some of the land-owners — derived, apparently, from parties who have 
taken coal leases there — that these springs are on the horizon of the coal, 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 467 

and that it will be found by drifting in at this level; but these springs are 
plainly in or at the base of the Conglomerate, which crops out in several 
places on the hill at a higher level, and all the coal must be sought for 
above this rock. 

Conglomerate. — Below the coal formation lies the Conglomerate or pebbly 
sandstone, varying in thickness from sixty to one hundred and seventy- 
five feet. In places, it is separated from the coal shales by layers of shaly 
sandstone which reach a maximum thickness of twenty-five feet, but are 
often much thinner, and sometimes entirely wanting. In places, also, the 
coal shales thin out, as at Troy Centre, where the coal measure-sandstone 
rests directly upon the shaly sandstone of the Conglomerate. Both of 
these contain, at this point, a profusion of Cdlamites, and are, in places, so 
ferruginous as to constitute a silicious iron ore. This Conglomerate under- 
lies the whole surface of Auburn, Troy, Newberry, Burton and Claridon 
and crops out in all the other townships of the county, the deeper ravines 
cutting through it and exposing the rocks beneath. It differs greatly in 
its character in different places, sometimes affording excellent building 
material, and elsewhere being quite worthless for this purpose. Some of 
it in Russel township, is fine grained, hard, of a clear white color, free 
from 'pebbles, and, in all respects, an excellent building stone. In the 
northwest part of Chester ledges from thirty to fifty feet in thickness are 
exposed, which are, throughout, a mass of quartz pebbles, with loosely 
cemented sand filling the interstices. The quarts pebbles might, perhaps, 
be made valuable for glass making and pottery, as they could be obtained 
in large quantities, and at trifling expense. At the base of this ledge, 
which is rapidly diminishing under atmospheric influences, the debris is 
exposed to the action of water, holding iron and lime in solution, and is 
thus re-cemented into a much harder and firmer rock than the cliff from 
which it is derived. In this debris recent organisms and modern imple- 
ments might easily be covered, fossilized and preserved to be hereafter 
studied as a part of the records of this age. In Newberry township, this 
rock is, in plaqes, handsomely colored by oxide of iron, but at the outcrop 
is coarse and soft. Should there be a sufficient demand to warrant thor- 
ough exploration, it is probable that colored rock, suitable for ornamental 
building, might be found here. In Parkman, the Conglomerate attains a 
thickness of one hundred and seventy-five feet, the maximum thickness of 
this rock where measurements have been made in northwestern Ohio. 
Although much of it here contains pebbles, the greater part is so free from 
them as to make a fair building stone, while the supply is inexhaustible. 
In Thompson, the well known "ledges" furnish a fine exposure of this 
rock, and give a rugged and romantic character to the place, which attracts 



468 GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY OF OHK>. 

many visitors during the summer months. The dip is here 4°-5° to the 
southwest. 

" Little Mountain," situated partly in Geauga and partly in Lake county, 
is an isolated narrow ridge of the Conglomerate, having an elevation of 
six hundred feet above Lake Erie. It is covered with a forest of pine, 
hemlock, oak and chestnut, and cut into deep ravines, with precipitous 
bluffs on the north and west. The altitude of Little Mountain renders the 
air cool and healthful ; its isolated position affords a commanding view of 
the surrounding country and of the lake ; and its dense forest furnishes 
pleasant walks and drives, so that it has naturally become one of the most 
popular places of resort in the State. Chalybeate water, of excellent 
quality, is furnished by the springs at the base of the mountain, but the 
lack of water in sufficient quantities for bathing, is a serious incouveni- 
ence. 

Berea Grit. — The denuding .agencies have so cut away the rocks about 
the mountain, that the Berea Grit may be found on all sides, and at no 
great distance from it. It appears by the side of the road about one hun- 
dred rods from the mountain, on the main approach to it, and is quarried 
on the Chardon road, about half a mile south. The Berea Grit is found 
at an average depth of one hundred and eighty feet below the Conglome- 
rate, and is the most valuable building stone in the county. Its outcrop 
may be traced through the west part of Eussel and Chester townships ; 
through the west, north and east parts of Kirtland, extending up the val- 
ley of a branch of Chagrin river into Munson ; through the west and north 
parts of Chardon,; through the west and north parts of Thompson, and in 
the northeast and southeast parts of Parkman townships. In other places 
its outcrop is outside of the limits of the county. In nearly all of the 
points indicated above, it may be found massive and of good quality for 
building purposes. In Munson, a quarry has been opened which, by 
proper seleqtion, affords stone of excellent quality, and from which mate- 
rial was obtained for the new court-house at Chardon. A few of the 
blocks in this structure will probably prove defective from being placed 
on their edges, and not in the position in which they were found in the 
quarry. In Chardon, in the " Big Gull," and at the northeast corner of 
the township, the Berea Grit is finely exposed, and in both of these places 
there is a large part of it which will make grindstones equal to the best 
made at Berea. In Thompson, north and west of the ledges, it is quarried 
in several places, the quarries furnishing excellent flagging and also strong, 
firm slabs of any desired size and from eight to twelve inches in thick- 
ness. At the bottom of the quarries is a stratum of very soft friable stone 
of no value. It is probable that below this the rock will be found massive 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 469 

and of better quality. The quarries may be extended indefinitely, by 
drifting towards the " ledges.' 7 

Cuyahoga Shale. — Between the Berea Grit and the Conglomerate lie the 
Cuyahoga Shales, which are exposed at but few places in the county, and, 
as far as observed, afford no valuable minerals. Their position is gen- 
erally marked by a belt of heavy clay land, nearly level, extending out- 
ward from the base of the Conglomerate ; supporting many gigantic elms 
when covered with forests, and making excellent meadow and pasture 
lands, when cleared. They are reclaimed with difficulty, as a dense growth 
of shrubs, brambles and weeds spring up everywhere as soon as the forests 
are cut down, and the soil is generally too wet for grain crops, until drained. 
The eastern portions of Huntsburg and Montville afford illustrations of 
this kind of soil. No part of the county presents a more uninviting 
appearance, and no part of it affords richer pasture land than this will 
become when fully reclaimed. 

Bedford Shales. — Directly beneath the Berea Grit, in this county, are 
the Bedford Shales, from forty to fifty feet in thickness, and exposed only 
in the ravines formed by the branches of Grand and Chagrin rivers. They 
include layers from one to three feet in thickness, of compact, fine grained 
sandstone, susceptible of a polish, and which would make excellent win- 
dow caps and sills, if properly selected. They contain iron which will 
"run" (in the language of the masons) and discolor the stone unless care 
is taken to reject imperfect specimens. Some of these layers would fur- 
nish material for fine grained grindstones and oil-stones, those in the 
northeast corner of Chardon being of the best quality seen in the county. 

Below the Bedford Shales these ravines cut through about forty feet 
of the black Cleveland Shale, and below this the branches of Chagrin 
river, in Chardon, expose about one hundred feet of the Erie Shales — the 
lowest rocks to be seen in the county. Neither of these deposits furnishes 
materials of any economical value, but if the supply of petroleum from 
wells should fail, the black shale will become valuable from the amount of 
oil it will yield by distillation. 

FOSSILS. 

Comparatively little interest attaches to the organic remains found in 
the county. In the ravines in the north parts of Thompson and Chardon, 
which cut through the Bedford and down into the Erie Shales, large num- 
bers of the brachiopods, characteristic of these rocks, are found. Syring- 
otheris typa from the former, Spirifer verneuilii, Leiorhyncus multicosta etc., 
from the latter. In the Cuyahoga Shales, north of Chardon village, an 
outcrop in the traveled road furnishes many perfect specimens of I>isoina 



470 GEOLOGICAL SUEVEY OF OHIO. 

NewberryL In the Conglomerate an abundance of Calamites occur, and in 
the limited area, covered by the coal shales, collections may be made in 
moderate quantities of the plants characteristic of the lower or block coal. 

SURFACE DEPOSITS. 

The most interesting Surface Deposit is found on the farm of John E. 
Smith, lot four, Auburn township. It is a deposit of black oxyd of man- 
ganese, or " Wad,"' of sufficient purity and in sufficient quantity to be dug 
and shipped with profit. It covers from three to four acres of swampy 
ground, fed by copious springs, which bring in, ia solution, manganese, 
iron and lime, and deposit, in different parts of the swamp, bog manga- 
nese, bog iron ore, and bog limestone or travertine — the latter being found, 
in places, from eighteen inches to two feet in thickness ; and all in com- 
parative purity. The manganese is, in places, four and a half feet thick, 
covered with from twelve to fifteen inches of earth, and sells readily for 
from seven to thirty dollars per ton, according to purity. The process of 
deposit is going on constantly, and with a good degree of rapidity in the 
summer months, so that parts of the swamp which have once been strip- 
ped fill up anew, and can be re-worked after a few years. According to 
Mr. Smith's observations, the average rate of deposit is a fraction over 
two inches per year. In the neighborhood of this swamp are many small 
deposits of impure yellow ochre, some of which may prove of value. 
Prof. Newberry supplies the following formulae of the chemical composi- 
tion of the best specimens of this manganese : 

No. 1. Air dried. 

Oxyd manganese. 61.85 

Silica, alumina andiron 23.60 

Water 14.55 

100. 
No. 2. Dried at 250° F. 

Oxyd manganese 72.38 

Silica, alumina andiron 23.60 

Water 4.02 



100. 
NATIVE FOEESTS. 

A section east and west through the center of the county exhibits, in 
an interesting manner, the influence of the geological' features upon the 
soil and its natural products. Commencing on the west line of the county, 
the Berea Grit marks the outline of the bluffs of Chagrin river. Between 
this and the base of the Conglomerate, the land is level, the soil a stiff, 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 471 

tenacious clay — formed largely from the Cuyahoga Shales, is therefore 
rich in potash, and the gigantic elms scattered over this plateau enable 
the explorer to trace this soil and this geological formation as far as the 
eye can reach. Beach and maple forests, with thick groves of chestnut, 
where the broken rock comes near to the surface, mark the horizon of the 
Conglomerate ; and above this, in the center of the county, a belt of for- 
ests, in which the predominant timber is oak, defines, with great accuracy, 
the limit of the coal area. Descending from this summit to the east, the 
same forest peculiarities are found in an inverse order, so that the small 
patches of the old forests yet remaining indicate to the experienced eye 
the geology of all parts of the county with much precision. 

GLACIAL SCRATCHES. 

The glacial markings are abundant in the county, and their direction 
has a close connection with the topography. The nature of this connec- 
tion is best seen by observations extending over a wider area than the limits 
of the county. Commencing on the borders of the Conglomerate, in Bos- 
ton township, in Summit county, the direction of these glacial scratches 
varies from the east and west to north-west and north-east; following the 
outcrop northwardly, their direction approaches to north and south; 
while on the eastern margin, from Thompson southward, their direction 
is, in general, northeast and south-west. On the Cnyahoga Shales, near 
Warren, Trumbull county, their direction is north and south; while on 
the elevated land, near the east line of the State, in Hartford, Vernon, etc., 
their course is again north-west and south-east. These lines, radiiating 
from near the centers of the highest elevations, suggest the possibility of 
local glacial action, but the debris of the Conglomerate and of the rocks 
above it, is not found north of their outcrops, while that of all the rocks 
is constantly observed to the south, carried up and scattered over the 
formations occupying a higher geological and topographical level. Had 
local glaciers been pushed down from both sides into the shallow valley 
between the eastern parts of Trumbull and Ashtabula counties, and the 
eastern margin of the Conglomerate, in Portage and Geauga counties, a 
series of north and south scratches would probably not be found along 
the center of this valley. The movement was doubtless in a southern di- 
rection, and the observed glacial markings would seem to indicate an ice- 
sheet, of no great elevation, pushed southward with immense force, im- 
pinging against the more elevated rocks, pushing up and over opposing 
barriers, wearing down their margins, polishiDg their surfaces, and leav- 
ing scratches at various angles with the general line of the ice movement. 
A much slighter descent than is generally supposed would suffice to give 
a constant progressive motion to large fields of ice ; and I am inclined to 



472 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

the opinion that the ordinary changes of temperature have more influence 
upon this progressive motion than is generally supposed. A broad sheet 
of metal upon an inclined surface will slowly creep downwards. Engin- 
eers have learned that if the abutments of an iron bridge are not accu- 
rately level, the structure will move bodily down the slope, however 
small the angle may be. An increase of temperature elongates the struc- 
ture, and if it rests upon an incline, however slight, this elongation will 
be wholly downwards. As the temperature decreases, the length of the 
structure is diminished, and from the action of gravity this contraction is 
also downwards, so that the structure slowly but surely creeps down- 
wards — precisely as a measuring- worm or geometer moves over a surface. 
Such changes of temperature would ensure a progressive motion of an 
ice-field down a very slight slope, and with a force that would push the 
margin up and over obstructions of an elevation proportionate to the ex- 
tent of the ice-field. 

GOLD. 

The excitement from the alleged discovery of gold at Nelson ledges 
has extended to Parkman and other places in this county, and* if gold is 
actually found there, there is no good reason why search should not be 
made for it in every township in the county. It is true that gold has 
been obtained from the drift in various parts of the State, and in some 
places at the margin of the Conglomerate, under such circumstances as 
render it probable that it was derived from this rock. Indeed, no metal 
except iron is more widely distributed than gold, but its great specific 
gravity renders it certain that it can never be carried in large quantities 
by water, or other natural transporting agency, to any great distance. 
The quartz pebbles of our Conglomerate rock have doubtless their ancient 
home in the highlands of Canada, or in the Alleghanies, and gold-bearing 
quartz veins may have furnished a small fraction of the material from 
which these pebbles were formed. If so, a small proportion of these 
pebbles, one in ten thousand, or in one hundred thousand, might also be 
gold-bearing. Inasmuch, however, as in these distant highlands no gold- 
bearing quartz veins of sufficient richness to be profitably worked, have 
yet been discovered, the search for these possible gold-bearing pebbles 
n the Conglomerate is not likely to prove a lucrative occupation. 

At the base of the Conglomerate, at Nelson ledges, there are deposits 
of iron ore and of carbonaceous matter, and mingled with the pebbles, in 
elose proxity to these deposits, are minute spangles and crystals of iron 
pyrites, such as have often been, and doubtless will continue to be, mis- 
taken for gold, although their extreme hardness, their crystalline surfaces, 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 473 

their changeable color, when viewed at different angles, and the fames of 
sulphur they yield, when heated, afford so many separate tests, by either of 
which they may be readily distinguished from gold. After very careful 
search, at the place of the alleged gold discoveries, I could find nothing 
visible to the eye, aided by an ordinary hand glass, which any one onght 
to mistake for gold. A specimen of the rock selected as gold-bearing, by 
those who have faith in the reported discoveries, has been carefully ana- 
lysed by Prof. Morley, of Western Reserve College, who was unable to 
find a trace of gold in it. 

The rich dairy lands of Portage and Geauga are doubtless the only 
gold fields accessible to the inhabitants, and which can be worked with 
profit. 



HOLMES OOimTT. 
TOPOGRAPHY. 

A minute and accurate description of the topography of Holmes county 
would require much more time and labor than can be given to the exam- 
ination of any single county. An irregular succession of high hills and 
deep ravines occupy the surface, and these can be reduced to a system only 
in the most general way. The valley of the Killbuck divides the county 
into two nearly equal portions, on each side of which the hills gradually 
rise to the altitude of from four hundred to five hundred feet, and then 
as gradually descend, on the east toward the valley of the Tuscarawas, 
and on the west toward that of the Mohican. Innumerable creeks and 
rivulets emptying into these streams, interlocking in the most irregular 
manner, cover the face of the country. These water courses flow through 
narrow alluvial valleys or deep gorges which separate the high hills that 
compose the greater part of the surface. This succession of hills and 
ravines exhibits continuous exposures of all the rocks of the lower coal 
measures, and in no part of the State can their character and relations be 
more satisfactorily studied. 

SOIL. 

The soil is generally a light, friable, calcareous loam, in the valleys rich 
in vegetable matter, and everywhere well adapted to the growth of 
wheat. On the hills, in some places, the surface is covered with rocks, the 
debris of the coal sandstones, so as to be entirely unfitted for cultivation- 
But a dense forest covers these rocky slopes, and the soil was originally 
everywhere rich. Continuous cultivation has had its usual results in a 
largely diminished productiveness; but the means of restoring the fer- 
tility of the soil are easily obtained in the limestones which crop out in 



474 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

every township, and by a proper use of them and of clover for soiling, 
the lands can readily be made to equal or exceed their original produc- 
tiveness in the great staple of the county. 

THE DRIFT. 

In the central and western parts of the county evidence of drift-action 
are marked and abundant. Granite bowlders are scattered over the sur- 
face, and along the valley of the Killbuck are heavy deposits of coarse 
gravel, which, iD places, are being cemented into a hard Conglomerate 
through the action of lime-water constantly percolating through them. 
The natural valley in which the Cleveland, Mt. Vernon and Delaware 
railroad is located Irom Akron, Summit county, to Millersburgh, and of 
which the Killbuck forms a part, is distinguished from the country on 
each side of it, by the abundance and coarseness of the drift material 
which it contains. One cannot easily resist the conclusion that this, near 
the close of the Drift period, was one of the channels by which the waters 
of the lake basin found their way into the valley of the Ohio. A high 
divide, running irregularly from Berlin through Weinsburgh, to Dundee, 
appears to mark the limit of the drift-action in the eastern part of the 
county. On the north, and to near the top of this ridge, on its northern 
slope, scattered granite bowlders are to be seen, but I have yet found none 
upon its summit nor to the northeast of it, within the limits of the county. 
Outside of the valley of the Killbuck, the drift deposits are everywhere 
shallow, and the soil Is composed almost entirely of the debris of the local 
rocks. 

GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE. 

Waverly. — The lowest rocks observed in the county belong to the Wa- 
verly Group — the ravines in places cutting down fully two hundred feet 
into this formation. It covers the greater part of "Washington township, 
and on lot 3, the Lozier quarries furnish heavy stone of very fair quality 
which is shipped for bridge building and other purposes, to the adjoining 
counties. From twelve to fifteen feet of this quarry is composed of hard, 
fine stone, in layers varying from two to four feet in thickness, with from 
six to twelve inches of silicious iron ore at the bottom. The quarry is, by 
barometrical measurement, one hundred and seventy feet below the base 
of the thin deposit of Conglomerate, which caps the hills in this part of 
the township. The Waverly forms the base of all the hills in Knox and 
.Richland townships, is exposed through the whole length of the valley of 
Black creek, in Shimplin's run, from near the Williams coal, in Monroe 
ownship, to its mouth, in the valley of Paint creek, in Monroe and 
Prairie townships, in the bluffs forming both, banks of the Killbuck, and 
on all the larger streams emptying into the Killbuck on both sides of it. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 475 

The abundance of building 'stone covering the surface derived from the 
Goal-measure sandstones has prevented any special attention being given 
to the Waverly. Good stone can probably be obtained from it, should 
the demand hereafter warrant special exploration. 

Near the bottom of a long ravine, on Thomas Owen's land, in Knox 
township, a layer of the Waverly is exposed, which is apparently true 
Berea grit, and which might be explored with the probability of disclos 
ing material for valuable grindstones. South of Taylor's coal bank in 
Knox township, in the Waverly, about ten feet below the base of the 
Coal-measures, is a deposit two or three feet thick, of yellow, hydrated 
oxide of iron, which, by burning, assumes all shades, from yellow to a 
deep dark red, and which will evidently make a good mineral paint. It 
is exposed by stripping, but an opening into the hill would probably give 
a good roof, so that if, on trial, it proves as valuable as its external ap- 
pearance indicates, it could be taken out with facility and in large quan- 
tities. It deserves to be carefully and thoroughly tested. 

A thin band in the Waverly, on Paint creek, in Prairie township, is 
filled with water- worn quartz pebbles, similar to those of the Conglomerate, 
and in other places, patches and bands of pebbly Waverly may be seen. 
The sandstones of the Coal-measures, in this part of the State, also fre- 
quently contain similar pebbles, although of smaller size, and in more 
moderate quantities ; so that care is required to avoid mistaking the true 
horizon of these pebbly sandstones. 

The Conglomerate appears above the Waverly, in Prairie township, on 
both sides of the Killbuck, on the banks of Paint creek, reaching a maxi- 
mum thickness of eighteen feet. It caps the hills above Lozier's quarry, 
in Washington township, but is here so broken up and covered, that its 
thickness cannot be accurately determined. The lithological characters 
of this deposit are here quite peculiar. It contains large quantities of 
broken, angular fragments of white and yellow chert, with a profusion of 
fossils, which, I understand, Mr. Meek decides to belong to the Carbonifer- 
ous formation. If so, they point to the deposition of a sub-carboniferous 
limestone, which has been cut out and removed by the agencies which 
brought in and deposited the materials of the Conglomerate. Small frag- 
ments, of precisely similar cherty material, I have found at the base of 
the Conglomerate, at Nelson Ledges, in Portage county. 

In the larger part of the county, the Conglomerate is entirely wanting, 
being represented, in places, by a thin layer of coarse sandstone without 
pebbles, sometimes by hard, compact, white silicious rock, a few inches 
in thickness, and filled with stigntaria, while at other places the Coal- 
measures are seen resting directly on the Waverly. 



476 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OP OHIO. 

About a mile and a half south of the Conglomerate, above Lozier's 
quarry, in Washington township, the Coal-measures are at least one hun 
dred feet below the level of this Conglomerate, while no corresponding 
dip of the strata, in that direction, is observed. It would seem, therefore, 
that the Conglomerate, and a large part of the upper portion of the 
Waverly, was here cut out and removed, before the deposit of the Coal- 
measures. 

Coal No. 1. — Above the "Waverly, or the Conglomerate, where the latter 
is found, -appears Coal Seam Bo. 1, or the the block coal, ordinarily rest- 
ing upon a bed of fire-clay, and sometimes separated from the sandstones 
below by a few feet of shales. It may be seen in many places west of the 
Killbuck, in the territory south of Paint creek, and north of Black creek, 
the most productive coal region of the county. On the east of the Kill- 
buck, it has been mined, on Mr. Cameron's land, in the south part of 
Prairie township, and the shales which accompany it may be identified in 
the ravine north of the Shepler or Holmes county Co's. bank. 

At Smith's bank, in the northern part of Monroe township, it reaches a 
thickness of four feet, is a true block coal of fair quality, and reasonably 
free from sulphur. It inclines to break up in small pieces, is quite rusty 
and of rather an uninviting appearance. The blacksmiths do not like it, 
as they prefer a softer and more melting coal. As their opinion, where 
little coal is mined, is potent in determining the reputation of different 
coals, that from this opening has not had the valuation it deserves. 

At Motts'-bank, in the north-west part of Monroe iownship, coal No. 1 
is three feet thick, hard, bright, and of good quality. It rests upon a 
compact fire-clay, said to be nine feet thick; between the coal and the 
overlying sandstone are only two to four inches of highly carbonaceous 
shale. The sandstone is strong, unbroken, and would readily admit of 
working chambers eighteen to twenty-five feet square. On Stephen E. 
Williams' and Washington Williams' land, near the centre of Monroe 
township, this coal is a little over three feet thick, resting on the fire-clay 
and capped with dark, bituminous shale. It is a block coal of fair quality, 
but has not been sufficiently opened to determine, accurately, its character. 
The best exposure is so nearly on the level of an adjacent stream that the 
water would be troublesome unless a lower opening can be found. 

At James Martin's bank, north, and in the same township, it is two feet 
thick, hard, bright, compact, a semi-block coal, but containing much sul- 
phur. Above it are ten feet of hard, dark, sandy shale. 

On John and Charles Steele's land, north of Judge Armor's, in Hardy 
township, it is two feet three inches thick, in three benches, roof massive 
bituminous black shale. Coal semi-bituminous and with much sulphur. 



GEOLOGICAL STTEVEY OF OHIO. 477 

It has been opened only to a distance of a few feet, and the seam is said 
to be increasing in thickness and improving in quality. 

At John Carey's, west of the Killbnck, and near Millersburgh, it is also 
two feet three inches thick, in three benches separated by sulphur seams, 
and of no value. The sand-rock rests directly upon the coaL 

The out-crop of this seam can be seen in the ravine below Day & Ghat- 
tuck's bank, on Barney Carpenter's land, near the east line of Monroe 
township, and in various other places. Over more than half the county 
the deep ravines are below its horizon, and it will doubtless be found in 
many other places. 

The shales above this coal vary from a few inches to fifteen feet in thick- 
ness, and in places are entirely wanting, the sandstone resting directly on 
the coal. It is probable that they were originally deposited of a nearly 
uniform thickness, and that the agencies which brought in the coarse 
material of the sandstone have cut down and removed the shale, doubt- 
less, carrying away, also in places, the entire coal seam. 

From ten to thirty feet above Coal Xo. 1 is a local deposit of coal and 
iron ore, which I have been able to trace over a large part of the county 
west of the Killbnck. The best exposures of it are on Locust Lick run, 
on Mr. Ellison's land, in the west part of Monroe township, below Mitch- 
art's bank, a little north and west of this ; on Carpenter's land, west of 
Day & Chattuck's and Mr. Saunders' banks ; in the ravines south and 
west of the Strawbridge mine, and on Shaffer's land, west of Xasbville, 
in Washington township. It consists of ten to twelve inches of cannel 
coal, and abont the same thickness of bituminous coal below it, with a 
band of hard, massive iron ore between the benches of coal. The iron 
ore is, in some places, highly bituminous, resembling a compact black 
band; in other places it is calcareous or aluminous. It is reported in 
some localities as four feet thick, but I have seen it reaching a thickness 
of only eight or ten inches, with scattered nodules and patches of iron ore 
above and below it. In some places, one or both benches of coal disap- 
pear, and are represented by layers of carbonaceous shale. It will nlti 
mately become an important element in this very rich mineral region. 

Goal Xo. 2. — Shales, ordinarily varying from fifteen to thirty feet In 
thickness, separate the above from Coal Xo. 2 — the Strawbridge seam — 
the iron ore coal, from its local character, not being numbered. In the 
south part of Knox township, these shales are nearly one hundred feet in 
thickness, exceeding, largely, their usual development. 

This seam rests upon from six to ten feet of white fire-clay, apparently 
quite pure and of excellent quality. It is capped with sandy shale in 
places passing into a shaly sandstone, which, at top, frequently becomes 



478 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

massive, and contains nodules of silicious iion ore. At the Strawbridge 
mine, in the northern part of Killbuck township, this seam is seven feet 
thick, a hard, compact, semi-cannel coal, reasonably free from sulphur. It 
is, doubtless, a fair domestic fuel, and an excellent locomotive coal. At 
Mitchart's mine, in the south part of Knox township, it is four feet thick, 
apparently of good quality, but the entry is not yet pushed far enough 
into the hill to determine, accurately, its character. 

The outcrop of this seam may be seen in the ravines near Mr. Glascos', 
in Knox township ; on Steele's land, north of Mr. Armor's ; on Carpenter's 
land, in Hardy township ; in the ravines south-east of the Strawbridge 
mine ; in Killbuck township, below Mast's bank, near the north line of 
Prairie township, and in, perhaps, all of the townships in the county. In 
most places it is strictly a cannel coal.. Near Few Carlisle, its out-crop is in 
the bed of Walnut creek, and throughout the eastern part of the county 
it is exposed only in the deepest ravines. 

Coal Jfo. 3. — The sandy shales and sandstones between this seam and 
Coal No. 3— the blue limestone seam — are ordinarily from forty to fifty 
feet thick, but, in places, reach a thickness of from eighty to ninety feet. 
This coal seam attains a workable thickness over a larger part of the 
county than any other, and, in places, affords coal of an excellent quality. 
It is very liable to be split up into separate seams by clay and shale part- 
ings, which detract much from its value and render many openings quite 
worthless. The blue limestone above it is so persistent as to contribute 
one of the best landmarks in studying the geology of the county, but it is 
sometimes wanting, a highly calcareous shale containing the characteristic 
fossils of the limestone taking its place, and sometimes it is separated 
from the coal by several feet of shale. It is, generally, cherty, and in 
places assumes the character of a burrh stone. It is often found in large 
cubical blocks, and sometimes with mud seams filling the joints. When 
this is the case, and it rests directly upon the coal, it makes a troublesome 
roof, and sometimes one that is quite unmanageable. 

One of the best openings of this coal, in the county, is Daggen mine, 
in Knox township. The seam rests upon blactshale, is six feet thick, in 
two benches, separated by a clay seam five inches thick at the opening, 
but which has gradually thinned down to one inch, as the entry has been 
carried into the hill, and will probably thin out entirely. The coal is hard, 
bright, compact, semi-cannel, containing a rather large percentage of ash 
and but a small percentage of sulphur. It is, unquestionably, a good 
domestic and steam coal. 

At Mitchart's, in Knox township, it shows about three feet of coal, 
separated into three nearly equal benches by clay seams each six inches 
thick. Coal of good quality. On Stoker's Hill, south-west of Mitchart's 



GEOLOGICAL. SURVEY OF OHIO. 479 

an out-crop shows coal one foot, fire clay six inches, coal eighteen inches. 
On Mr. Ellison's land, in the same township, an out-crop gives : 

1. Sandstone 4 ft. 

2. Coal 20in. 

3. Blackshale 2ft. 

4. Coal ----- 2" 

On Joseph Blanchard's land, three-fourth miles south-east of Xapoleon, 
is an opening of which the following is a section : 

1. Shale , 20 ft. 

2. Coal - Win. 

3. Fire-clay 8 " 

4. Coal 8 " 

5. Fire-clay , 10 " 

6. Coal 20 " 

7. Black shale ..' 

It is evident that such a seam, although containing nef«rly four feet of 
coal, will be of little value unless the clay seams thin out. 

Elias Mast's mine, in Hardy township, has a firm limestone roof, admit- 
ting of chambers fifty to eighty feet wide, timbered only along the railway. 
Coal hard, bright, and of good quality. The following is a section of the 
coal stratum : 

1. Limestone 4 feet. 

2. Coal 18-20 in. 

3. Fire-clay 8 in. 

4. Coal 2 ft. to 2 ft. 10 in. 

5. Black shale 20 in. 

6. Cannel coal 1 foot, 

Michael Cullen's bank, in Salt Creek township, gives the following 
section : 

1. Limestone 3 feet. 

2. Coal, soft and rotten 2 " 

3. Hard grey shale 2 " 

4. Coal, good quality 2 " 

5. Fire-clay 18-20 in. 

An opening in the same hill, a half mile south, on Leonard Matthew's 
land, shows limestone, 2 feet; coal, 4 feef — upper half cannel, lower semi- 
cannel; fire-clay, 8-10 inches; compact. drab calcareous shale, with the 
shells of the blue limestone, 1 foot. At Henry Harger'3 saw-mill, in Paint 
township, the outcrop shows 4-5 feet of coal, upper part bituminous, lower 



480 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OE OHIO. 

cannel. In Mechanic township this coal is from seven to eight feet thick 
— a true cannel coal j has been exposed by boring and drifting, but is not 
worked. 

In a shallow valley, in this township, several acres of this coal have been 
burned out, and the roof, which was here a calcareous ferruginous shale, 
covers the surface and is found in the banks on each side, presenting the 
appearance of an impure black band ore after it has passed through the 
fire. The burning out of the coal occurred so long ago that the valley has 
become covered with a mixed forest — the trees of the same size and varie- 
ties as over the unburned territory. 

The outcrops of Coal No. 3 are found in every township and upon the 
slopes of almost every hill, but only a very small fraction of them having 
been sufficiently explored to determine their character and value. 

Iron Ore. — Just above this horizon are deposits of iron ore extending 
over most of the county, from which large amounts can be gathered, when 
needed, to mix with the richer ores of Lake Superior. In many places, the 
slopes of the hills between this coal and the one above it are covered with 
the fragments of this ore, and on John Simmon's land, in Knox township, 
where these fragments are very abundant, it is reported that a continuous 
deposit of ore, eight feet thick, was penetrated in sinking a well. 

Coal No. 4. — A sandy shale separates the Blue limestone from Coal 
No. 4, ordinarily varying in thickness from 18 to 25 feet; but in Salt Creek 
township measurements have been made where this shale reached a thick- 
ness of 70 feet. Nowhere in the county has this coal been found of suffi- 
cient thickness to be profitably mined. On the Killbuck Coal and Mining 
Co.'s property, in Mechanic township, it is associated with iron ore in the 
overlying shales, and it is possible that further explorations may show 
that the two minerals may be profitably mined together. The presence 
of this coal is disclosed almost everywhere in the county, but it must, for 
the present, be esteemed of no economic value. 

Coal No. 5. — The shale and sandstone overlying Coal No. 4 range from 
twenty-five to fifty-five feet in thickness where the horizon of Coal No. 5 
— or the Grey limestone seam — is reached. This coal attains its maximum 
thickness in this county, in Salt Creek township, where it is three and 
one-half feet thick, with six feet of limestone resting directly upon it. 
Very good coal can be obtained from the openings here, but it is in three 
layers, with many sulphur seams. In other parts of the county it is of a 
similar character, and, generally, of less thickness. Still, it is from this 
vein that the citizens of Holmes county are to obtain material for restor- 
ing the fertility of their farms, and securing their future productiveness. 
The coal is, usually, of sufficient thickness to suffice for burning the lime, 
and as the coal and limestone can be taken out of the same entry, and 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 481 

both mined with facility, there is no place where quick-lime can he obtained 
at less expense than here. Properly used, this deposit will add largely to 
the wealth of the county. The Bennington mine, near Nashville, which 
I refer to this horizon, furnishes a very good coal, much superior to that 
.from any other opening in the Grey limestone seam with which I am 
acquainted. 

Goal No. 6. — At an average distance of forty -five feet above the Grey 
limestone, is found the Saunders or Shepler coal, which occurs in all the 
higher hills of the county. It is from this seam that the coals ot the 
county are most widely known, and from which a large part of the coal 
mined in the county will, probably, be taken for many years to come. 

At Day & Chattuck's, and at Mr. Saunders' mines, in Hardy township, 
this coal has been successfully mined for many years. It is here hard, bright, 
moderately cementing, is an excellent grate and steam coal, and makes 
a compact coke. It is in three benches, the middle one containing a much 
smaller percentage of sulphur and ash than the other two, and making a 
good blacksmiths' coal. The peculiar purple color of the ash of the top 
and middle benches enables one to identify this coal wherever used. At 
a few places only the ash is light colored. The seam in this neighborhood, 
at Day & Chattuck's, Judge Saunders', Judge Armors', Johnson's and 
Shutz's banks varies in thickness from four to six feet, and, in places, 
reaches a thickness of eight feet, and it is in this vicinity that the most 
valuable deposits of this coal in the county, so far as explored, are found. 

At Saunders' and Day & Chattuck's mines the roof is shale, with shells, 
the bottom is six to ten feet of fire-clay. At Johnson's mine, roof shaly 
sandstone ; at bottom ten to twelve inches of compact sulphury iron ore. 
At Judge Armors' mine, sandstone roof; bottom fire-clay, with a parting 
of clay or shale 1-6 inches in thickness; at two feet from the bottom of the 
coal, lower bench, good blacksmiths' coal. At Shutz's mine, sandstone 
roof; bottom fire-clay. At the Taylor mine (No. 2), Knox township, the 
coal is thirty-two inches, hard and good ; sandstone roof, with a few inches 
shale containing shells. At Scars's mine, Walnut Creek township, the 
coal is of good quality, three and one-half feet thick, black shale roof, 
with sandstone above. In the same township, on Henry Coley's land, an 
entry of one hundred and thirty feet exposes coal three feet seven inches, 
still increasing in thickness; coal in one bench, of excellent quality; ash 
white. At Thompson's bank, Farmersville, a section from above gives 
black shale, in thick sheets, 10 feet; black shale, with a great abundance 
of shells, 8 inches ; cannel coal, 2 inches ; bitumiuous coal, 3 feet ; blue 
shale, 2 inches ; fire-clay at bottom. Coal good ; ash white. The can